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Vol. 56 No. 171 Wednesday, September 4, 1991  p 43842 (Proposed Rul
    1/2321  

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

40 CFR Part 82

[FRL 3990-3]

Protection of Stratospheric Ozone

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency.

ACTION: Proposed rule.



SUMMARY: This proposed rule establishes the standards and
requirements 

for servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners, and restricts 

the sale of small containers of Class I and Class II substances, 

under section 609 of the Clean Air Act as amended (Act).
Specifically, 

the proposed regulations require persons who repair or service 

motor vehicle air-conditioning units for consideration to be 

certified in refrigerant recovery and recycling and to properly 

use certified equipment when performing service. Finally, the 

proposed regulations prohibit the sale of containers of Class 

I and Class II substances under 20 pounds except to certified 

technicians.

DATES: Written comments on the proposed rule must be received 

on or before October 21, 1991. A public meeting is scheduled 

for September 3, 1991 from 1-5 p.m. in the EPA Auditorium, 401 

M Street SW., Washington, DC to receive comment.

ADDRESSES: Materials relevant to this proposed rulemaking are 

contained in Public Docket No. A-91-41. This docket is located 

in Room M-1500, Waterside Mall (Ground Floor), U.S. Environmental 

Protection Agency, 401 M Street, SW., Washington, DC 20460. 

Dockets may be inspected from 8 a.m. until 12 noon, and from 

1:30 p.m. until 3 p.m., Monday through Friday. A reasonable 

fee may be charged for copying docket materials.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lena Nirk, Stratospheric Ozone 

Protection Branch, Global Change Division, Office of Atmospheric 

and Indoor Air Programs, Office of Air and Radiation, ANR-445, 

401 M Street SW., Washington, DC 20460. (202) 382-7411.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The contents of today's preamble 

are listed in the following outline:

I. Background

  A. Statutory Authority

  B. Ozone Depletion

  C. Montreal Protocol

  D. Excise Tax

  E. London Amendments

  F. Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  G. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

II. Section 609 of the Act

III. Today's Proposed Rule 

  A. Definitions

  B. Equipment Certification

  C. Approved Independent Standards Testing Organizations

  D. Technician Training and Certification

  E. Small Container Restrictions

  F. Equipment Certification and Small Entity Certification

  G. Relationship to State Regulations

  H. Recordkeeping Requirements

IV. Summary of Supporting Analyses

  A. Regulatory Impact Analysis

  B. Regulatory Flexibility Analysis

  C. Paperwork Reduction Act

I. Background



A. Statutory Authority

   Section 609 of the Act requires the Administrator to promulgate 

regulations establishing standards and requirements regarding 

the servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners. Title VI of 

Act is designed to protect the stratospheric ozone layer.

B. Ozone Depletion

   The stratospheric ozone layer protects the earth from the 

penetration of ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation. A national and 

international consensus exists that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 

halons, carbon tetrachloride and methyl chloroform must be
restricted 

because of the risk of depletion of the stratospheric ozone 

layer through the release of chlorine and bromine. To the extent 

depletion occurs, penetration of UV-B radiation increases,
resulting 

in potential health and environmental harm including increased 

incidence of certain skin cancers and cataracts, suppression 

of the immune system, damage to plants, including crops, and 

aquatic organisms, increased formation of ground-level ozone 

and increased weathering of outdoor plastics. (See 53 FR 30566 

for more information on the effects of ozone depletion.)

   The original theory linking CFCs to ozone depletion was first 

proposed in 1974. Since then, the scientific community has made 

remarkable advances in understanding atmospheric processes
affecting 

stratospheric ozone science. Model predictions in the late 1980s 

suggested that continued use of CFCs would lead to substantial 

ozone depletion in the middle of the next century. Despite the 

sophistication of these models, scientists were unable to predict 

the extent of the decrease in stratospheric ozone over Antarctica 

that was observed in 1985. This seasonal loss of ozone over 

the south pole became known as the "Antarctic ozone hole". In 

1989, the results of an international assessment of ozone trends 

were published in the Ozone Trends Panel Report. In addition 

to the ozone hole, this report stated that analysis of total-

column ozone data shows measurable downward trends from 1969 

to 1988 of 3 to 5 percent in the northern hemisphere in the 

winter. In early 1991, new scientific evidence indicated a loss 

of stratospheric ozone over the northern mid-latitudes during 

the past decade of 3 to 5 percent. This amount is 2 times greater 

than past studies suggested and illustrated the concern that 

ozone depletion appears to be occurring faster than theoretical 

models had predicted.

C. Montreal Protocol

   In September 1987, the United States and 22 other countries 

signed the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the 

Ozone Layer. As originally drafted, the Protocol called for 

production and consumption of the most ozone-depleting CFCs 

(CFC -11, 12, 113, 114, 115) and Halon-1211, -1301 and    -2402 

to be frozen at 1986 levels beginning July 1, 1989 and January 

1, 1992 respectively, and for the CFCs to be reduced to 50 percent 

of 1986 levels by 1998. To date, 68 nations representing well 

over 90% of the world's production capacity have signed the 

Montreal Protocol. EPA promulgated regulations implementing 

the requirements of the 1987 Protocol through a system of tradable 

allowances. EPA apportioned the allowances to producers and 

importers of ozone depleting substances (controlled substances) 

based on their 1986 level of production and importation. It 

then reduced the allowances for the controlled substances according


to the schedule specified in the Protocol.

D. Excise Tax

   As part of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989, 

the U.S. Congress levied an excise tax on the sale of CFCs and 

other chemicals that deplete the ozone layer, with specific 

exemptions for exports and recycling. The tax has operated as 

a complement to EPA's regulations limiting production and
consumption 

by increasing the costs of using virgin controlled substances. 

As a result of the tax, there is an added incentive for industry 

to shift out of controlled substances and to increase recycling 

activities. The tax has also stimulated the market for alternative 

chemicals and processes. The original excise tax was amended 

in 1991 to include methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and 

other CFCs regulated by the amended Montreal Protocol and Title 

VI of the Clean Air Act. 

E. London Amendments

   Since the signing of the Protocol in 1987, additional scientific


evidence became available indicating that depletion of the
stratospheric 

ozone layer was occurring more quickly than had been anticipated. 

In response to this evidence (i.e. the 1989 Ozone Trends Panel 

Report), the Parties to the Protocol at their meeting in London 

in June 1990 amended the Protocol schedule for CFCs and halons 

to require a complete phaseout by January 1, 2000. Methyl
chloroform 

and carbon tetrachloride were added to the list of ozone depleting 

substances, with carbon tetrachloride phased out by January 

1, 2000 and methyl chloroform phased out by January 1, 2005.

   The parties also passed a non-binding resolution regarding 

the use of hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFCs). HCFCs have been 

identified as the major interim substitutes for CFCs because 

they add much less chlorine to the stratosphere than fully
halogenated 

CFCs. The Parties were concerned, however, that rapid growth 

in the amount of use of these chemicals over time would still 

pose a threat to the ozone layer. As a result, the resolution 

calls for the phaseout of HCFCs by 2020 if feasible and no later 

than 2040 in any case.

F. Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

   On May 1, 1990, EPA published an advance notice of proposed 

rulemaking (ANPRM, 55 FR 18256) addressing issues related to 

the development of a national recycling program. In the ANPRM, 

the Agency discussed the importance of recycling in providing 

immediate reductions in CFC emissions whenever production is 

below limits. When production is at or near production limits 

recycling has no effect on production and the ultimate release 

of CFCs, however, recycling may delay the release of CFCs.
Recycling 

is also important for avoiding the cost of early retirement 

and retrofit of equipment requiring CFCs for service past the 

year 2000. Although the Agency continues to investigate destruction


of these chemicals, at this time it believes that continuing 

to use these substances through recycling in existing equipment 

can serve as a useful bridge to alternative products while
minimizing 

disruption in the utilization of the current capital stock of 

equipment for its full useful life.

   The ANPRM provided the following definitions for recover, 

recycle and reclaim based on the American Society of Heating, 

Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) 

Proposed Guideline GPC-3P, "Guideline for Reducing Emission 

of Fully Halogenated Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Refrigerants in 

Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Equipment and Applications," 

June 1989. These definitions are also used by the United Nations 

Environmental Program (UNEP). (See Technical Progress on Protecting


the Ozone Layer: Refrigeration, Air Conditioning, and Heat Pumps 

Technical Options Report, July 1989.)

   Recover: To remove refrigerant in any condition from a system 

and store it in an external container without necessarily testing 

or processing it in any way.

   Recycle: To clean refrigerant for reuse by oil separation 

and single or multiple passes through moisture absorption devices, 

such as replaceable core filter-driers. This term usually implies 

procedures implemented at the field job site or at a local service 

shop.

   Reclaim: To process refrigerant to new conditions, by means 

which may include distillation. It may require chemical analysis 

of contained refrigerant to determine that the appropriate process 

specifications are met. This term usually implies the use of 

processes or procedures available only at a reprocessing or 

manufacturing facility.

   The ANPRM asked for comment on the feasibility of recycling 

in various CFC end uses and also asked for comment on methods, 

such as a deposit/refund system, that could be employed to
establish 

a recycling program. The following sections give a brief overview 

of the general comments received on the importance of recycling 

and a description of the early efforts in mobile air conditioning 

recycling.

1. Public Comments

   The Agency received 110 public comment letters in response 

to the ANPRM. In general, most commenters recognized the need 

for recycling to be established to help efforts to protect the 

ozone layer and to provide a source of supply to service existing 

capital equipment past the year 2000. Some commenters believed 

that a mandatory program would not be necessary because the 

tax and restricted supply would stimulate recycling. They also 

stated that recycling is not required under the Montreal Protocol. 

Other commenters, especially in the motor vehicle air conditioning 

(MAC) end use sector, stated that the market would not provide 

enough incentive for recycling in the short term if recycling 

was not made mandatory.

   The Agency received several comments on deposit/refund systems 

which highlighted the difficulties in implementing such a system 

for refrigerants. The Agency will consider these comments and 

comments providing specific information on recycling in end 

uses other than motor vehicle air conditioning when developing 

the regulations implementing section 608 of the Act.

2. Early Efforts in MAC Recycling

   The ANPRM described the cooperative project undertaken between 

EPA, the Mobile Air-Conditioning Society, the Motor Vehicle 

Manufacturers Association (MVMA), the Automotive Importers of 

America, the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), ASHRAE, 

manufacturers of recover/recycling equipment, automotive industry 

representatives, and environmental groups to develop recycling 

for MACs. Although each automobile has a relatively small
refrigerant 

charge, it is estimated that motor vehicle air-conditioners 

consumed over 48,000 metric tons of CFC-12 in 1989. This amounts 

to 21.3 percent of total CFC use in the United States.

   The industry recognized the need for the development of a 

standard of purity for recycled refrigerant for MACs to facilitate 

recycling on-site. As part of the cooperative project, EPA
sponsored 

an engineering study to test the quality of used refrigerant 

in automobiles of different makes and models, operated in different


geographical regions under various driving and weather conditions. 

Based on the study, industry and EPA representatives agreed 

that recycled refrigerant should be held to a standard of purity 

for oil and moisture contamination comparable to that of
refrigerant 

in automobiles that have been driven approximately 15,000 miles 

with properly working air-conditioners. This standard has been 

published as "SAE J1991, Standard of Purity for Use in Mobile 

Air Conditioning Systems."

   SAE has also published "SAE J1989, Recommended Service Procedure


for the Containment of R-12 (CFC-12)" and "SAE J1990, Extraction 

and Recycle Equipment for Mobile Automotive Air-Conditioning 

Systems" that reflect a consensus of industry experts on proper 

procedures and equipment specifications for recovery and recycling 

of refrigerant in mobile air conditioners. In an effort to assure 

that equipment used for recycling on-site performs adequately, 

Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (U.L.) worked with industry to 

develop a program to certify automotor vehicle air-conditioning 

recover/recycle equipment. This procedure, "U.L. 1963, Refrigerant 

Recovery and Recycling Equipment", specifies the ability to 

meet the purity standard, as well as other aspects of product 

safety which must be demonstrated by equipment in order to be 

certified. Several manufacturers have submitted their equipment 

to U.L. and have received certification. Also, many automobile 

manufacturers already require use of certified recover/recycle 

equipment during maintenance by dealerships.

   The ANPRM also recognized the need to certify the technicians 

who use the equipment. Comment was requested on the use of
organizations 

such as the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence 

(ASE) to perform this certification. Several commenters mentioned 

that certification of technicians in recycling was a necessary 

component to a successful recycling program and suggested several 

mechanisms for the development of programs.

G. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

   The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 includes requirements 

for controlling ozone-depleting substances more stringent than 

those contained in the revised Montreal Protocol. For the
substances 

covered by the revised Protocol's control measures, title VI 

of the Act calls for a 2000 phase-out for CFCs with deeper interim 

reductions and, in the case of methyl chloroform, an earlier 

phaseout date (2002 instead of 2005). For the HCFCs, title VI 

requires use restrictions, a production freeze in 2015 and a 

phaseout in 2030. EPA issued a temporary final rule on March 

6, 1991 implementing the production and consumption limits
contained 

in the Act for calendar year 1991. (See 56 FR 9518).

   In addition to the phaseout of ozone depleting substances, 

title VI includes provisions to reduce emissions of all ozone-

depleting substances. Section 608 contains requirements for 

a "lowest achievable level" of emissions of controlled substances 

during use and disposal of appliances and industrial process 

refrigeration and bans intentional venting at service and disposal.


Section 609 requires standards for certification of technicians 

and for equipment used in the servicing of motor vehicle air 

conditioners and restricts the sale of small containers of CFCs. 

A ban on nonessential products and mandatory labeling are required 

in sections 610 and 611, respectively, and a program to review 

the safety of alternatives to controlled substances is required 

under section 612.

II. Section 609 of the Act

   Section 609 of the Act establishes an important new statutory 

structure to control the release of refrigerant from motor vehicle 

air conditioners into the atmosphere. After January 1, 1992, 

any person repairing or servicing motor vehicle air conditioners 

for consideration must properly use refrigerant recycling equipment


that has been approved by EPA. All such persons must be properly 

trained and certified. The January 1, 1992 effective date is 

delayed for one year for small volume shops-entities that serviced 

less than 100 motor vehicle air conditioners during 1990. This 

one year delay is only granted upon the filing of a small entity 

certification with EPA.

   Section 609 requires EPA to establish standards for refrigerant 

recycling equipment, for proper use of such equipment, and for 

the certification of technicians. These standards must be at 

least as stringent as certain voluntary standards adopted by 

industry. Equipment purchased before today's proposal will be 

considered approved if it is substantially identical to equipment 

meeting EPA's standards.

   Either EPA or independent testing organizations approved 

by EPA will certify that equipment meets the standards. EPA 

will also approve organizations to train and certify persons 

in the proper use of such equipment. By a certain date, persons 

performing service on motor vehicle air conditioners for
consideration 

must certify to EPA that they have acquired and are properly 

using approved equipment, and that all service personnel using 

the equipment have been properly trained and certified.

   Finally, beginning November 15, 1992, the sale or distribution 

in interstate commerce of any class I or class II substance 

suitable for use in a motor vehicle air-conditioning system 

in small containers (less than 20 pounds) is prohibited. The 

only exception is for sales or distribution to persons servicing 

motor vehicle air conditioners for consideration in compliance 

with all the above requirements.

III. Today's Proposed Rule

   Today's proposed rule implements section 609 of the Clean 

Air Act Amendments. This section will review the proposed
definitions 

and the major sections of the regulation along with the issues 

considered by the Agency.

A. Definitions

   Presented here are the definitions of several terms within 

the basic statutory requirement and clarification of terms that 

were not specifically defined in the Act but must be specified 

for the purposes of this proposed regulation.

1. Refrigerant

   This term is defined to mean any class I or class II substance 

used in a motor vehicle air conditioner. Effective November 

15, 1995, five years after the enactment of the Act, the term 

refrigerant shall also include any substitute substance, such 

as HFC-134a. The Agency emphasizes that any blend of substances 

that includes a Class I or class II substance is included under 

this definition and the other requirements proposed today.

2. Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners

   In Title II of the Act, "motor vehicle" is defined as "any 

self-propelled vehicle designed for transporting persons or 

property on a street or highway" (See section 216(2) of the 

Act). For the purposes of title VI only, EPA proposes to define 

"motor vehicle air conditioners" to include all mechanical vapor 

compression units that cool the driver or passenger compartments 

of self-propelled vehicles designed for transporting persons 

or property, including but not limited to farm vehicles,
construction 

equipment, cars, and trucks. To date, these units all use CFC-

12 as the refrigerant, however, future refrigerants such as 

HFC-134a are possible. EPA requests comment on the scope of 

this definition of motor vehicles and motor vehicle air
conditioners, 

particularly with vehicles that do not meet the definition of 

motor vehicle under Title II.

   EPA would like to clarify that the hermetically sealed
refrigeration 

system which cools the storage container of a refrigerated
transport 

truck is not included in this definition, but the unit which 

cools the driver or passenger compartment of the truck is included.


The Administrator acknowledges that small aircraft and marine 

vessels fall outside the scope of the statutory term motor vehicle.


The Administrator wishes to stress the importance of voluntary 

recycling during servicing of these units.

3. Service Involving Refrigerant

   EPA believes that the intent of the Act is to require recycling 

of refrigerant in MACs whenever service is being performed that 

may release refrigerant to the atmosphere. It is estimated that 

nearly 11,000 kg/yr of CFC-12 is available for recovery and 

recycling during MAC servicing (See Costs and Benefits of MACs 

Recycling, May 24, 1991). This includes service of the motor 

vehicle air conditioners themselves and service of auto components 

that may require some dismantling of the MAC system.

   This proposed regulation does not include salvage of refrigerant


from junked automobiles. EPA would like to encourage recovery 

of this refrigerant. The specific requirements for recovery 

at disposal, if any, may be addressed in the regulations
implementing 

the Safe Disposal Program of section 608 of the Act.

4. Service For Consideration

   EPA interprets "servicing motor vehicles for consideration" 

to include all persons who are paid to perform service on MACs, 

thus subjecting to regulation all service except that done for 

free. The type of service covered by the regulations may be 

performed at establishments such as independent repair shops, 

service stations, car and truck fleet shops, body shops, chain 

or franchised repair shops, new car and truck dealers, rental 

establishments, radiator repair shops, mobile repair operations, 

vocational technical schools, farm equipment dealerships, and 

airports.

   EPA recognizes that "do-it-yourself" repair of MACs is not 

effectively restricted by the Act. Congress intended to discourage 

this type of repair through the small container limitations 

discussed in section II.E. Recovery and recycling of refrigerant 

is important and the Act requires that these activities be
performed 

by trained technicians using the appropriate equipment.

5. Properly Using

   The Act requires that the Administrator establish standards 

for using equipment that shall be at least as stringent as the 

applicable standards of the Society of Automotive Engineers 

(SAE) in effect as of the date of enactment (November 15, 1990). 

The standard referred to, J1989, provides recommended service 

procedures for the containment of CFC-12. It is important to 

note that refrigerant introduced into the system for the purpose 

of leak detection must be recovered and not vented. The Agency 

is proposing that the standard for "properly using" include 

J1989 and an additional requirement that if recovery only equipment


is used, the refrigerant must be sent off-site for reclamation 

or recycled on-site. The Agency is proposing that the requirement 

in the SAE J Standards that refrigerant received from an off 

site reclaim facility that is intended for recharge of automobiles 

must meet the Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute standard


of purity (ARI Standard 700-88). The Agency believes that this 

additional requirement will ensure that recovered refrigerant 

is not vented to the atmosphere. This definition is intended 

to cover facilities that own an on-site recycle machine in addition


to several recover only machines (such as large establishments 

with many service bays) and small facilities that wish to purchase 

one piece of recover only equipment. EPA is requesting comment 

on its proposal related to standards for reclaimed refrigerant. 

For a discussion of certified equipment, see section II.B.

B. Equipment Certification



1. Approved Refrigerant Recycling Equipment

   Under section 609(b)(2)(A) of the Act, the Administrator 

establishes standards applicable to equipment for the extraction 

and reclamation of refrigerant from motor vehicle air conditioners.


The Administrator (or an independent standards testing organization


approved by the Administrator) must then certify equipment to 

meet these standards. The Act states that the standards developed 

must be at least as stringent as those developed by the Society 

of Automotive Engineers in effect as of November 15, 1990 (SAE 

Standard J1990).

   As described in section I.F., the SAE J standards were developed


based on industry consensus on the recommended practices for 

service procedures for containment of CFC-12 (J1989) and for 

extraction and recycle equipment for motor vehicle air-conditioning


systems (J1990). Standard J1990 in effect as of November 15, 

1990 states in its scope that the purpose of the document is 

"to provide equipment specifications for CFC-12 (R-12) recycling 

and/or recovery and recharging systems". The standard of purity 

(J1991) is not specifically referenced in the Act, although 

J1990 refers to it within the test of the standard.

   EPA considered two options in designing standards for approved 

refrigerant recycling equipment (approved equipment) under section 

609. The first option is to establish only one standard for 

equipment to recover and recycle refrigerant. This is the type 

of equipment that is currently being certified by Underwriters 

Laboratory using the sections of the J1990 standard that apply 

to recover and recycle equipment. Adoption of this single standard 

would preclude the use of recover only machines. 

   The second option requires the establishment of two separate 

standards, one for equipment that both recovers the refrigerant 

and recycles on-site (as described in option one) and another 

standard for equipment that only recovers refrigerant. The
refrigerant 

from these recover only machines would then be sent off-site 

for reclamation to the ARI Standard 700-88, a standard developed 

by the Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute that defines 

a level of quality for new, reclaimed, and or repackaged
refrigerants. 

This standard is referred to in J1991 and is more stringent 

than the J1991 purity standard for recycled refrigerant from 

MACs. Under option 2, establishments would be allowed to use 

either type of machine provided it is certified under the
appropriate 

standard. 

   In reviewing these two options, EPA objectives were to provide 

flexibility for the regulated community without compromising 

environmental protection. The Agency also considered the protection


of the MAC units from damage as essential to a successful recycling


program. The benefits of each option are presented below followed 

by a discussion of EPA's evaluation criteria. 

   Equipment that recovers and recycles refrigerant ensures, 

if the equipment is used properly, that refrigerant is recycled 

to the J1991 purity standard. The likelihood of recharging motor 

vehicle air-conditioners with unclean refrigerant is minimized 

because the refrigerant removed from cars is recycled and returned 

to cars. This recover/recycle standard includes machines that 

separate oil and remove moisture through single or multiple 

passes through moisture absorption devices. The use of certified 

equipment that both recovers and recycles refrigerant may also 

reduce cross contamination once CFC replacements, such as HFC-

134a, are introduced into the market. Refrigerant removed from 

an automobile would be recycled and returned to the same
automobile. 

   Option 2 would require service establishments to purchase 

equipment that recycles the refrigerant on-site or equipment 

that recovers the refrigerant for off-site reclamation. The 

recover only machines would also need to be certified to ensure 

that they effectively recover refrigerant and are designed to 

minimize the risk of cross contamination. This would be done 

by EPA approved certification laboratories to a standard for 

recover only equipment established by the Administrator. In 

developing this standard, the Agency would encourage SAE, or 

another industry standards setting organization if appropriate, 

to provide the Agency with consensus based industry recommendations


for the content of the standard, or to develop a standard for 

Agency review. 

   Under option 2, a service entity has flexibility in the design 

of its business operation to ensure compliance with the law. 

Small establishments or entities that do not perform a large 

number of motor vehicle air-conditioning jobs may choose to 

purchase the recover only equipment, send the refrigerant they 

recover to reclamation facilities, and purchase the CFCs they 

will need to perform service. 

   In evaluating these options, EPA first examined the
environmental 

consequences of using the two types of equipment. In response 

to concerns raised by off-site reclamation facilities, EPA examined


the possibility that significant amounts of CFC-12 could be 

released from on-site recycling devices when the noncondensable 

gases are purged from the refrigerant after recycling.
Non-condensable 

gases must be removed from refrigerant in order to prevent an 

unacceptable increase in system operating pressure and subsequent 

compressor damage. The recycling on-site equipment purges the 

non-condensable gases removed from the refrigerant during recycling


and there is the possibility that some refrigerant entrained 

in the gas will be released to the atmosphere during this non-

condensable gas purge. Underwriters Laboratory estimates that 

the amount of CFC-12 released is well under 5 percent by weight 

of the recovered refrigerant in the machines they have certified 

to date. SAE is in the process of revising J1990 to limit the 

amount of CFC-12 released during purging to no more than 5 percent.


This amount of refrigerant emitted is not significant when compared


to emissions that occur at servicing when refrigerant is not 

contained at all. Recover only machines do not purge
non-condensables 

from the refrigerant collected and, therefore, do not release 

CFC-12 in the process. With respect to purging, recover only 

provides more environmental protection.

   Another environmental concern is the efficiency of removal 

of refrigerant from motor vehicles. The extraction of refrigerant 

is common to both types of equipment and is important in reducing 

emissions to the environment. The SAE standards do not directly 

specify minimum extraction efficiency although removal at a 

vacuum is required. EPA expects to propose that recover only 

equipment must have the same efficiency of removal as
recover/recycle 

equipment and that this efficiency be made an explicit element 

of a recover only standard. EPA requests comment on the level 

of efficiency that should be required. 

