Transportation and Climate
GHG Emission Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles: Manufacturer Performance Report for the 2013 Model Year
Determining Compliance Status
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) jointly established a National Program consisting of standards for light-duty vehicles that reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improve fuel economy. EPA’s GHG rules for light-duty vehicles require compliance with progressively more stringent GHG emission standards for the 2012 through 2025 model years. This report provides substantial detail on manufacturers’ performance in meeting the 2012 through 2013 model year standards. EPA intends to report annually on manufacturer performance.
- 1. For the second consecutive year, the auto industry outperformed the GHG standard by a substantial margin
Overall industry compliance in model year 2013 was 12 grams/mile better than required by the 2013 GHG emissions standard. This marks the second consecutive model year of industry outperforming the standards by a wide margin; industry compliance in 2012 was 11 grams/mile better than required. This industry-wide performance means that consumers bought vehicles with lower GHG emissions than required by the EPA 2013 GHG standards. Manufacturers continued this level of performance against increasingly stringent standards. While the industry-wide GHG standard decreased by 7 grams/mile from 2012 to 2013, manufacturers outpaced this increase in stringency by reducing compliance values by 9 grams/mile in 2013.
Industry Compliance Values versus Standards in 2012 and 2013 Model Years
- 2. Most manufacturers outperformed their individual 2013 standard
Most large manufacturers achieved fleet GHG compliance values lower than required by their unique 2013 standard and thus generated credits in the 2013 model year. Nine of the 13 manufacturers with sales greater than 100,000 vehicles beat their standard, with margins of compliance ranging from 27 grams/mile (Hyundai) to 4 grams/mile (GM). The remaining four manufacturers missed their unique 2013 standard by amounts ranging from 1 to 6 grams/mile, thus generating deficits, but in all cases these companies shrank their deficit relative to the 2012 model year. The figure below does not include the impact of credit transfers (within a company) from prior model years or credit trades (transactions between companies), and thus does not portray whether or not a manufacturer has complied with 2012 or 2013 model year standards. The four manufacturers shown that did not outperform their 2013 standard – Fiat Chrysler, Mercedes, BMW, and Volkswagen – in fact had sufficient credits available from prior model years and thus complied with the 2012 and 2013 standards.
Manufacturer Compliance Values and Standards in the 2013 Model Year
(from highest to lowest GHG standard)
- 3. All large manufacturers are in compliance with the 2012 and 2013 GHG standards
The majority of manufacturers, representing more than 99 percent of U.S. sales, are in compliance with the standards for both the 2012 and 2013 model years. In fact, 21 of 26 manufacturers are carrying a positive credit balance into the 2014 model year, meaning that they have met both the 2012 and 2013 standards (credits cannot be carried forward if a deficit exists in a prior model year). The manufacturers currently with deficits in the 2012 and/or 2013 model year are allowed to carry those deficits forward for three model years, giving them time to generate or purchase credits to demonstrate compliance with the 2012 and/or 2013 model year standards. The current status of these manufacturers is neither compliance nor non-compliance – rather, they have not yet demonstrated compliance. The credit balances shown below include “early credits” from model year 2009 that may not be sold and may not be used after the 2014 model year.Credit Balances at Conclusion of the 2013 Model Year (Mg)4
(including credit transfers & trades)
4 The Megagram (Mg) is a unit of mass equal to 1000 kilograms. It is also referred to as the metric ton or tonne.
- 4. Manufacturers continue to use a wide variety of compliance flexibilities that were designed into the program
EPA designed the standards with a wide range of flexibilities to allow manufacturers to maintain consumer choice, spur technology innovation, and minimize compliance costs, all while achieving significant GHG reductions. The flexibilities built into the program include standards based on vehicle size (or “footprint”), emissions averaging within car and truck fleets, credit trading between car and truck fleets, optional programs to generate credits, and processes to bank and/or trade credits. The result is that manufacturers can meet the standards while meeting consumer demand for a wide variety of vehicles, from high-performance vehicles to fuel-efficient hybrids, and from full-size pickups to small cars. In addition, the optional credit programs are facilitating the development and introduction of new technology. GM and Honda, for example, introduced a new and significantly lower-GHG air conditioning refrigerant to the U.S. automotive market in 2013 which lowered GHG emissions and helped them meet the GHG standards. Credit exchanges within and between companies also provide more flexibility in the program.
Use of Compliance Program Flexibilities by Manufacturers in 2013 Model Year
2013 Model Year Report
- Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles: Manufacturer Performance Report for the 2013 Model Year (PDF) (79 pp, 1.49MB, EPA-420-R-15-008, March 2015, About PDF)
- Report Tables (Excel) (817K, March 2015)
- Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emissions credits data for 2009-2013 model years (CSV) (1 pg, 34K, comma-delimited, March 2015) | Excel Version (651K, March 2015)
2012 Model Year Report
The 2013 model year report, available above, contains updated data for previous model years as well and supersedes all previous versions of the report. The 2012 model year report is available for reference only.
- Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles: Manufacturer Performance Report for the 2012 Model Year (PDF) (59 pp, 1.0MB, EPA-420-R-14-011, April 2014, About PDF)