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Publications Related To Underground Storage Tanks

EPA developed numerous publications about managing underground storage tanks (UST) properly and conducting cleanups efficiently. The publications are listed by topic (general information, prevention, and cleanup) and alphabetically by title. You can read these publications online or download them to print. Read important information about this list before you download any documents.

You can order publications from the National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP), EPA's publication distributor, via telephone, U.S. mail, or the Internet. NSCEP's toll-free number is 800-490-9198; or you can fax your order to 301-604-3408. NSCEP's mailing address is: Box 42419, Cincinnati, OH 45242. You can search for documents and place your order online at www.epa.gov/ncepihom.

EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) published several documents regarding underground storage tanks. See a complete listing of ORD documents. In addition, EPA’s Technology Innovation Office maintains Clu-In, a Web site that identifies current information on corrective action technologies.

 

General Information

Annual Reports On The Underground Storage Tank Program
EPA developed annual reports that provide snapshots of national underground storage tank program activities during fiscal years (FY) 2007-2011. These reports contain information regarding: tank program highlights; advances in preventing releases; progress in cleaning up leaks; and a look ahead.

Musts For USTs: A Summary Of The Federal Regulations For Underground Storage Tank Systems (EPA 510-K-95-002).  July 1995.
This 40-page booklet summarizes federal UST requirements for installation; release detection; spill, overfill, and corrosion protection; corrective action; closure; and reporting and recordkeeping. Although parts of the booklet were written to prepare stakeholders for the 1998 deadline, the information contained in the booklet still applies today.

Report To Congress On A Compliance Plan For The Underground Storage Tank Program (EPA-510-R-00-001). June 2000.
Congress, in its FY2000 Appropriations Committee Conference Report, directed EPA to prepare and submit a compliance plan regarding the UST program. EPA developed this 70-page report in response to that request. The report presents information and cost estimates necessary to: identify USTs that are not in compliance with Subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act; identify USTs in temporary closure; determine the ownership of USTs not in compliance or in temporary closure; determine the plans of owners and operators to bring USTs into compliance or out of temporary closure; and determine how USTs, for which no owner can be identified, will be brought into compliance or closed permanently.

Report To Congress On Implementing And Enforcing The Underground Storage Tank Program In Indian Country (EPA 510-R-07-006). August 2007.
Congress, in Title XV, Section B of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, directed EPA to submit a report that summarizes the status of implementing and enforcing the underground storage tank program in Indian Country.  EPA developed this 38-page report in response to that request.  The report provides:  background and an overview of the tank program; information on release prevention activities in Indian country; information on cleaning up leaking UST sites in Indian Country; tribes' success stories in carrying out UST work; and a look at future UST activities for tribal partners and EPA to prevent and detect new releases, as well as increase the pace of cleanups for new and existing leaks.

Underground Motor Fuel Storage Tanks: A National Survey (EPA 560/5-86-013). May 1986.
This 1986 report provides a national survey of underground storage tanks systems with information on: the number of tanks; the number of establishments with tanks; the number of tank systems that failed a tightness test; and the factors associated with leaking. It is limited to motor fuels. (Conducted by EPA's Office of Toxic Substances.)

Underground Storage Tank Flood Guide (EPA-510-R-10-002). November 2010.
This 29-page guide provides simple guidelines and useful information for state, local, and tribal authorities in the event of a threatened or actual flood. The guide provides information about preparing for a flood, important actions after the disaster strikes, and information on financial assistance. It consolidates information from various federal, state, nongovernmental, and UST industry resources. The guide will help prepare for, prevent, or lessen the catastrophic effects and environmental harm that could occur as a result of flooded UST systems, as well as help return these UST systems to service as soon as possible.

Underground Storage Tank Indian Country Program Directory
This online directory provides information about headquarters and regional EPA tribal contacts, tribal UST program contacts, other tribal UST technical assistance contacts, and tribal contacts with federal UST inspector credentials.

Underground Storage Tank Program: 25 Years Of Protecting Our Land And Water (EPA-510-B-09-001). March 2009.
This 25th anniversary booklet provides UST stakeholders with information about the accomplishments of the tanks program over the past quarter century. This 20-page booklet includes an overview and discusses inspecting USTs, reusing abandoned gas stations, updating UST regulations, storing new fuels, and greening UST operations and cleanups.

Underground Storage Tank Program Directory
This online directory provides contact information for EPA, state, territory, and tribal UST/LUST programs.