   On-site recover and recycle machines must be able to separate 

the lubricant from recovered refrigerant. This is necessary 

to prolong the life of the extraction vacuum pump, to remove 

oil from refrigerant returned to the car, and to measure the 

amount of oil removed so that an equivalent amount of oil can 

be added at recharge. It is possible that a small amount of 

CFC-12 may remain in the lubricant after recycling and will 

require disposal. EPA believes this lubricant should be handled 

by the establishment in the same manner that the establishment 

handles used oil. The residual CFC in the lubricant is not a 

hazardous constituent under Federal regulations. Although some 

recover only machines currently sold do not perform oil separation 

as part of the recover operation, EPA is aware that a standard 

for recover only machines may include oil separation and as 

a result, both recover only and recycle on-site machines will 

generate used lubricant. EPA requests comment on the necessity 

of including oil separation in a standard for recover only
machines. 

   EPA also examined the cost of equipment when evaluating options 

1 and 2. Prices of equipment vary based on brand and model; 

on the quality of components and convenience features; and on 

the optional diagnostic features. In general, recover only
equipment 

is less expensive than recycle on-site equipment. Overall operating


costs for recycle machines, however, are lower than recover 

only machines because recover only operations must pay to have 

the refrigerant reclaimed or sell the refrigerant and purchase 

new refrigerant to recharge the MACs. Although the ability to 

recoup the initial cost of equipment will vary based on the 

number of MAC jobs performed by an establishment and the price 

of virgin refrigerant, a small establishment may find it more 

cost effective to comply with the regulations by purchasing 

recover only equipment. The Agency believes that allowing
flexibility 

to purchase either type of machine will enhance overall compliance 

with the regulation and not pose undue economic burden on the 

industry. 

   EPA examined the implications of options 1 and 2 on motor 

vehicle air conditioning equipment. The Agency believes it is 

important to protect the integrity of this equipment to ensure 

a successful recycling program. The SAE standards state that 

refrigerant removed from an automobile, recycled to the J-1991 

standard and returned to an automobile is at an acceptable level 

of purity. Any refrigerant sent off-site must actually be reclaimed


to a higher level of purity, the ARI-700 standard, in order 

to assure it does not contain any contaminants that could be 

introduced from equipment other than mobile air conditioners 

(e.g. refrigerant from a home refrigerator may contain acids 

and thus may not be introduced into an automobile until it has 

been reclaimed to the ARI-700 standard). Therefore, as long 

as recovered refrigerant is recycled to the ARI-700 standard 

off-site, and an equivalent amount of lubricant oil is replaced, 

use of the recover only equipment should not present an increased 

possibility of damage to equipment.

   Automotive industry representatives have expressed concern 

that recover only machines may result in used refrigerant being 

vented or reintroduced into MACs without being sent off-site 

for reclamation. The industry is concerned that sending out 

refrigerant or waiting for it to be picked up by a reclamation 

service represents a significant burden and inconvenience to 

technicians. They also stated that the cylinders of used
refrigerant 

may be confused with cylinders of new refrigerant. EPA believes 

the standard for properly using equipment, because it includes 

the requirement that recovered refrigerant be recycled on-site 

or sent off-site for reclamation, will minimize the reintroduction 

of used refrigerant. EPA also believes that industry practices 

including properly marked recover only containers and proper 

valves and fittings restricted to recover only containers could 

minimize the likelihood of contamination or improper use. The 

requirement to clean refrigerant before recharge will be reinforced


by the recordkeeping provisions discussed in section II.H. which 

require invoices to be used as proof that the refrigerant was 

either recycled or reclaimed.

   Finally, EPA examined the need to consider future requirements 

for recycling of substitute refrigerants in MACs. Several
automobile 

manufacturers have announced that HFC-134a is the designated 

replacement for MACs in new cars beginning as early as 1992 

for some models. This substitute must also be recycled under 

the Act, effective November 15, 1995. Research is also currently 

being performed to determine the appropriate refrigerant that 

could be used in retrofitting existing CFC-12 MACs. Some potential 

options include HFC-134a and HCFC blends. Under the Act, if 

the HCFC blends are used as a refrigerant in MACs, they must 

also be recycled as of January 1, 1992. Off-site recycling may 

be more attractive in the future if multiple refrigerants become 

widely used in motor vehicle air conditioners.

   Based on the criteria discussed above, EPA believes that 

Option 2 fulfills the intent of the Act while allowing flexibility 

for the regulated community. EPA is sensitive to the need to 

allow flexible compliance mechanisms in situations where the 

regulated community is very large; recover only machines may 

reduce overall emissions of CFCs because they promote increased 

compliance rates among small facilities. Although recycle machines 

may allow a small amount of refrigerant to be emitted to the 

environment as part of the purge of non-condensable gases, this 

amount is insignificant relative to the reduction in emissions 

that can be achieved through on-site recycle capability.

   EPA believes that option 2, allowing the use of recover only 

equipment in addition to recover/recycle equipment, is authorized 

under section 609 of the Act. Section 609 defines "approved 

refrigerant recycling equipment" as "equipment certified by 

the Administrator * * * to meet the standards established by 

the Administrator and applicable to equipment for the extraction 

and reclamation of (motor vehicle air conditioner) refrigerant 

* * *". These standards are to be as stringent as one set by 

the Society of Automotive Engineers, SAE J1990.

   The terms "extraction", "reclamation" and "recycle" are terms 

of art in the industry, and refer to the removal of refrigerant 

(extraction), processing of the refrigerant off-site to a near 

virgin condition of purity (reclamation), or processing of the 

refrigerant on-site to a condition acceptable for reuse as a 

refrigerant in the same vehicle, without the need to send it 

off-site for reclamation.{1} As previously discussed, EPA's 

ANPRM defined these terms.

      {1} Industry has adopted separate voluntary standards 

      for the purity of refrigerant, depending whether it is 

      sent off-site for reclamation (ARI 700-88) or is
recycled 

      on-site (SAE J1991).

   Seen against this background, the statutory definition does 

not provide a clear description of the types of equipment covered 

in its scope. First, the definition of "refrigerant recycling 

equipment" refers to equipment that "extracts and reclaims". 

The normal usage of recycle equipment in this context is equipment 

that cleans the refrigerant on-site, but does not reclaim it-

the latter term is reserved for refrigerant that is sent off-

site for distillation to a higher standard of purity. At the 

same time, section 609(b)(2) references SAE J1990, which states 

that its purpose is to "provide equipment specifications for 

* * * recycling and/or recovery, and recharging systems."

   The legislative history fails to resolve this ambiguity in 

the statute. However, it does appear clear from the structure 

of section 609 that Congress focused on activities conducted 

at the service establishment, whether recovery or recovery/recycle,


and was not legislating specification for off-site equipment 

used to reprocess refrigerant to near virgin purity.

   EPA therefore attempted to define "approved refrigerant
recycling 

equipment" with the view of maximizing environmental protection, 

while providing the affected industry the flexibility to meet 

the changing nature of refrigerants. For all the reasons discussed 

above, EPA believes the proposed definition best implements 

Congressional intent in this situation.

   Many establishments have already purchased certified recycle 

on-site equipment, and the Agency would like to encourage this 

activity to continue in advance of publication of the final 

rule.

   EPA requests comment on this proposal to establish two separate 

standards. Specifically, the Agency requests comments on the 

process for developing the recover only standard and the role 

of industry organizations such as SAE and the International 

Mobile Air Conditioning Association (IMACA), MVMA, MACS and 

any other representatives affected by this option.

2. Substantially Identical Equipment

   The Act states that equipment purchased before the proposal 

of regulations under this section shall be considered certified 

if it is "substantially identical" to approved equipment. EPA 

estimates that most of the equipment sold to date are
recover/recycle 

models that have been certified by U.L. to meet the SAE J
Standards. 

These U.L. certified models will be included as certified equipment


under the requirements of this regulation.

   Several manufacturers sold models of recover/recycle equipment 

before they had received U.L. certification. In situations where 

the model sold was the same model that has since received the 

U.L. certification, this equipment will be considered substantially


identical. In situations where the models sold are not the same 

as the model that received the certification (U.L. states that 

in many cases manufacturers had to make some changes in their 

equipment in order to pass the certification tests), EPA will 

consult with U.L. and any other approved independent standards 

testing organizations to evaluate the equipment. EPA will use 

U.L. test data and any additional information submitted by the 

manufacturer (process diagrams and lists of components) in the 

evaluation. EPA will maintain a list of equipment determined 

to be substantially identical. An essential criteria for evaluation


is that equipment cleans refrigerant to the SAE J1991 purity 

standard. The Agency is also interested in ensuring safety in 

operation of the equipment. U.L. has advised EPA that it believes 

many of the early, pre-U.L. certification models sold are not 

substantially identical to models that achieved certification. 

The total number of these machines sold is small compared to 

the number of certified machines. Initial contact has been made 

with several manufacturers and in some cases the possibility 

of retrofit kits to bring the pre-certification models up to 

the performance standard of certified models has been discussed. 

EPA would require that the retrofit kits also be approved by 

an approved independent standards testing organizations and 

owners of equipment must indicate in their certification to 

the Agency (section II.F.) that they have retrofitted equipment.

   EPA is aware of some cases in which equipment purchased before 

the proposal of regulations was produced by manufacturers that 

have not yet received a certification on any model or by
manufacturers 

that no longer make equipment. Once a manufacturer does certify 

his machine, EPA will consider earlier models in the manner 

described above. In situations where equipment was purchased 

without certification and no model by that manufacturer achieved 

certification, EPA will evaluate the equipment on a model-by-

model basis. Owners of the equipment, if they can not contact 

manufacturers to determine the status of equipment, must submit 

process flowsheets and lists of components and EPA reserves 

the right to inspect the equipment and request samples of
refrigerant 

if necessary. The address for submittal of information is: MACs 

Recycling Program Manager, Stratospheric Ozone Protection Branch 

(ANR-445), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M Street, 

Washington, DC 20460. Attention: Substantially Identical Equipment 

Review.

   EPA will maintain a very strict interpretation of the
substantially 

identical clause in order to protect the air-conditioning units 

and the integrity of the recycling program. As a result, EPA 

does not anticipate that many machines will qualify as
substantially 

identical through this evaluation procedure. EPA requests comment 

on its approach to the substantially identical clause and the 

feasibility of the approach for reviewing equipment.

C. Approved Independent Standards Testing Organizations

   The Act requires that equipment be certified by the
Administrator 

or an independent standards testing organization approved by 

the Administrator. The standards that the equipment must meet 

are discussed in section II.B. This section will describe EPA's 

proposed procedure for approval of testing organizations.

   As mentioned in the ANPRM, U.L. began an equipment testing 

program to respond to industry concern that recover/recycle 

machines perform to the specifications of the SAE J Standards. 

With industry and EPA input, U.L. designed an equipment
certification 

program (U.L. 1963) for recover/recycle equipment and began 

testing in October, 1989.

   EPA commends U.L. for its activities and encourages other 

independent laboratories or testing organizations to offer
equipment 

certification programs. The Electrical Testing Laboratory (ETL) 

has indicated that it may develop a testing program. Any
organizations 

interested in becoming approved must apply to the Agency and 

demonstrate that they are capable of performing the testing. 

The Agency reserves the right to inspect the facility.

   EPA will require that testing organizations demonstrate their 

ability to test recover/recycle equipment for removal of moisture 

and non-condensable gas and for separation of oil to determine 

if equipment meets the SAE J Standards. The maximum level of 

refrigerant moisture content by weight is 15 parts per million 

(ppm) at 70 F under guidelines established by SAE J1991 and 

the standard equipment used for calculating this is the Karl 

Fischer Coulometer. The J1991 standard states that 4000 ppm 

is the maximum level of oil allowed in a recycled sample of 

refrigerant and this is measured with a preweighted graduated 

Goetz phosphorous tube. The procedure requires a minimum
temperature 

of 90 F above the boiling point of the refrigerant be
maintained 

until 85% of the sample is boiled off from the Goetz tube. The 

tube is then placed in a refrigerated brine bath at 50 F
above 

the boiling point of the refrigerant for 30 minutes. The tube 

is reweighed at room temperature and the percentage oil is then 

determined. 

   The amount of non-condensable gas released must be measured 

as part of any equipment certification program. For non-condensable


gas, the SAE J-1991 specifies that 330 ppm by weight is the 

maximum allowable amount. Gas chromatography is used to analyze 

for the level of non-condensable gas. 

   The Agency expects to propose the establishment of a standard 

for recover only equipment in section II.B. Approved testing 

laboratories will be expected to develop equipment testing
procedures 

for the certification of this type of equipment also. 

