Site Characterization And Conceptual Site Model Development
[ DISCLAIMER ]
This page provides links to non-EPA websites that provide additional information about petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI). You will leave the EPA.gov domain and enter another page with more information. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of information on that non-EPA page. Providing links to a non-EPA website is not an endorsement of the other site or the information it contains by EPA or any of its employees. Also, be aware that the privacy protection provided on the EPA.gov domain (see Privacy and Security Notice) may not be available at the external link.
Suggest A Resource
EPA will periodically update this compendium. If you would like to submit a resource for possible inclusion in this compendium, please contact Hal White (email@example.com).
The resources below provide information about site characterization, for sites where PVI may be a concern.
- Hers, Ian, Reidar Zapf-Gilje, Loretta Li, and Jim Atwater. 2001. The Use of Indoor Air Measurements to Evaluate Intrusion of Subsurface VOC Vapors into Buildings (PDF). Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 51(9):1318-1331. (15 pp, 548K)
Discusses how studies that use indoor air testing to assess subsurface risks from vapor intrusion could be improved to better predict rates of intrusion.
- McHugh, Thomas, John Connor, and Farrukh Ahmad. March 2004. An Empirical Analysis of the Groundwater-to-Indoor-Air Exposure Pathway: The Role of Background Concentrations in Indoor Air (PDF). Environmental Forensics 5:33-44. (12 pp, 561K)
An analysis of paired groundwater and indoor air measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to (1) detect evidence of indoor air impacts from dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons or chlorinated solvents in underlying groundwater, (2) estimate the true attenuation factor for volatilization from groundwater to indoor air, and (3) assess the utility of popular groundwater-to-indoor-air transport models for evaluating this exposure pathway.
- McHugh, Thomas, Robin Davis, George DeVaull, Harley Hopkins, John Menatti, and Tom Peargin. 2010. Evaluation of Vapor Attenuation at Petroleum Hydrocarbon Sites: Considerations for Site Screening and Investigation. Soil and Sediment Contamination 19:725-745.
A framework for the evaluation of vapor intrusion at petroleum hydrocarbon sites that involves simple screening for preferential pathways at sites with sufficient vertical separation between the building and the source, but a more intensive investigation at sites with petroleum sources in closer proximity to the building.
- Patterson, Bradley and Greg Davis. 2009. Quantification of Vapor Intrusion Pathways into a Slab-on-Ground Building under Varying Environmental Conditions. Environmental Science and Technology 43:650-656.
Discusses the investigation and quantification of potential hydrocarbon-vapor intrusion pathways into a building through a concrete slab-on-ground under a variety of environmental conditions.
- Ruiz, Joaquin, Rafael Bilbao, and Maria Murillo. 1998. Adsorption of Different VOC onto Soil Minerals from Gas Phase: Influence of Mineral, Type of VOC, and Air Humidity (PDF). Environmental Science and Technology 32:1079-1084. (6 pp, 96K)
Shows how humidity affects the adsorption of volatile organic gases onto different types of soils.
- Won, Doyun, Richard Corsi, and Mike Rynes. 2001. Sorptive Interactions between VOCs and Indoor Materials (PDF). Indoor Air 11:246-256. (38 pp, 122K)
Describes the adsorption of eight gaseous VOCs onto various indoor materials, such as carpet and gypsum board.
- Yao, Yijun, Kelly Pennell, and Eric Suuberg. 2010. Vapor Intrusion in Urban Settings: Effect of Foundation Features and Source Location. Urban Environmental Pollution 4:245-250.
Uses a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model to investigate how the presence of impervious surfaces affects vapor intrusion rates.