Congressional District # 18
ZANESVILLE WELL FIELDEPA ID# OHD980794598
Last Updated: March, 2012
The Zanesville Well Field Superfund Site is located on the east and west banks of the Muskingum River in the center of the City of Zanesville, Ohio. On the east bank of the river, the site contains only the southern portion of the Zanesville Municipal Well Fields (ZMWF). The portion of the site directly across the river on the west bank is the former UTA (United Technologies Automotive) facility, the source of the contamination. The UTA facility and grounds cover an area approximately 28 acres between the river and Linden Avenue, and residences are located in close proximity to the UTA facility. Groundwater flowing beneath the river connects the two portions of the site.
The property on the west side of the bank has been used for manufacturing purposes since 1893, when American Encaustic Tiling Company, a ceramic products manufacturer, constructed the original buildings. Several companies have owned the west bank property. In 1974, UTA acquired Essex Corporation and operated at the site until 1991, when ownership was transferred to the Lear Corporation. In late 2008, Pelican Land Holdings, LLC, purchased the parcel from the Lear Corporation. Throughout the history of property transfer, UTA retained the liability for the Zanesville Well Field Superfund Site and UTA is now referred to as United Technologies Corporation (UTC).
Site ResponsibilityThis site is being addressed through federal, state, and potentially responsible party (PRP) actions.
Threats and Contaminants
Due to the long history and varied usage of the site, many details of past waste storage and disposal practices are not available. However, it has been established that during American Encaustic's ownership of the site, a dug well 10 feet in diameter and 40 feet deep was installed. Over the years the dug well fell into disuse, and in the early 1970s the well was backfilled. Rubble from the demolition of a building and up to 121 drums containing trichloroethylene (TCE) solvents were placed inside the well. The abandoned well was approximately 900 feet west of the river and directly across the river from the southern portion of the ZMWF.
Evidence of TCE contamination at the ZMWF was first observed in July 1981, during a random spot check for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by U.S. EPA. At that time, TCE was detected in the plant tap at the water treatment plant. Three wells in the southern end of the well field were found to be contaminated with TCE and 1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE). The southern portion of the ZMWF is currently not being used as a source of water.
The groundwater and soil contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The soil also contains some heavy metals. In September 1983, U.S. EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL).
In July 1983, UTA installed a groundwater extraction and treatment system at the site consisting of four groundwater extraction wells and an air stripper as an Interim Remedial Measure (IRM) to address impacted groundwater. At the same time, UTA removed approximately 121 drums and contaminated debris from the old well and closed it.
In August 1988, U.S. EPA, Ohio EPA and UTA entered into an Administrative Order on Consent (AOC) to perform a Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS). The RI was completed in September 1990 and the FS Report was approved in July 1991. U.S. EPA issued a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site on September 30, 1991, documenting the selected remedial actions for the site. The major components of the cleanup plan selected in the 1991 ROD included the following:
- Containment/capture of contaminated groundwater and restoration of the aquifer to cleanup levels through groundwater pumping;
- Treatment of contaminated groundwater by air stripping;
- Treatment of soil and source areas contaminated with VOCs by in-situ soil vapor extraction (SVE); and
- Treatment of soil contaminated with inorganic compounds by soil washing.
UTA submitted a remedial design work plan, conducted a series of pre-design studies (including groundwater and soil sampling, pilot tests, and contaminant transport modeling), and prepared the remedial design for the site cleanup. The final design was approved and construction commenced in October 1995.
As part of the cleanup, contaminated soil was excavated and disposed off-site, and confirmation soil samples indicated that the inorganic soil cleanup critiera had been achieved. The actual volume of soil excavated to achieve the inorganic soil cleanup criteria was approximately 1,880 cubic yards.
UTA’s pre-design studies confirmed that the only VOC source areas at the site were the Drum Storage Area and the northeast corner of the main building. As a result, a shallow SVE system was designed to focus on these source areas. SVE is also known as “soil venting or “vacuum extraction” to reduce VOC concentrations. In addition, a deep SVE system was designed to provide soil vapor extraction from the area of suspected deeper-zone impacted soil. Although not required in the ROD, UTA proposed air sparging (AS), the process of injecting contaminant-free air into the soil, as an enhancement to the required SVE system. A total of 16 soil vapor extraction wells, five nested air sparging wells, 5,500 linear feet of conveyance piping and the AS/SVE equipment and equipment enclosure were constructed as described in the final design.
The groundwater remediation system design was based on the results of groundwater modeling, groundwater sampling and analysis, the historical performance of the interim groundwater extraction and treatment system, and the results of the AS/SVE pilot test that was performed. The groundwater remediation system is expected to achieve the cleanup standards specified in the ROD.
U.S. EPA completed the First Five-Year Review Report for the site on September 27, 2001, and the Second Five-Year Review Report on September 27, 2006. The purpose of a five-year review is to determine whether the remedy at a site is protective of human health and the environment. The 2006 five-year review evaluated groundwater monitoring data, and trends showed that TCE and DCE are decreasing in a majority of wells. The report also stated that methods to enhance the capture of the TCE groundwater plume have been identified, and recommended that an enhanced recovery plan be implemented. Additional recommendations from the 2006 five-year review included evaluation and implementation of institutional controls at the site and the completion of a vapor intrusion study. The five-year review deferred making a protectiveness determination for the site until completion of the enhanced recovery plan, vapor intrusion study, and IC study.
The third Five Year Review was completed in May of 2011. Work on the enhanced recovery plan and the institutional controls study has been completed, and the vapor intrusion investigation is complete. Based in part of these data, the review determined the remedy at the site to be protective of human health and the environment. An Explanation of Significant Differences, another follow up item from the last Five Year Review, was completed in September 2010. Monitoring data continue to show decreasing trends of contamination at the site.
A copy of the full report and the Five Year Reviews is available at http://www.epa.gov/region5/sites/zanesvillewell/index.html
Property ReuseSeveral business have moved into the northern portion of the former UTA facility, including a sign fabrication company and a lawn care company. A candy company has moved into a building on the southern-most part of the site. The building and site are zoned for commercial and industrial use.
ContactsRemedial Project Manager, U.S. EPA
michelle kerr (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Community Involvement Coordinator, U.S. EPA