   EPA requests comment on this proposed method of approving 

independent standards testing organizations. Also, any organization


interested in developing a program is encouraged to contact 

the Agency. 

D. Technician Training and Certification

   The Act directs the Administrator to establish standards 

for training and certification in the proper use of approved 

refrigerant recycling equipment during the performance of service 

on motor vehicle air conditioners. These standards must be at 

least as stringent as SAE J1989 under the certification program 

of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence 

(ASE) or the Mobile Air Conditioning Society (MACS). The MACS 

"Refrigerant Recycling & Service Procedures Certification
Program" 

was developed to specifically address technician certification 

in refrigerant recycling. ASE offers voluntary certification 

of technicians in several aspects of automotive service. Although 

ASE administers a test on automotive heating and air conditioning, 

at the time the Act was passed, the test did not contain specific 

questions on recycling of refrigerant. 

   The two technician certification programs mentioned in the 

Act have a few similarities and some key differences. For example, 

MACS provides a booklet for self-training, whereas ASE stresses 

hands-on, on-the-job training. MACS's test is an open-book, 

non-proctored exam for a fee of $20 for one technician and $15 

per additional technician at the same establishment. The technician


mails the completed test to an independent organization for 

grading. The ASE test is a closed-book, proctored exam,
administered 

twice a year for a fee of $35 per technician. Finally, MACS 

certification is permanent, whereas recertification every five 

years for a fee of $20 is necessary with ASE.

   In designing the standards, the Agency reviewed the programs 

mentioned in the Act and met with representatives from industry, 

environmental groups, and equipment manufacturers to assure 

that all necessary aspects of use of the approved equipment 

are covered while preserving the flexibility of a variety of 

testing mechanisms. 

1. Training

   Each program must provide adequate training, one or more 

of the following components: on-the-job training, training through 

self-study of instructional material, or on-site training involving


instructors, videos or a hands-on demonstration. EPA believes 

this wide range of training opportunities offers sufficient 

means for technicians to learn how to use recycling equipment 

and to understand the importance of refrigerant containment.

2. Test Subject Material

   The certification tests must adequately address the relevant 

SAE J standards established for the service and repair of mobile 

air conditioners (J1989, J1990, and J1991). These standards 

cover the recommended service procedures for the containment 

of R-12, extraction and recycle equipment, and the standard 

of purity for refrigerant in MACs. The tests should also anticipate


future technological developments, such as the introduction 

of HFC-134a in new MACs and the potential need to use blends 

as a substitute if CFC-12 is in short supply, that will become 

necessary based on the phase-out of ozone depleting substances. 

It will be imperative that technicians be able to identify the 

different systems and keep the chemicals separate during servicing 

and recycling. 

   EPA believes it is necessary for service technicians to
understand 

why recovering refrigerant is important from an environmental 

perspective. The experience in the Australian motor vehicle 

air-conditioning program reveals anecdotal evidence that increased 

compliance was achieved when technicianss understood that their 

activities regarding refrigerant had an impact on their environment


and the environment of their children. Therefore, EPA proposes 

that certification programs contain material covering the
environmental 

consequences of refrigerant release and the adverse effects 

of stratospheric ozone layer depletion. 

   The general regulatory requirements imposed by EPA under 

section 609 of the Act must also be included in the program 

to assure that technicians are familiar with the legal requirements


regarding service.

3. Test Administration

   The standards for certification programs do not contain a 

minimum number of questions for each test. EPA evaluated the 

option of a minimum number of questions and also considered 

the need to establish an approved list of questions for use 

in all certification programs. A list of questions assures
consistency 

across all certification programs, however, EPA anticipates 

difficulty maintaining test integrity if the same set of questions 

are used repeatedly. As for a minimum number of questions, when 

EPA reviews certification programs, one criteria for approval 

is that the tests cover the subject material in sufficient depth 

and detail. The number of questions on each test may vary by 

the testing scheme employed, for example a proctored, closed-

book test may be fewer questions than an open-book test, but 

both tests assess the technicians knowledge accurately. EPA 

will consider the number of questions on the test and the number 

of questions that must be answered correctly in order to pass 

the test when evaluating programs as a whole. EPA's goals in 

evaluation will be to assess if each program meets the standards 

and to achieve parity among testing situations.

   EPA proposes standards for test administration to insure 

integrity of the tests. Completed tests must be sent to an
independent 

testing authority for grading. Sufficient measures must be taken 

at the test site to ensure that tests are completed honestly 

by each technician. For example, multiple versions of a test 

for a single test site might be appropriate. Each test must 

provide a means of verifying the identification of the individual 

taking the test. Examples of verification mechanisms include 

signatures and social security numbers. Programs should make 

provisions for non-English speaking technicians by providing 

tests in other languages or allowing the use of a translator 

when taking the test. If a translator is used, the certificate 

received must indicate that translator assistance was required. 

EPA is requesting comment on proposed test administration
procedures.

   EPA is proposing to allow open-book tests taken without the 

supervision of a proctor to be used in motor vehicle
air-conditioning 

certification programs, where appropriate. An example of this 

type of program is the Mobile Air-Conditioning Society
certification 

program and is referred to in the Act. When considering this 

option, EPA evaluated the validity of this type of testing
considering 

the material the tests must cover, the number of technicians 

that must be certified, and the need to provide flexibility 

for the regulated community. Programs that propose this method 

must meet the standards to insure test validity and must
necessarily 

include difficult questions on the tests and require a high 

number of correct answers for passing in order to maintain parity 

with proctored, closed-book tests such as the program of ASE 

mentioned in the Act. The Agency believes that open-book testing, 

if structured properly, will result in technicians having the 

necessary knowledge to successfully perform refrigerant recovery 

and recycling during service.

   It is important to note that EPA approved certification programs


are not intended to assure expertise in motor vehicle
air-conditioning 

repair. The program covers recycling of refrigerant during motor 

vehicle air-conditioning repair, a subset of the knowledge needed 

to perform effective service. Open-book testing can be a valid 

method of testing this subset of knowledge, however, EPA also 

supports the development of programs, such as ASE, that test 

technicians' mastery of the service procedures and include
refrigerant 

recycling within a larger pre-existing framework. Both types 

of testing are valid, as are programs that may be developed 

by other trade associations, vocational schools, or other groups, 

if they meet the standards proposed today. EPA requests comment 

on EPA's proposed certifying procedures and the validity of 

open-book, unproctored testing for motor vehicle air-conditioning 

technicians. 

4. Technical Revisions

   Directors of certification programs must conduct periodic 

reviews of test subject material and update the material based 

upon the latest technological developments in MAC service and 

repair. EPA proposes this standard to assure that tests reflect 

the expected developments in MACs as CFCs are phased out of 

production. EPA proposes to require a written summary of the 

review and any changes be submitted to the Agency every two 

years.

5. Recertification 

   At present, EPA does not intend to require periodic
recertification 

of technicians because the test subject material should cover 

likely future technological developments. However, based on 

the technical revisions described above and developments in 

the MAC service and repair sector, the Agency may consider the 

need to specify the need for technician recertification at some 

future date if necessary. The Agency requests comment on the 

need to recertify. 

6. Proof of Certification 

   Finally, each certification program must offer individual 

proof of certification, such as a certificate, wallet-sized 

card, or display card, upon successful completion of the test. 

The proof of certification is essential for the purchase of 

small containers of Class I or Class II substances, as described 

in section II.E. below. The proof of certification will also 

assist in monitoring compliance. EPA proposes that each
certification 

program provide a unique number for each certified technician 

to assist in recordkeeping and enforcement procedures. 

   EPA proposes to evaluate programs as a whole to assure each 

one meets the standards and to achieve parity among all approved 

programs. EPA reserves the right to consider other factors it 

deems relevant to ensure the effectiveness of certification 

programs. The Agency is aware that some certification programs 

are already actively certifying technicians in anticipation 

of receiving EPA approval. The Agency would like to encourage 

continuance of these activities and will make every effort to 

"grandfather in" technicians certified under these programs. 

The Agency may not issue formal approval of programs until the 

rulemaking process is complete. Some programs may need to make 

changes based on the public comments received on the standards 

proposed today. In the event such changes are made, the Agency 

would encourage programs to develop methods to bring technicians 

certified before promulgation of regulations into compliance. 

   The Agency invites public comment on the approach and the 

specific standards proposed here today. 

E. Small Container Restrictions 

   The Act states that effective November 15, 1992, it is unlawful 

for any person to sell or distribute, or offer for sale or
distribution, 

any class I or class II substance suitable for use as a refrigerant


in motor vehicle air-conditioning systems in a container of 

less than 20 pounds except to certified technicians servicing 

motor vehicle air-conditioners for consideration. 

   One option for the implementation of this provision is a 

strict interpretation of the Act to allow retail sales of small 

containers of refrigerant to be sold only to certified technicians.


This would require that technician certification be checked 

by the seller upon purchase of small containers, and would require 

that distributors or wholesalers become certified technicians 

if they wish to continue to purchase small containers. 

   A second option distinguishes between purchasing refrigerant 

in small containers for use and purchasing refrigerant in small 

containers for the purpose of resale only. 

   There are several approaches for compliance and enforcement 

for retail sales. One approach for compliance enforcement is 

to require retailers to check technician certification upon 

sale, and for EPA to conduct periodic spot checks. Another
approach, 

which EPA recommends, is to require retailers to check technician 

certification and keep a record of name, certification number 

and place of employment. This approach would also require EPA 

to conduct periodic spot checks. A third approach could be on-

site verification of technician certification at the time of 

purchase, a system similar to the verification of credit card 

numbers upon use. 

   For wholesale or sale for purposes of distribution, technician 

certification would not be required. One option is to require 

sellers to inform producers that the small containers can be 

used for resale only. EPA recommends a second option that, the 

sellers must obtain a signed statement from the purchaser stating 

that the small containers are intended for resale only. This 

requirement is intended to ensure that purchasers performing 

service for consideration in conformance with the requirements 

of the Act and that purchasers buying only for distribution 

understand that the containers must only be used by certified 

technicians. EPA requests comment on these two compliance options 

for sales to distributors. 

   In addition, EPA proposes requiring outlets selling small 

containers to display a sign stating that it is unlawful for 

an individual to purchase small containers if they are not a 

certified technician performing service for consideration. 

   EPA proposes that option 2 fulfills Congressional intent 

to maintain the availability of small container for certified 

technicians while prohibiting their use by "do-it-yourselfers". 

The provision complements other requirements of the section 

that serve to eliminate do-it-yourself MAC service because of 

the likelihood that this type of service results in venting 

of refrigerant. Under the proposed regulations, all individuals 

who purchase small containers for service will need to become 

certified and distributors will have to sign statements that 

alert them to the requirement that small containers may only 

be used by certified technicians. The requirement to record 

technician certification number will assist EPA in tracking 

the use of small containers. The Agency requests comment on 

the proposed recordkeeping requirements and alternative methods 

of compliance enforcement. 

   The Agency may revisit this issue in future regulations
developed 

under section 608 of the Act to set the lowest achievable emission 

levels. The Agency will examine the residual amount of CFC-12 

that remains in the small container after use to determine if 

this represents an unacceptable emission to the environment. 

The Agency requests comment on the need to investigate this 

issue and on the approach proposed today to implement the small 

can restrictions of the Act. 

F. Equipment Certification and Small Entity Certification 



1. Certification Dates 

   The Act requires that effective two years from enactment 

(November 15, 1992) persons performing service must certify 

to the Administrator that they have acquired and are properly 

using approved equipment, unless they are performing service 

at an entity that has serviced fewer than 100 motor vehicles 

in 1990. These small entities must submit a statement declaring 

that they performed under 100 motor vehicle air-conditioning 

service jobs in 1990 to the Administrator by January 1, 1992. 

Persons at these small entities must purchase equipment and 

certify to the Administrator by January 1, 1993. In order to 

simplify the equipment certification process, EPA proposes to 

set the equipment certification date for all persons performing 

service as January 1, 1993. EPA would like to clarify that persons 

performing service must obtain and properly use approved
refrigerant 

recycling equipment by January 1, 1992, unless they are small 

entities. These small entities have an additional year to obtain 

equipment and all entities must certify that they have equipment 

on or before January 1, 1993. 

   EPA would like to encourage service entities to certify that 

they own equipment before January 1, 1993. The data elements 

required for certification are described below. The Agency
envisions 

a process whereby owners fill out a form, which the Act mentions 

may be provided by the manufacturers of equipment, and mail 

it to EPA when they are mailing in the warranty card for the 

equipment to the manufacturer. Many of the manufacturers of 

approved equipment have already volunteered to provide a form 

with equipment, and EPA encourages all approved equipment
manufacturers 

to include a form to facilitate certification.