Underground Storage Tanks: Building On The Past To Protect The Future (EPA 510-R-04-001). March 2004.
This 26-page report describes how EPA, states, tribes, and industry have successfully worked together to close unsafe tanks, upgrade or replace nearly all other tanks, cleanup releases, and dramatically reduce the number of new releases.

UST Program Facts
While this is not a publication, the following Web pages provide a program overview by briefly summarizing the UST program and presents program data that are updated roughly every six months.

Underground Storage Tanks: Requirements And Options (EPA 510-F-97-005). June 1997.
This leaflet is directed to petroleum non-marketers and provides an overview of responsibilities and choices for complying with federal UST regulations. The leaflet also provides a selected list of relevant publications and other sources of information about USTs.

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Prevention

Automatic Tank Gauging Systems For Release Detection: Reference Manual For Underground Storage Tank Inspectors (EPA 510-B-00-009). August 2000.
This 140-page manual can help state and EPA UST inspectors evaluate how well UST owners and operators are using their automatic tank gauging systems to comply with release detection requirements.

Best Management Practices For Your Underground Storage Tank
Owners and operators of USTs on tribal lands must comply with federal UST regulations. EPA developed a series of compliance assistance brochures that provide best management practices to help UST owners and operators in Indian country comply.

Closing Underground Storage Tanks: Brief Facts (EPA 510-F-96-004). July 1996.
This 2-page, tri-fold flyer presents basic information about proper UST system closure.

Developing A Third-Party Underground Storage Tank Inspection Program: A Guide To Assist States (EPA-510-K-08-001). September 2008.
This 22-page guide provides states with information on how to develop third-party inspection programs or enhance their existing programs. The guide summarizes the inspection grant guidelines and outlines steps states should follow in developing their third-party inspection programs. The guide also includes examples of existing state programs.

Doing Inventory Control Right For Underground Storage Tanks (EPA 510-B-93-004). November 1993.
This 17-page booklet describes inventory control methods that can be used to help UST system and operators meet federal regulatory leak detection requirements. The booklet provides a step-by-step process for inventory control that is clear and easy to follow.

EPA Study On The Effectiveness Of UST Insurance As A Financial Responsibility (FR) Mechanism (EPA-510-R-11-005). December 2011.
EPA undertook a study to assess the effectiveness of UST insurance as a FR mechanism, as well as to more broadly examine whether the current UST insurance structure provides owners and operators with the financial assurance EPA originally intended. This document summarizes the results of the study, identifies certain areas of concerns, and discusses potential next steps.

Frequency And Extent Of Dispenser Releases At Underground Storage Tank Facilities In South Carolina (EPA-510-R-04-004). September 2004.
This 26-page report presents the results of information collected and analyzed from UST closure and assessment reports at sites in South Carolina.

Getting The Most Out Of Your Automatic Tank Gauging System (EPA-510-F-98-011). March 1998.
This tri-fold leaflet provides UST owners and operators with a basic checklist they can use to make sure their automatic tank gauging systems work effectively. As a compliance assistance tool, the leaflet focuses on what actions the UST owner and operator must take to comply with leak detection requirements and prevent significant cleanup problems.

Introduction To Statistical Inventory Reconciliation For Underground Storage Tanks (EPA 510-B-95-009). September 1995.
This 12-page booklet provides basic information on this leak detection method.

List Of Integrity Assessment Evaluations For Underground Storage Tanks - Third Edition February 1999.
This 8-page EPA memorandum provides a list of integrity assessment procedures that have been successfully evaluated and certified by a qualified independent third party to meet specified performance criteria.

List Of Known Insurance Providers For Underground Storage Tank Owners And Operators (EPA 510-K-13-002). December 2013.
This online only booklet provides UST owners and operators with a list of insurance providers who may be able to help UST owners and operators comply with financial responsibility requirements by providing a suitable insurance mechanism. Note that this edition replaces all earlier editions bearing the same title.

List Of Leak Detection Evaluations For UST Systems (PDF) (6 pp, 51K, About PDF) Exit EPA Disclaimer
This list is not an EPA publication, but for several years this publication - developed by the National Work Group On Leak Detection Evaluations (NWGLDE) - was available on our Web site. However, this useful publication is now available at the NWGLDE Web site Exit EPA Disclaimer. Please visit this Web site for a variety of leak detection related information, which includes the most recent list of leak detection methods that have been evaluated by third parties to see if they meet EPA's performance standards.