2. Example Form

   The Act requires that persons certify to the Administrator 

that they have acquired and are properly using approved equipment. 

The certification must include the serial number of each unit 

of equipment acquired, the name and address of the owner of 

the equipment, the manufacturer, model number, date of
manufacturer, 

and a signed statement that each individual authorized to perform 

service using the equipment is properly trained and certified. 

The Act mentions that the certifications may be made using a 

standard form provided by the manufacturers of equipment. An 

example of the type of form that manufacturers may want to develop 

is provided as Example A in this proposed rule. If a manufacturer 

does not provide a form, the owner of equipment must still provide 

certification to the Administrator containing all the elements 

mentioned above.

   The Act states that service establishments performing under 

100 MAC related jobs during calendar year 1990 have an additional 

year to purchase equipment. Establishments may only qualify 

for this one year delay if they certify to the Administrator 

that they have performed service on fewer than 100 MACs in 1990. 

An example of the form this certification may take is provided 

in the form in Example A. It is not required that a small entity 

use this form; the form is intended as guidance.

   All certifications, both equipment and small entity, should 

be sent to the following address: MACs Recycling Program Manager, 

Stratospheric Ozone Protection Branch (ANR-445), U.S. Environmental


Protection Agency, 401 M St. SW, Washington, DC 20460.

   The Agency requests comment on the certification method and 

the example format provided.

G. Relationship to State Regulations

   The Act does not contain authority for Federal preemption 

of state regulations. The regulations proposed today represent 

the Federal motor vehicle air conditioning recycling program 

and states may establish programs more stringent in their
requirements 

if they wish. In states without programs or with programs with 

less stringent requirements, the Federal program takes precedence.

   EPA is aware that some states already have effective programs 

e.g. Florida and Oregon. Like the Federal program proposed today, 

Florida requires that service establishments register their 

equipment with the state. While state programs are not preempted, 

compliance with state programs does not in and of itself constitute


compliance with the Federal program. EPA invites comment on 

any issues related to the relationship between Federal and state 

programs.

H. Recordkeeping Requirements

   EPA has presented a number of options and proposed the
following:

   1. Certification Programs

   As discussed in section III.D.6, certification programs must 

maintain records of the unique number assigned to each technician 

certified through their program.

   2. Small Container Sales Outlets

   As discussed in section III.E, sellers of small containers 

of refrigerant must record technician certification numbers 

of all purchasers who intend to use the cans for service. For 

wholesale or purposes of distribution, the sellers must record 

a signed statement from the purchaser stating that the small 

containers are intended for resale only.

   3. Technicians

   As stated in section 609 of the Act, each person performing 

service on motor vehicle air conditioners for consideration 

must be properly trained and certified. A copy of the certification


of each employee must be maintained at the service establishment 

for inspection. This will enable an inspector to efficiently 

check the certification of technicians employed at an
establishment.

   4. Owners of Approved Equipment

   Service establishments must certify to the Administrator 

that they have acquired and are properly using approved equipment. 

This certification must include the name of the owner of the 

equipment, the name, and address of the establishment where 

the equipment is located, the equipment manufacturer, the model 

number, the serial number, and the date of manufacture. The 

certification must be signed by the owner of the equipment or 

another responsible officer. A new certification must be filed 

if the owner of the approved equipment changes.

5. Motor Vehicle Air-Conditioning Servicing

   In designing the recordkeeping requirements for motor vehicle 

air conditioning service, EPA has considered several options. 

One option to monitor compliance is to have EPA inspectors conduct 

spot checks of service establishments to determine if requirements 

are being satisfied. Under this approach, these service
establishments 

would not be required to keep records of motor vehicle
air-conditioning 

servicing. EPA is proposing an option which is built on the 

current invoicing procedures at service establishments with 

follow-up instructions. EPA proposes that invoices indicate 

that service involving refrigerant was performed, the date, 

the name, address, and telephone number of the vehicle owner, 

and the make, model, odometer reading and license plate number 

of the vehicle serviced. In most cases, invoices already contain 

this information and thus recordkeeping should not be burdensome. 

These records are necessary for compliance verifications and, 

if violations are found, to provide evidence for successful 

prosecution.

   If the service establishment acquires recover only equipment, 

the refrigerant must be reclaimed off-site if no other on-site 

recycling capacity exists. To ensure that the refrigerant is 

reclaimed at an off-site reclamation facility and not vented 

to the atmosphere, the service establishment must maintain records 

of the amount of refrigerant reclaimed off-site, the name and 

address of the reclamation facility, and the date of the
transaction.

   Under the EPA proposal service establishments must also maintain


a record of the amount of refrigerant purchased and consumed 

each month. This requirement will enable EPA to monitor the 

amount of refrigerant reclaimed off-site and compare it to the 

quantity purchased and the number of vehicles serviced.

   All facilities servicing motor vehicle air conditioning must 

allow an authorized representative entry on to the premises 

to inspect for compliance with these regulations.

   EPA requests comment on these recordkeeping requirements 

and possible alternatives.

IV. Summary of Supporting Analyses



A. Regulatory Impact Analysis

   Executive Order No. 12291 requires the preparation of a
regulatory 

impact analysis for major rules, defined by the order as those 

likely to result in:

   (1) An annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more;

   (2) A major increase in costs or prices for consumers,
individual 

industries, Federal, state or local government agencies, or 

geographic industries; or

   (3) Significant adverse effects on competition, employment, 

investment, productivity, innovation, or on the ability of the 

United States-based enterprises to compete with foreign-based 

enterprises in domestic or export markets.

   The Agency has determined that this proposed regulation does 

not meet the definition of a major rule under E.O. 12291. However, 

the Agency has prepared an analysis to assess the impact of 

the regulation (see Costs and Benefits of MACs Recycling, May 

24, 1991) which is available for review in the public docket 

for this rulemaking.

   The Clean Air Act requires the EPA to promulgate regulations 

to phase out the production of ozone depleting substances by 

the year 2000 (2002 for methyl chloroform). EPA prepared a
Regulatory 

Impact Analysis (RIA) under the requirements of E.O. 12291 to 

analyze the costs and benefits of the phaseout (see Regulatory 

Impact Analysis: Compliance with the Clean Air Act Provisions 

for the Protection of Stratospheric Ozone, December 21, 1990). 

A key result of this analysis is that with the imposition of 

the phase out of production coupled with an excise tax of CFCs 

(see Omnibus Trade Reconciliation Act, 1989), CFC-12 recycling 

would be fully implemented by service establishments by the 

year 1992 even without a specific regulatory requirement to 

do so. As a result, the overwhelming majority of costs of this 

regulation on CFR-12 recycling at service of motor vehicle air 

conditioners (e.g. capital cost of recycling equipment and annual 

operating costs) have already been attributed to the CFR phaseout 

and have been included in the Phaseout RIA. The Phaseout RIA 

does not, however, include the costs of MACs service technician 

certification as required under the Act. The total cost of this 

requirement is determined to be approximately $14.9 million, 

well under the $100 million cost threshold for a major rule. 

The Costs and Benefits of MAC Recycling provides some general 

costs and benefits that could be attributed to MAC recycling, 

however, these costs are not incremental to the costs of the 

phaseout.

B. Regulatory Flexibility Analysis



1. Purpose

   The Regulatory Flexibility Act, 5 U.S.C. 601-612, requires 

that Federal agencies examine the impacts of their regulations 

on small entities. Under 5 U.S.C. 604(a), whenever an agency 

is required to publish a general notice of proposed rulemaking, 

it must prepare and make available for public comment an initial 

regulatory flexibility analysis (RFA). Such an analysis is not 

required if the head of an agency certifies that a rule will 

not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number 

of small entities, pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 605(b).

   The Agency has performed an initial regulatory flexibility 

analysis and determined that while this regulation affects a 

substantial number of small businesses, it does not impact a 

substantial number significantly. The analysis is found in appendix


A in the Costs and Benefits of MAC Recycling and is available 

for review in the docket. The methodology and results of the 

analysis are presented below.

2. Methodology and Results

   To examine the impacts on small businesses, EPA first
characterized 


the regulated community by identifying the SIC codes that would 

be involved in the servicing and repair of motor vehicle air 

conditioners. After determining the number of these entities 

that are classified as small by the Small Business Act (SBA), 

the Agency performed impact tests using sales, profits and cash 

flow measures. The analysis included least expensive and most 

expensive private cost scenarios for compliance that were developed


for The Costs and Benefits of MAC Recycling. The least expensive 

cost scenario assumed recover only equipment is purchased at 

a price of $1000 while the more expensive option assumes $3000 

recycle equipment is acquired. The analysis also takes the cost 

of filter changes, sending refrigerant out for reclamation, 

labor, and cost savings from using recycled refrigerant into 

account.

   The analysis indicates that the number of small establishments 

impacted by the regulation ranges from 18 percent if the least 

expensive compliance option, purchasing equipment that recovers 

refrigerant for off-site reclamation, is chosen to 32 percent 

if the most expensive compliance option is chosen. The Agency 

believes that most small establishments will choose the least 

cost option. This analysis did not reflect the fact that over 

50,000 machines have already been sold based on the voluntary 

program developed by industry. The establishments that have 

purchased these machines will only have the incremental regulatory 

burden of technician certification. In addition, Congress has 

already established some flexibility for small establishments, 

defined as those entities that performed under 100 motor vehicle 

service jobs in 1990, by providing a one year extension on the 

requirement to purchase equipment.

   The Agency believes that the one year extension, the fact 

that some entities have already purchased equipment, and the 

existence of the least cost option of purchasing recover only 

equipment will result in less than 18 percent of small
establishments 

being significantly impacted by this regulation. The Agency 

frequently defines a "significant number" of small entities 

as approximately 20 percent or more of small establishments. 

As a result, the Agency certifies that this regulation will 

not have an impact on a significant number of small entities, 

pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 605(b).

C. Paperwork Reduction Act

   The information collection requirements in the proposed rule 

will be submitted for approval to the Office of Management and 

Budget (OMB) under the Paperwork Reduction Act, 44 U.S.C. 3501 

et seq. An Informational Collection Request document has been 

prepared by EPA (ICR No. 1432.07) and a copy may be obtained 

by writing to the Information Policy Branch (PM-223), U.S. EPA, 

401 M Street SW, Washington, DC 20460 or by calling (202) 382-

2709. 

   Send comments on the information collection requirements 

to Chief, Information Policy Branch, PM-223, U.S. EPA, 401 M 

Street, SW., Washington, DC 20460 and to the Office of Information 

and Regulatory Affairs, Paperwork Reduction Project (2060-0170), 

Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC 20503, marked 

"Attention: Desk Officer for EPA." The final rule will respond 

to any OMB or public comments on the information collection 

requirements contained in this proposal.

List of Subjects for 40 CFR Part 82

   Chlorofluorocarbons, Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Motor 

vehicle air conditioning, Recordkeeping, reporting and
certification 

requirements, Stratospheric ozone layer.

   Dated: August 21, 1991.

F. Henry Habicht,

Acting Administrator.

   For the reasons set out in the Preamble, EPA proposes to 

amend 40 CFR part 82 as follows:

PART 82-PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE

   1. Authority: The authority citation for part 82 is revised 

to read as follows:

   Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7414, 7601.

   2. Part 82 is amended by adding subpart B to read as follows:

   Note: The existing sections in part 82 will be designated 

as subpart A in a document to be published at a later time.

Subpart B-Servicing of Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners

Sec.

82.30 Purpose and scope.

82.32 Definitions.

82.34 Prohibitions.

82.36 Approved refrigerant recycling equipment.

82.38 Approved independent standards testing organizations.

82.40 Technician training and certification.

82.42 Certification and recordkeeping requirements.

Appendix A to Subpart B-Standard for Recycle/Recover Equipment

Appendix B to Subpart B-Standard for Recover Equipment [Reserved]

Subpart B-Servicing of Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners

.82.30   Purpose and scope.

   (a) The purpose of these regulations is to implement section 

609 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on the servicing 

of motor vehicle air conditioners.

   (b) This rule applies to any person performing service on 

motor vehicles for consideration when this service involves 

the refrigerant in the motor vehicle air conditioner.

.82.32   Definitions.

   (a) Approved Independent Standards Testing Organization means 

any organization which has applied for and received approval 

from the Administrator pursuant to .82.38.

   (b) Approved Refrigerant Recycling Equipment means equipment 

certified to meet either one of the standards in .82.36. Such 

equipment extracts and recycles refrigerant or extracts refrigerant


for recycling on-site or reclamation off-site.

   (c) Motor vehicle means any vehicle which is self-propelled 

and designed for transporting persons or property, including 

but not limited to passenger cars, light duty vehicles, heavy 

duty vehicles, farm vehicles, and construction equipment. 

   (d) Motor vehicle air conditioners means mechanical vapor 

compression refrigeration equipment used to cool the driver's 

or passenger's compartment of any motor vehicle. This definition 

is not intended to encompass the hermetically sealed refrigeration 

systems used on motor vehicles for refrigerated cargo.

   (e) Properly using means using equipment in conformity with 

the SAE J Standard 1989 entitled Recommended Service Procedure 

for the Containment of R-12 (CFC-12) in effect as of November 

15, 1990. In addition, this includes operating the equipment 

in accordance with the manufacturer's guide to operation and 

maintenance and using the equipment only for the controlled 

substance for which the machine is designed. For recover/recycle 

equipment, properly using means in part to recycle refrigerant 

before it is returned to a motor vehicle air conditioner. For 

equipment that only recovers refrigerant, properly using includes 

a requirement to recycle the refrigerant on-site or send the 

refrigerant off-site for reclamation. Refrigerant from reclaim 

facilities that is used for the purpose of recharging motor 

vehicle air conditioners must be at or above the standard of 

purity developed by the Air-conditioning and Refrigeration
Institute 

(ARI 700-88) in effect as of November 15, 1990. In any event, 

approved equipment must be used to extract refrigerant prior 

to performing any service during which discharge of refrigerant 

from the motor vehicle air conditioner can reasonably be expected. 

Intentionally venting or disposing of refrigerant to the atmosphere


is an improper use of equipment.

   (f) Refrigerant means any class I or class II substance used 

in a motor vehicle air conditioner. Class I and class II substances


are listed in part 82, subpart A, appendix A.

   (g) Service for consideration means being paid to perform 

service, whether it is in cash, credit, goods, or services. 

This includes all service except that done for free.

   (h) Service involving refrigerant means any service during 

which discharge or release of refrigerant from the motor vehicle 

air conditioner to the atmosphere can reasonably be expected 

to occur.

.82.34   Prohibitions.

   (a) Effective January 1, 1992, no person repairing or servicing 

motor vehicles for consideration may perform any service on 

a motor vehicle air conditioner involving the refrigerant for 

such air conditioner

   (1) Without properly using equipment approved pursuant to 

.82.36 and

   (2) Unless such person has been properly trained and certified 

under .82.40.

   The requirements of this paragraph do not apply until January 

1, 1993 for small entities who certify to the Administrator 

under .82.42(a)(2).

   (b) Effective November 15, 1992, no person may sell or
distribute, 

or offer for sale or distribution, any class I or class II
substance 

that is suitable for use as a refrigerant in a motor vehicle 

air-conditioner and that is in a container which contains less 

than 20 pounds of such refrigerant to any person unless that 

person is properly trained and certified under .82.40 or certifies 

to the seller under .82.42(b)(5) that the cans are intended 

for resale only.

   (c) No technician training programs may issue certificates 

unless the program complies with all of the standards in .82.40(a).

.82.36  Approved refrigerant recycling equipment.

   (a) Equipment must be certified by an independent standards 

testing organization approved by the Administrator under .82.38 

to meet either one of the following standards:

   (1) Equipment that recovers and recycles refrigerant must 

meet the standards published as appendix A to this subpart
(Recommended 

Service Procedure for the Containment of R-12, Extraction and 

Recycle Equipment for Mobile Automotive Air-Conditioning Systems, 

and Standard of Purity for Use in Mobile Air Conditioning Systems).

   (2) Equipment that recovers refrigerant only must meet the 

standards published in appendix B to this subpart (Reserved). 

   (b) Equipment purchased before the proposal of regulations 

will be considered approved if the Administrator determines 

that the equipment is substantially identical to equipment
certified 

under paragraph (a) of this section. Equipment manufacturers 

or owners may submit an application and supporting documents 

which indicate that the equipment is substantially identical 

to approved equipment to:

MACs Recycling Program Manager, Stratospheric Ozone Protection 

    Branch, (ANR-445), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 

    401 M Street, SW., Washington, DC 20460, Attn. Substantially 

    Identical Equipment Review.

   Supporting documents must include process flow sheets, lists 

of components and any other information which would indicate 

that the equipment is capable of cleaning the refrigerant to 

the standards in appendix A to this subpart. Authorized
representatives 

of the Administrator may inspect equipment and request samples 

of refrigerant. Equipment which fails to meet appropriate standards


will not be considered approved.

   (c) The Administrator will maintain a list of approved equipment


by manufacturer and model. Persons interested in obtaining a 

copy of the list should send written inquiries to the address 

in paragraph (b) of this section.

.82.38  Approved independent standards testing organizations.

   (a) Any independent standards testing organization may apply 

for approval by the Administrator to certify equipment pursuant 

to the standards in appendix A and B [Reserved] to this subpart. 

The application shall be sent to:

MACs Recycling Program Manager, Stratospheric Ozone Protection 

    Branch, (ANR-445), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 

    401 M Street, SW., Washington, DC 20460.

   (b) Applications for approval must include written information 

verifying the following:

   (1) The list of equipment present at the organization that 

will be used for equipment testing.

   (2) Expertise in equipment testing and the technical experience 

of the organization's personnel. 

   (3) Thorough knowledge of the standards as they appear in 

appendix A and appendix B [reserved] of this subpart.

   (4) The organization must have no conflict of interest and 

receive no financial benefit from the outcome of certification 

testing.

   (5) The organization must agree to allow the Administrator 

access to verify application material.

   (c) If approval is denied under this section, the Administrator 

shall give written notice to the organization setting forth 

the basis for his determination.

   (d) If at any time an approved independent standards testing 

organization violates any of the above requirements, the
Administrator 

reserves the right to revoke approval.

.82.40  Technician training and certification.

   (a) Any technician training and certification program may 

be approved, in accordance with the provisions of this paragraph, 

by submitting to the Administrator at the address in .82.38 

(a) verification that the program meets all of the following 

standards:

   (1) Training. Each program must provide adequate training, 

including one or more of the following components: On-the-job 

training, training through self-study of instructional material, 

or on-site training involving instructors, videos or a hands-

on demonstration.

   (2) Test subject material. The certification tests must
adequately 

and sufficiently address the following:

   (i) Relevant standards established for the service and repair 

of motor vehicle air conditioners as included in the Appendix 

A and Appendix B (reserved) to this subpart. These standards 

cover the recommended service procedures for the containment 

of refrigerant, extraction and recycle equipment, and the standard 

of purity for refrigerant in motor vehicle air conditioners. 

   (ii) Anticipated future technological developments, such 

as the introduction of HFC-134a in new motor vehicle air
conditioners.

   (iii) The environmental consequences of refrigerant release 

and the adverse effects of stratospheric ozone layer depletion.

   (iv) The requirements imposed by the Administrator under 

section 609 of the Act.

   (3) Test Administration. Completed tests must be sent to 

an independent testing authority for grading. Sufficient measures 

must be taken at the test site to ensure that tests are completed 

honestly by each technician. Each test must provide a means 

of verifying the identification of the individual taking the 

test. Programs should make provisions for non-English speaking 

technicians by providing tests in other languages or allowing 

the use of a translator when taking the test. If a translator 

is used, the certificate received must indicate that translator 

assistance was required.

   (4) Technical revisions. Directors of certification programs 

must conduct periodic reviews of test subject material and update 

the material based upon the latest technological developments 

in motor vehicle air conditioner service and repair. A written 

summary of the review and any changes made should be submitted 

to the Administrator every two years.

   (5) Recertification. The Administrator reserves the right 

to specify the need for technician recertification at some future 

date, if necessary. 

   (6) Proof of Certification. Each certification program must 

offer individual proof of certification, such as a certificate, 

wallet-sized card, or display card, upon successful completion 

of the test. Each certification program must provide a unique 

number for each certified technician.

   (7) The Administrator reserves the right to consider other 

factors deemed relevant to ensure the effectiveness of
certification 

programs.

   (b) If approval is denied under this section, the Administrator 

shall give written notice to the program setting forth the basis 

for his determination.

   (c) If at any time a program violates any of the above
requirements, 

the Administrator reserves the right to revoke approval.

   (d) Authorized representatives may require technicians to 

demonstrate on the business entity's premises their ability 

to perform proper procedures for recovering and/or recycling 

refrigerant. Failure to demonstrate or failure to properly use 

the equipment may result in revocation of the certificate.
Technicians 

would need to recertify before servicing any motor vehicle air 

conditioners.

.82.42  Certification and recordkeeping requirements.

   (a) Certification requirements. (1) No later than January 

1, 1993, all persons repairing or servicing motor vehicle air 

conditioners for consideration shall certify to the Administrator 

that such person has acquired, and is properly using, approved 

equipment and that each individual authorized to use the equipment 

is properly trained and certified. The data elements for
certification 

are as follows:

   (i) The name of the purchaser of the equipment,

   (ii) The address of the establishment where the equipment 

will be located,

   (iii) The manufacturer name and model number, and date of 

manufacture, and the serial number of the equipment, 

   (iv) The owner of the equipment or another responsible officer 

must sign the certification stating that the equipment will 

be properly used in servicing motor vehicle air conditioners, 

that each individual authorized by the purchaser to perform 

service is properly trained and certified in accordance with 

.82.40, and that the information given is true and correct. 

The certification should be sent to:

MACs Recycling Program Manager, Stratospheric Ozone Protection 

    Branch, (ANR-445), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 

    401 M Street, SW., Washington, DC 20460.

   (2) No later than January 1, 1992, persons repairing or
servicing 

motor vehicle air conditioners for consideration at an entity 

which performed service on fewer than 100 motor vehicle air 

conditioners in calendar year 1990 must so certify to the
Administrator 

unless they acquire and properly use approved refrigerant recycling


equipment under .82.36. Persons must retain adequate records 

to demonstrate that the number of vehicles serviced was fewer 

than 100.

   (3) Certificates of compliance are not transferable. In the 

event of a change of ownership of an entity which services motor 

vehicle air conditioners for consideration, the new owner of 

the entity shall certify within thirty days of the change of 

ownership pursuant to .82.44(1)(a).

   (b) Recordkeeping requirements. (1) All persons who own or 

operate approved refrigerant recycling equipment used to service 

motor vehicle air-conditioners for consideration must record 

on the invoice that service involving the refrigerant was
performed. 

Invoices must also include the name, address and phone number 

of the vehicle owners, and the year, make, model and license 

plate numbers of the vehicles serviced, date of service, and 

the odometer reading on the vehicles.

   (2) All persons who own approved refrigerant recycling equipment


certified under .82.36(a)(2) must maintain records of the amount 

of refrigerant that is recycled on-site or reclaimed off-site 

at a reclamation facility. The name and address of the reclamation 

facility and the date the refrigerant is sent or delivered to 

the reclamation facility must be recorded.

   (3) All persons who own approved refrigerant recycling equipment


used to service motor vehicle air-conditioners for consideration 

must keep a record of the amount of refrigerant purchased and 

consumed each month.

   (4) All persons who own approved refrigerant recycling equipment


must retain records demonstrating that all persons authorized 

to operate the equipment are currently certified under .82.40.

   (5) All persons who sell or distribute any class I or class 

II substance that is suitable for use as a refrigerant in a 

motor vehicle air conditioner and is in a container of less 

than 20 pounds must require purchasers to attest in writing 

that they are properly trained and certified under .82.40. This 

writing must include the name of the purchaser, the purchaser's 

technician certification number, the date of sale, and the number 

of cans purchased. The purchaser must retain invoices which 

indicate the quantity purchased. The only exception to this 

requirement is if the purchaser is purchasing the small containers 

for resale and in this case, the seller must receive a written 

statement from the purchaser that the cans are for resale only. 

Records must be retained for a period of three years.

   (6) All persons who conduct any retail sale class I or class 

II substance that is suitable for use as a refrigerant in a 

motor vehicle air conditioner and is in a container of less 

than 20 pounds must prominently display a sign which states: 

It is a violation of federal law to sell containers of Class 

I and Class II refrigerant of less than 20 pounds to anyone 

who is not properly trained and certified to operate approved 

refrigerant recycling equipment.

   (7) All records required to be maintained pursuant to this 

section must be kept for a minimum of three years unless otherwise 

indicated. Entities which service motor vehicle air conditioners 

for consideration must keep these records on-site.

   (8) All entities which service motor vehicle air conditioners 

for consideration must allow an authorized representative of 

the administrator entry onto their premises (upon presentation 

of his credentials) and give the authorized representative access 

to all records required to be maintained pursuant to this section.

Appendix A to Subpart B-Standard for Recover/Recycle Equipment



STANDARD OF PURITY FOR USE IN MOBILE AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS

SAE Standard, SAE J1991, Issued October 1989

   Foreword: Due to the CFC's damaging effect on the ozone layer, 

recycle of CFC-12 (R-12) used in mobile air-conditioning systems 

is required to reduce system venting during normal service
operations. 