Manual Tank Gauging For Small Underground Storage Tanks. (EPA 510-B-93-005). November 1993.
This 12-page booklet explains the federal and state laws that require USTs to be equipped with leak detection systems. Although much attention has been focused on large USTs, it is important that leaks from smaller tanks (generally less than 2,000 gallons of capacity) also have leak detection systems. This booklet provides simple, easy to follow, step-by-step directions for the correct way to conduct manual tank gauging for these smaller tanks.

Model Underground Storage Tank Environmental Results Program Workbook (EPA-510-R-04-003). June 2004.
This 164-page workbook is a tool to help state UST programs and state funds improve owner and operator compliance with UST regulations. States may need to modify the model workbook to reflect their own state laws. This workbook contains general information about the environmental results program; instructions on how to use the workbook; regulatory requirements; best management practices; compliance checklists; and draft forms and worksheets.

Operating And Maintaining Underground Storage Tank Systems: Practical Help And Checklists (EPA-510-B-05-002). September 2005.
This 54 page manual contains brief summaries of the federal UST requirements for operation and maintenance, as well as practical help that goes beyond the requirements. Checklists prompt the user to look closely at what kinds of equipment are in use and how to keep that equipment working properly over the lifetime of the UST system.

Standard Test Procedures For Evaluating Various Leak Detection Methods (EPA/530/UST-90/004 through EPA/530/UST-90/010). March 1990.
EPA produced seven testing protocols that professional testers could use to demonstrate whether an individual release detection equipment type could meet the performance requirements noted in the federal UST requirements for detecting leaks. These protocols are: Automatic Tank Gauging Systems; Liquid-Phase Out-of-Tank Product Detectors; Non-Volumetric Tank Tightness Testing Methods; Pipeline Leak Detection Systems; Statistical Inventory Reconciliation Methods; Vapor-Phase Out-of-Tank Product Detectors; and Volumetric Tank Tightness Testing Methods.

Straight Talk On Tanks: Leak Detection Methods For Petroleum Underground Storage Tanks And Piping (EPA-510-B-05-001). September 2005.
This 32-page booklet provides descriptions of several leak detection methods for tanks and piping, as well as explanations of the regulatory requirements for leak detection. Leak detection methods include: secondary containment with interstitial monitoring; automatic tank gauging; vapor monitoring; groundwater monitoring; statistical inventory control; tank tightness testing with inventory control; and manual tank gauging.

Survey Of Flexible Piping Systems (EPA 510-R-97-002). March 1997.
This survey includes information on which companies are making various types of flexible pipe, the number of installers, piping construction, compatibility, materials warranty, and the status of various system in meeting national codes and standards.

UST Systems: Inspecting And Maintaining Sumps And Spill Buckets - Practical Help And Checklist (EPA 510-R-05-001). May 2005.
This 16-page manual presents UST system owners and operators with recommended inspection guidelines and best management practices for their UST system sumps and spill buckets.

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Cleanup

Dollars And Sense (EPA 510-K-95-004). July 1995.
This 16-page booklet provides a summary of UST owners' and operators' financial responsibilities under federal UST regulations.

Estimating Air Emissions From Petroleum UST Cleanups
This 56-page guidance document (June 1989) and companion field cards (September 1989) provide state regulators with a means of estimating air emission rates of volatile organic compounds and benzene at individual UST cleanup sites.

Evaluation Of Empirical Data To Support Soil Vapor Intrusion Screening Criteria For Petroleum Hydrocarbon Compounds (EPA 510-R-13-001). January 2013.
This report presents an evaluation of empirical data and select modeling studies of the behavior of petroleum hydrocarbon vapors in subsurface soils at petroleum release sites and how these vapors can affect subsurface to indoor air vapor intrusion.

Expedited Site Assessment Tools For Underground Storage Tank Sites: A Guide For Regulators (EPA 510-B-97-001). March 1997.
This multi-volume guidance document describes the expedited site assessment process for rapidly characterizing UST site conditions for corrective action decisions. This concept has been described by other names including: accelerated site characterization, rapid site characterization, and expedited site investigation.

Financial Responsibility For Underground Storage Tanks: A Reference Manual (EPA-510-B-00-003). January 2000.
This comprehensive 320-page manual provides UST inspectors with the restrictions, limitations, and requirements of each financial responsibility mechanism provided in the federal UST regulations. Note, this manual is based on the federal UST financial responsibility requirements, but may provide useful information regarding state-specific financial responsibility mechanisms.