Establishing recycle specifications for R-12 will assure that 

system operation with recycled R-12 will provide the same level 

of performance as new refrigerant.

   Extensive field testing with the EPA and the auto industry 

indicate that reuse of R-12 removed from mobile air-conditioning 

systems can be considered, if the refrigerant is cleaned to 

a specific standard. The purpose of this standard is to establish 

the specific minimum levels of R-12 purity required for recycled 

R-12 removed from mobile automotive air-conditioning systems.

1. Scope

   This information applies to refrigerant used to service
automobiles, 

light trucks, and other vehicles with similar CFC-12 systems. 

Systems used on mobile vehicles for refrigerated cargo that 

have hermetically sealed, rigid pipe are not covered in this 

document.

2. References

SAE J1989, Recommended Service Procedure for the Containment 

    of R-12

SAE J1990, Extraction and Recycle Equipment for Mobile Automotive 

    Air-Conditioning Systems

ARI Standard 700-88

3. Purity Specification

   The refrigerant in this document shall have been directly 

removed from, and intended to be returned to, a mobile
air-conditioning 

system. The contaminants in this recycled refrigerant 12 shall 

be limited to moisture, refrigerant oil, and noncondensable 

gases, which shall not exceed the following level:

   3.1 Moisture: 15 ppm by weight.

   3.2 Refrigerant Oil: 4000 ppm by weight.

   3.3 Noncondensable Gases (Air): 330 ppm by weight.

4. Refrigeration Recycle Equipment Used in Direct Mobile Air-

Conditioning Service Operations Requirement

   4.1 The equipment shall meet SAE J1990, which covers additional 

moisture, acid, and filter requirements.

   4.2 The equipment shall have a label indicating that it is 

certified to meet this document.

5. Purity Specification of Recycled R-12 Refrigerant Supplied 

in Containers From Other Recycle Sources

   Purity specification of recycled R-12 refrigerant supplied 

in containers from other recycle sources, for service of mobile 

air-conditioning systems, shall meet ARI Standard 700-88 (Air 

Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute).

6. Operation of the Recycle Equipment

   This shall be done in accordance with SAE J1989.

Rationale

   Not applicable. 

Relationship of SAE Standard to ISO Standard

   Not applicable. 

Reference Section

SAE J1989, Recommended Service Procedure for the Containment 

    of R-12

SAE J1990, Extraction and Recycle Equipment for Mobile Automotive 

    Air-Conditioning Systems 

ARI Standard 700-88

Application

   This information applies to refrigerant used to service
automobiles, 

light trucks, and other vehicles with similar CFC-12 systems. 

Systems used on mobile vehicles for refrigerated cargo that 

have hermetically sealed, rigid pipe are not covered in this 

document. 

Committee Composition

Developed by the SAE Defrost and Interior Climate Control Standards


Committee

W. J. Atkinson, Sun Test Engineering, Paradise Valley, AZ-Chairman 

J. J. Amin, Union Lake, MI

H. S. Andersson, Saab Scania, Sweden

P. E. Anglin, ITT Higbie Mfg. Co., Rochester, MI 

R. W. Bishop, GMC, Lockport, NY

D. Hawks, General Motors Corporation, Pontiac, MI

J. J. Hernandez, NAVISTAR, Ft. Wayne, IN

H. Kaltner, Volkswagen AG, Germany, Federal Republic 

D. F. Last, GMC, Troy, MI

D. E. Linn, Volkswagen of America, Warren, MI

J. H. McCorkel, Freightliner Corp., Charlotte, NC

C. J. McLachlan, Livonia, MI

H. L. Miner, Climate Control Inc., Decatur, IL 

R. J. Niemiec, General Motors Corp., Pontiac, MI

N. Novak, Chrysler Corp., Detroit, MI

S. Oulouhojian, Mobile Air Conditioning Society, Upper Darby, 

    PA

J. Phillips, Air International, Australia

R. H. Proctor, Murray Corp., Cockeysville, MD

G. Rolling, Behr America Inc., Ft. Worth, TX

C. D. Sweet, Signet Systems Inc., Harrodsburg, KY

J. P. Telesz, General Motors Corp., Lockport, NY

EXTRACTION AND RECYCLE EQUIPMENT FOR MOBILE AUTOMOTIVE
AIR-CONDITIONING 

SYSTEMS

SAE Recommended Practice, SAE J1990, Issued October 1989 

   Foreword: Due to the CFC's damaging effect on the ozone layer, 

recycle of CFC-12 (R-12) used in mobile air-conditioning systems 

is required to replace system venting during normal service 

operations. Establishing recycle specifications for R-12 will 

assure that system operation with recycled R-12 will provide 

the same level of performance as new refrigerant. 

   Extensive field testing with the EPA and the auto industry 

indicates that R-12 can be used, provided that it is cleaned 

to specifications in SAE J1991. The purpose of this document 

is to establish the specific minimum equipment specifications 

required for recycle of R-12 that has been directly removed 

from mobile systems for reuse in mobile automotive air-conditioning


systems. 

1. Scope 

   The purpose of this document is to provide equipment
specifications 

for CFC-12 (R-12) recycling and/or recovery, and recharging 

systems. This information applies to equipment used to service 

automobiles, light trucks, and other vehicles with similar CFC-

12 systems. Systems used on mobile vehicles for refrigerated 

cargo that have hermetically sealed systems are not covered 

in this document. 

2. References 

SAE J51, Automotive Air-Conditioning Hose

SAE J1991, Standard of Purity for Use in Mobile Air-Conditioning 

    Systems 

UL 1963 Section 40 Tests Service Hoses for Refrigerant-12
(Underwriters 

    Laboratories) 

Pressure Relief Device Standard Part 1-Cylinders for Compressed 

    Gases, LGA Pamphlet S-1.1

3. Specification and General Description

   3.1 The equipment must be able to extract and process R-12 

from mobile air-conditioning systems to purity levels specified 

in SAE J1991.

   3.2 The equipment shall be suitable for use in an automotive 

service garage environment as defined in 7.8.

   3.3 The equipment must be certified by Underwriters Laboratories


or an equivalent certifying laboratory.

4. Refrigeration Recycle Equipment Requirements

   4.1 Moisture and Acid: The equipment shall incorporate a 

desiccant package that must be replaced before saturated with 

moisture and whose acid capacity is at least 5% by weight of 

total system dry desiccant.

   4.1.1 The equipment shall be provided with a moisture detection 

means that will reliably indicate when moisture in the R-12 

exceeds the allowable level and requires the filter/dryer
replacement.

   4.2 Filter: The equipment shall incorporate an in-line filter 

that will trap particulates of 15 m spherical diameter or
greater.

   4.3 Noncondensable Gas:

   4.3.1 If the equipment has a self-contained recovery tank, 

a device is required to alert the operator that the noncondensable 

level has been exceeded.

   4.3.2 Transfer of Recycled Refrigerant: Recycled refrigerant 

for recharging and transfer shall be taken from the liquid phase 

only.

5. Safety Requirements

   5.1 The equipment must comply with applicable federal, state 

and local requirements on equipment related to the handling 

of R-12 material. Safety precautions or notices related to the 

safe operation of the equipment shall be prominently displayed 

on the equipment and should also state "Caution Should Be Operated 

By Qualified Personnel".

6. Operating Instructions

   6.1 The equipment manufacturer must provide operating
instructions, 

necessary maintenance procedures, and source information for 

replacement parts and repair.

   6.2 The equipment must prominently display the manufacturer's 

name, address and any items that require maintenance or replacement


that affect the proper operation of the equipment. Operation 

manuals must cover information for complete maintenance of the 

equipment to assure proper operation.

7. Functional Description

   7.1 The equipment must be capable of ensuring recovery of 

the R-12 from the system being serviced, by reducing the system 

to a vacuum.

   7.2 To prevent overcharge, the equipment must be equipped 

to protect the tank used to store the recycled refrigerant with 

a shutoff device and a mechanical pressure relief valve.

   7.3 Portable refillable tanks or containers used in conjunction 

with this equipment must meet applicable Department of
Transportation 

(DOT) or Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standards and be adaptable 

to existing refrigerant service and charging equipment.

   7.4 During the recovery and/or recycle, the equipment must 

provide overfill protection to assure that during filling or 

transfer, the tank or storage container cannot exceed 80% of 

volume at 70F (21.1C) of its maximum rating as defined
by 

DOT standards, CFR Title 49 Part/Section 173.304 and American 

Society of Mechanical Engineers.

   7.4.1 Additional Storage Tank Requirements:

   7.4.1.1 The cylinder valve shall comply with the standard 

for cylinder valves, UL 1769.

   7.4.1.2 The pressure relief device shall comply with the 

Pressure Relief Device Standard Part 1-Cylinders for Compressed 

Gases, CGA Pamphlet S-1.1.

   7.4.1.3 The tank assembly shall be marked to indicate the 

first retest date, which shall be 5 years after date of
manufacture. 

The marking shall indicate that retest must be performed every 

subsequent 5 years. The marking shall be in letters at least 

1/4 in high.

   7.5 All flexible hoses must meet SAE J51 or UL 1963 Section 

40.

   7.6 Service hoses must have shutoff devices located within 

12 in (30 cm) of the connection point to the system being serviced 

to minimize introduction of noncondensable gases into the recovery 

equipment and the release of the refrigerant when being
disconnected.

   7.7 The equipment must be able to separate the lubricant 

from recovered refrigerant and accurately indicate in 1 oz units 

(28 grams).

   7.8 The equipment must be capable of continuous operation 

in ambient of 50 to 120F (10 to 49C).

   7.9 The equipment must be compatible with leak detection 

material that may be present in the mobile AC system.

8. Testing

   This test procedure and the requirements are used for evaluation


of the equipment for its ability to clean the contaminated R-

12 refrigerant.

   8.1 The equipment shall clean the contaminated R-12 refrigerant 

to the minimum purity level as defined in SAE J1991, when tested 

in accordance with the following conditions:

   8.2 For test validation, the equipment is to be operated 

according to the manufacturer's instructions. 

   8.3 The equipment must be preconditioned with 30 lb (13.6 

kg) of the standard contaminated R-12 at an ambient of 70F 

(21C) before starting the test cycle. Sample amounts are not 

to exceed 2.5 lb (1.13 kg) with sample amounts to be repeated 

every 5 min. The sample method fixture, defined in Fig. 1, shall 

be operated at 75F (24C). 

   8.4 Contaminated R-12 Samples:

   8.4.1 Standard contaminated R-12 refrigerant shall consist 

of liquid R-12 with 100 ppm (by weight) moisture at 70F and 

45 000 ppm (by weight) mineral oil 525 suspension viscosity 

nominal and 770 ppm by weight of noncondensable gases (air). 

   8.4.2 aHigh moisture contaminated sample shall consist of 

R-12 vapor with 1000 ppm (by weight) moisture. 

   8.4.3 High oil contaminated sample shall consist of R-12 

with 200,000 ppm (by weight) mineral oil 525 suspension viscosity 

nominal.

   8.5 Test Cycle: 

   8.5.1 After preconditioning as stated in 8.3, the test cycle 

is started, processing the following contaminated samples through 

the equipment:

   8.5.1.1 30 lb (13.6 kg) of standard contaminated R-12. 

   8.5.1.2 2.2 lb (1 kg) of high oil contaminated R-12. 

   8.5.1.3 10 lb (4.5 kg) of standard contaminated R-12. 

   8.5.1.4 2.2 lb (1 kg) of high moisture contaminated R-12. 

   8.6 Equipment Operating Ambient:

   8.6.1 The R-12 is to be cleaned to the minimum purity level, 

as defined in SAE J1991, with the equipment operating in a stable 

ambient of 50, 70, and 120F (10, 21, and 49C) and
processing 

the samples as defined in 8.5.

   8.7 Sample Analysis: 

   8.7.1 The processed contaminated samples shall be analyzed 

according to the following procedure. 

   8.8 Quantitative Determination of Moisture: 

   8.8.1 The cleaned sample of R-12 is to be subjected to a 

quantitative determination of the moisture content by Karl Fischer 

titration. 

   8.8.2 The apparatus employed is a Karl Fischer coulometer, 

an automated instrument for precise determination of small amounts 

of water. The weighed sample of liquid R-12 is introduced directly 

into the analyte of the Karl Fischer coulometer. A coulometric 

titration by the instrument is conducted and the results are 

calculated and displayed as parts per million moisture weight. 

   8.9 Determination of Percent Oil:

   8.9.1 The amount of oil in the cleaned sample of R-12 is 

to be determined by gravimetric analysis. 

   8.9.2 A weighed 100 mL sample of the liquid R-12 is placed 

in a preweighed graduated Goetz phosphorous tube of 100 mL nominal 

capacity. The sample and containing tube are maintained in ambient 

air at a minimum temperature of 90F (32C) above the
expected 

boiling point of the refrigerant. When 85 mL of the sample has 

evaporated, the tube is then immersed in a refrigerated brine 

bath at a temperature of 50F (10C) above the boiling
point 

of the sample for 30 min. The residual sample, if any, is allowed 

to reach room temperature. The tube is reweighed and the percent 

of oil is calculated. 

   8.10 Noncondensable Gas:

   8.10.1 The sample is to be analyzed using gas chromatography 

to determine the noncondensable gas content. The cleaned
refrigerant 

is to be sampled in the liquid phase through a closed loop or 

by an airtight syringe into the injector. 

   8.11 Sample Requirements: 

   8.11.1 The sample shall be tested as defined in 8.7, 8.8, 

8.9, and 8.10 at ambient temperatures of 50, 70, and 120F
(10, 

21, and 49C) as defined in 8.6.1.

9. Date of Effectiveness

   This recommended practice will become a standard after one 

year. 





>>>>  See the accompanying hardcopy volume for
non-machine-readable

data that appears at this point. <<<<





Rationale 

   Not applicable. 

Relationship of SAE Standard to ISO Standard 

   Not applicable. 

Reference Section 

SAE J51, Automotive Air-Conditioning Hose 

SAE J1991, Standard of Purity for Use in Mobile Air-Conditioning 

    Systems 

UL 1963 Section 40 Tests Service Hoses for Refrigerant-12
(Underwriters 

    Laboratories) 

Pressure Relief Device Standard Part 1-Cylinders for Compressed 

    Gases, LGA Pamphlet S-1.1 

Application 

   The purpose of this document is to provide equipment
specifications 

for CFC-12 (R-12) recycling and/or recovery, and recharging 

systems. This information applies to equipment used to service 

automobiles, light trucks or other vehicles with similar CFC-

12 systems. Systems used on mobile vehicles for refrigerated 

cargo which have hermetically sealed systems are not covered 

in this document. 

Committee Composition 

Developed by the SAE Defrost and Interior Climate Control Standards


Committee 

W. J. Atkinson, Sun Test Engineering, Paradise Valley, AZ-Chairman 

J. J. Amin, Union Lake, MI 

H. S. Andersson, Saab Scania, Sweden 

P. E. Anglin, ITT Higbie Mfg. Co., Rochester, MI 

R. W. Bishop, GMC, Lockport, NY 

D. Hawks, General Motors Corporation, Pontiac, MI 

J. J. Hernandez,, NAVISTAR, Ft. Wayne, IN 

H. Kaltner, Volkswagen AG, Germany, Federal Republic 

D. F. Last, GMC, Troy, MI 

D. E. Linn, Volkswagen of America, Warren, MI 

J. H. McCorkel, Freightliner Corp., Charlotte, NC 

C. J. McLachlan, Livonia, MI 

H. L. Miner, Climate Control Inc., Decatur, IL 

R. J. Niemiec, General Motors Corp., Pontiac, MI 

N. Novak, Chrysler Corp., Detroit, MI 

S. Oulouhojian, Mobile Air Conditioning Society, Upper Darby, 

    PA 

J. Phillips, Air International, Australia 

R. H. Proctor, Murray Corp., Cockeysville, MD 

G. Rolling, Behr America Inc., Ft. Worth, TX 

C. D. Sweet, Signet Systems Inc., Harrodsburg, KY 

J. P. Telesz, General Motors Corp., Lockport, NY 

RECOMMENDED SERVICE PROCEDURE FOR THE CONTAINMENT OF R-12 

1. Scope 

   During service of mobile air-conditioning systems, containment 

of refrigerant is important. This procedure provides service 

guidelines for technicians when repairing vehicles and operating 

equipment defined in SAE J1990. 

2. References 

SAE J1990, Extraction and Recycle Equipment for Mobile Automotive 

    Air-Conditioning Systems 

3. Refrigerant Recovery Procedure 

   3.1 Connect the recovery unit service hoses, which shall 

have shutoff valves within 12 in (30 cm) of the service ends, 

to the vehicle air-conditioning system service ports. 

   3.2 Operate the recovery equipment as covered by the equipment 

manufacturers recommended procedure. 

   3.2.1 Start the recovery process and remove the refrigerant 

from the vehicle AC system. Operate the recovery unit until 

the vehicle system has been reduced from a pressure to a vacuum. 

With the recovery unit shut off for at least 5 min, determine 

that there is no refrigerant remaining in the vehicle AC system. 

If the vehicle system has pressure, additional recovery operation 

is required to remove the remaining refrigerant. Repeat the 

operation until the vehicle AC system vacuum level remains stable 

for 2 min. 

   3.3 Close the valves in the service lines and then remove 

the service lines from the vehicle system. Proceed with the 

repair/service. If the recovery equipment has automatic closing 

valves, be sure they are properly operating. 

4. Service With Manifold Gage Set

   4.1 Service hoses must have shutoff valves in the high, low, 

and center service hoses within 12 in (30 cm) of the service 

ends. Valves must be closed prior to hose removal from the air-

conditioning system. This will reduce the volume of refrigerant 

contained in the service hose that would otherwise be vented 

to atmosphere. 

   4.2 During all service operations, the valves should be closed 

until connected to the vehicle air-conditioning system or the 

charging source to avoid introduction of air and to contain 

the refrigerant rather than vent open to atmosphere. 

   4.3 When the manifold gage set is disconnected from the air-

conditioning system or when the center hose is moved to another 

device which cannot accept refrigerant pressure, the gage set 

hoses should first be attached to the reclaim equipment to recover 

the refrigerant from the hoses. 

5. Recycled Refrigerant Checking Procedure for Stored Portable 

Auxiliary Container

   5.1 To determine if the recycled refrigerant container has 

excess noncondensable gases (air), the container must be stored 

at a temperature of 65F (18.3C) or above for a period
of time, 

12 h, protected from direct sun. 

   5.2 Install a calibrated pressure gage, with 1 psig divisions 

(0.07 kg), to the container and determine the container pressure. 

   5.3 With a calibrated thermometer, measure the air temperature 

within 4 in (10 cm) of the container surface. 

   5.4 Compare the observed container pressure and air temperature 

to determine if the container exceeds the pressure limits found 

on Table 1, e.g., air temperature 70F (21C) pressure
must 

not exceed 80 psig (5.62 kg/cm2). 



                                                           Table 1 
                                                        

                                                                   
                                                        



   TempF       PSIG      TempF      
PSIG      TempF       PSIG      TempF
      PSIG      TempF      PSIG    



                                            
                                           
                          

65..........      74   75..........      87 
 85..........     102    95.........    
118   105.........     136   

66..........      75   76..........      88 
 86..........     103    96.........    
120   106.........     138   

67..........      76   77..........      90 
 87..........     105    97.........    
122   107.........     140   

68..........      78   78..........      92 
 88..........     107    98.........    
124   108.........     142   

69..........      79   79..........      94 
 89..........     108    99.........    
125   109.........     144   

70..........      80   80..........      96 
 90..........     110   100.........    
127   110.........     146   

71..........      82   81..........      98 
 91..........     111   101.........    
129   111.........     148   

72..........      83   82..........      99 
 92..........     113   102.........    
130   112.........     150   

73..........      84   83..........     100 
 93..........     115   103.........    
132   113.........     152   

74..........      86   84..........     101 
 94..........     116   104.........    
134   114.........     154   





                                                           Table 1 
                                                        

                                                          [Metric] 
                                                        

                                                                   
                                                        



   TempC       PRES      TempC      
PRES      TempC       PRES      TempC
      PRES      TempC      PRES    



                                            
                                           
                          

18.3........    5.20   23.9........    6.11 
 29.4........    7.17   35.0........   
8.29   40.5........    9.56   

18.8........    5.27   24.4........    6.18 
 30.0........    7.24   35.5........   
8.43   41.1........    9.70   

19.4........    5.34   25.0........    6.32 
 30.5........    7.38   36.1........   
8.57   41.6........    9.84   

20.0........    5.48   25.5........    6.46 
 31.1........    7.52   36.6........   
8.71   42.2........    9.98   

20.5........    5.55   26.1........    6.60 
 31.6........    7.59   37.2........   
8.78   42.7........   10.12   

21.1........    5.62   26.6........    6.74 
 32.2........    7.73   37.7........   
8.92   43.3........   10.26   

21.6........    5.76   27.2........    6.88 
 32.7........    7.80   38.3........   
9.06   43.9........   10.40   

22.2........    5.83   27.7........    6.95 
 33.3........    7.94   38.8........   
9.13   44.4........   10.54   

22.7........    5.90   28.3........    7.03 
 33.9........    8.08   39.4........   
9.27   45.0........   10.68   

23.3........    6.04   28.9........    7.10 
 34.4........    8.15   40.0........   
9.42   45.5........   10.82   



  PRES kg/sq cm                                                    
                                                        

   5.5 If the container pressure is less than the Table 1 values 

and has been recycled, limits of noncondensable gases (air) 

have not been exceeded and the refrigerant may be used. 

   5.6 If the pressure is greater than the range and the container 

contains recycled material, slowly vent from the top of the 

container a small amount of vapor into the recycle equipment 

until the pressure is less than the pressure shown on Table 

1. 

   5.7 If the container still exceeds the pressure shown on 

Table 1, the entire contents of the container shall be recycled. 

6. Containers for Storage of Recycled Refrigerant

   6.1 Recycled refrigerant should not be salvaged or stored 

in disposable refrigerant containers. This is the type of container


in which virgin refrigerant is sold. Use only DOT CFR Title 

49 or UL approved storage containers for recycled refrigerant. 

   6.2 Any container of recycled refrigerant that has been stored 

or transferred must be checked prior to use as defined in Section 

5. 

7. Transfer of Recycled Refrigerant

   7.1 When external portable containers are used for transfer, 

the container must be evacuated to at least 27 in of vacuum 

(75 mm Hg absolute pressure) prior to transfer of the recycled 

refrigerant. External portable containers must meet DOT and 

UL standards. 

   7.2 To prevent on-site overfilling when transferring to external


containers, the safe filling level must be controlled by weight 

and must not exceed 60% of container gross weight rating. 

8. Disposal of Empty/Near Empty Containers

   8.1 Since all the refrigerant may not be removed from disposable


refrigerant containers during normal system charging procedures, 

empty/near empty container contents should be reclaimed prior 

to disposal of the container.

   8.2 Attach the container to the recovery unit and remove 

the remaining refrigerant. When the container has been reduced 

from a pressure to a vacuum, the container valve can be closed. 

The container should be marked empty and is ready for disposal.

Rationale

   Not applicable.

Relationship of SAE Standard to ISO Standard

   Not applicable.

Reference Section

SAE J1990, Extraction and Recycle Equipment for Mobile Automotive 

    Air-Conditioning Systems

Application

   During service of mobile air-conditioning systems, containment 

of the refrigerant is important. This procedure provides service 

guidelines for technicians when repairing vehicles and operating 

equipment defined in SAE J1990.

Committee Composition Developed by the SAE Defrost and Interior 

Climate Control Standards Committee

W.J. Atkinson, Sun Test Engineering, Paradise Valley, AZ-Chairman

J.J. Amin, Union Lake, MI

H.S. Andersson, Saab Scania, Sweden

P.E. Anglin, ITT Higbie Mfg. Co., Rochester, MI

R.W. Bishop, GMC, Lockport, NY

D. Hawks, General Motors Corporation, Pontiac, MI

J.J. Hernandez, NAVISTAR, Ft. Wayne, IN

H. Kaltner, Volkswagen AG, Germany, Federal Republic

D.F. Last, GMC, Troy, MI

D.E. Linn, Volkswagen of America, Warren, MI

J.H. McCorkel, Freightliner Corp., Charlotte, NC

C.J. McLachlan, Livonia, MI

H.L. Miner, Climate Control Inc., Decatur, IL

R.J. Niemiec, General Motors Corp., Pontiac, MI

N. Novak, Chrysler Corp., Detroit, MI

S. Oulouhojian, Mobile Air Conditioning Society, Upper Darby, 

    PA

J. Phillips, Air International, Australia

R.H. Proctor, Murray Corp., Cockeysville, MD

G. Rolling, Behr America Inc., Ft. Worth, TX

C.D. Sweet, Signet Systems Inc., Harrodsburg, KY

J.P. Telesz, General Motors Corp., Lockport, NY

Appendix B to Subpart B-Standard for Recover Equipment [Reserved]



>>>>  See the accompanying hardcopy volume for
non-machine-readable

data that appears at this point. <<<<





[FR Doc. 91-20624 Filed 9-3-91; 8:45 am]

BILLING CODE 6560-50-C

      

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