Financing Underground Storage Tank Work: Federal And State Assistance Programs (EPA-510-B-99-002). March 1999.
This 25-page booklet identifies potential sources of financial assistance to cover the costs of upgrading, replacing, or closing an UST, or cleaning up an UST release.

How To Effectively Recover Free Product At Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites: A Guide For State Regulators (EPA 510-R-96-001). September 1996.
This multi-volume technical guidance document helps state regulators and cleanup contractors review those parts of an UST corrective action plan that propose free-product-recovery technologies.

How To Evaluate Alternative Cleanup Technologies For Underground Storage Tank Sites: A Guide For Corrective Action Plan Reviewers (EPA 510-B-94-003; EPA 510-B-95-007; and EPA 510-R-04-002).
The original manual covered 8 alternative technologies: soil vapor extraction, air sparging, biosparging, landfarming, biopiles, bioventing, low-temperature thermal desorption, and natural attenuation. In May 1995, two additional chapters (dual-phase extraction and in situ groundwater bioremediation) were added and the introduction and glossary were updated at the same time. In May 2004 the manual was again updated with the addition of two new chapters (enhanced aerobic bioremediation and chemical oxidation) and revision of the introductory chapter and the chapter on monitored natural attenuation. The revised document carries the same title but a new number:  EPA 510-R-04-002.

Leveraging State Funds To Increase Compliance 1984.
This 1994 bulletin explains methods that many states have found effective in increasing compliance and controlling cleanup costs.

The National LUST Cleanup Backlog: A Study Of Opportunities (EPA 510-R-11-003). September 2011.
The study contains a national chapter and 14 individual state chapters. It discusses the makeup of the remaining UST releases; presents analysis; identifies key findings; and provides potential opportunities to help reduce the UST releases remaining.

Opportunities For Petroleum Brownfields (EPA 510-R-11-002). July 2011.
EPA developed this 51-page report to give stakeholders the information they need to assess, clean up, and safely reuse petroleum sites in ways that can benefit communities. The report presents five categories of petroleum brownfields, examples of successful reuse projects within those categories, and funding and technical assistance resources for petroleum brownfields revitalization.

Petroleum Brownfields Action Plans
EPA developed action plans to foster collaboration in returning abandoned, under-used petroleum brownfields sites to productive use.

Petroleum Brownfields: Developing Inventories. (EPA 510-R-09-002). May 2009.
EPA developed this 34-page document to help states, tribes, and petroleum brownfields stakeholders develop an inventory of low-risk, petroleum-contaminated brownfields properties. The purpose of this document is to enhance communication among stakeholders and facilitate opportunities for redeveloping petroleum brownfield sites.

Petroleum Brownfields: Selecting A Reuse Option (EPA 510-R-09-004). October 2009.
This 28-page catalogue describes examples of successful redevelopment projects for petroleum-contaminated sites. Reuse options are organized into five categories: commercial, public, residential, greenspace, and mixed use.

Responsible Party Search Guide For The Underground Storage Tank Program (EPA 510-R-13-004). September 2013.
EPA developed the Responsible Party Search Guide For The Underground Storage Tank Program to assist staff with conducting responsible party (RP) searches. The objective of an RP search is to find the owner or operator responsible for the UST system. The guide provides reference materials and a step-by-step description of how to conduct an RP search.

Alphabetical Listing

| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M |

| N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |


A

Annual Reports On The Underground Storage Tank Program

Automatic Tank Gauging Systems For Release Detection: Reference Manual For Underground Storage Tank Inspectors (EPA 510-B-00-009). August 2000.

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B

Best Management Practices For Your Underground Storage Tank

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C

Closing Underground Storage Tanks: Brief Facts (EPA 510-F-96-004). July 1996.

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D

Developing A Third-Party Underground Storage Tank Inspection Program: A Guide To Assist States (EPA-510-K-08-001). September 2008.

Doing Inventory Control Right For Underground Storage Tanks (EPA 510-B-93-004). November 1993.

Dollars And Sense (EPA 510-K-95-004). July 1995.

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E

EPA Study On The Effectiveness Of UST Insurance As A Financial Responsibility (FR) Mechanism (EPA-510-R-11-005). December 2011.

Estimating Air Emissions From Petroleum UST Cleanups June 1989.

Evaluation Of Empirical Data To Support Soil Vapor Intrusion Screening Criteria For Petroleum Hydrocarbon Compounds (EPA 510-R-13-001). January 2013.

Expedited Site Assessment Tools For Underground Storage Tank Sites: A Guide For Regulators (EPA 510-B-97-001). March 1997.

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F

Financial Responsibility For Underground Storage Tanks: A Reference Manual (EPA-510-B-00-003). January 2000.

Financing Underground Storage Tank Work: Federal And State Assistance Programs (EPA-510-B-99-002). March 1999.

Frequency And Extent Of Dispenser Releases At Underground Storage Tank Facilities In South Carolina (EPA-510-R-04-004). September 2004.

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G

Getting The Most Out Of Your Automatic Tank Gauging System (EPA-510-F-98-011). March 1998.

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H

How To Effectively Recover Free Product At Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites: A Guide For State Regulators (EPA 510-R-96-001). September 1996.

How To Evaluate Alternative Cleanup Technologies For Underground Storage Tank Sites: A Guide For Corrective Action Plan Reviewers (EPA 510-B-94-003; EPA 510-B-95-007; and EPA 510-R-04-002).

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I

Introduction To Statistical Inventory Reconciliation For Underground Storage Tanks (EPA 510-B-95-009). September 1995.

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J

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K

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L

Leveraging State Funds To Increase Compliance 1984.

List Of Integrity Assessment Evaluations For Underground Storage Tanks - Third Edition January 22, 1999

List Of Known Insurance Providers For Underground Storage Tank Owners And Operators (EPA 510-B-12-002). July 2012.

List Of Leak Detection Evaluations For UST Systems (PDF) (6 pp, 51K, About PDF) Exit EPA Disclaimer

[ TOP OF INDEX ]


M

Manual Tank Gauging For Small Underground Storage Tanks. (EPA 510-B-93-005). November 1993.

Model Underground Storage Tank Environmental Results Program Workbook (EPA-510-R-04-003). June 2004.

Musts For USTs: A Summary Of The Federal Regulations For Underground Storage Tank Systems (EPA 510-K-95-002). July 1995.

[ TOP OF INDEX ]


N

The National LUST Cleanup Backlog: A Study Of Opportunities (EPA 510-R-11-003). September 2011.

[ TOP OF INDEX ]


O

Operating And Maintaining Underground Storage Tank Systems: Practical Help And Checklists (EPA-510-B-05-002). September 2005.

Opportunities For Petroleum Brownfields (EPA-510-R-11-002). July 2011.

[ TOP OF INDEX ]


P

Petroleum Brownfields Action Plans

Petroleum Brownfields: Developing Inventories. (EPA 510-R-09-002). May 2009.

Petroleum Brownfields: Selecting A Reuse Option (EPA 510-R-09-004). October 2009.

[ TOP OF INDEX ]


Q

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R

Report To Congress On A Compliance Plan For The Underground Storage Tank Program (EPA-510-R-00-001). June 2000.

Report To Congress On Implementing And Enforcing The Underground Storage Tank Program In Indian Country (EPA 510-R-07-006). August 2007.

Responsible Party Search Guide For The Underground Storage Tank Program (EPA 510-R-13-004). September 2013.

[ TOP OF INDEX ]


S

Standard Test Procedures for Evaluating Various Leak Detection Methods (EPA/530/UST-90/004 through EPA/530/UST-90/010). March 1990.

Straight Talk On Tanks: Leak Detection Methods For Petroleum Underground Storage Tanks And Piping (EPA-510-B-05-001). September 2005.

Survey Of Flexible Piping Systems (EPA 510-R-97-002). March 1997.

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T

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U

Underground Motor Fuel Storage Tanks: A National Survey (EPA 560/5-86-013). May 1986.

Underground Storage Tank Flood Guide (EPA 510-B-10-002). November 2010.

Underground Storage Tank Indian Country Program Directory

Underground Storage Tank Program: 25 Years Of Protecting Our Land And Water (EPA-510-B-09-001). March 2009.

Underground Storage Tank Program Directory

Underground Storage Tanks: Building On The Past To Protect The Future (EPA 510-R-04-001). March 2004.

Underground Storage Tanks: Requirements And Options (EPA 510-F-97-005). June 1997.

UST Program Facts

UST Systems: Inspecting And Maintaining Sumps And Spill Buckets - Practical Help And Checklist (EPA 510-R-05-001). May 2005.

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V

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W

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X

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Y

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Z

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INFORMATION ABOUT OUST PUBLICATIONS

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