Animal Feeding Operations - Water Programs
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Animal Feeding Operations Highlights
Animal Feeding Operations Resources
The following links provide information and facts on regulations for AFOs and CAFOs related to water programs.
Literature Review of Contaminants in Livestock and Poultry Manure and Implications for Water Quality (PDF) (137 pp, 1.5MB)
This report is part of EPA's ongoing efforts to better understand the environmental occurrence and potential effects related to contaminants of emerging concern. The report summarizes technical information on pathogens and contaminants of emerging concern such as antimicrobials and hormones that may affect water quality. The report makes no policy implications or recommendations for the addition of contaminants to any prioritization process (such as the drinking water Contaminant Candidate List). It does identify information gaps that may help define research needs for EPA and its federal, state and local partners to better understand these issues.
EPA Final CAFO Regulations (July 30, 2012)
The 2012 final rule revisions revise portions of the 2008 CAFO permit regulation to address the Fifth Circuit court's vacature order in its decision in National Pork Producers Council v. EPA.
Consolidated Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO) Regulations (38 pp, 425K)
This document consolidates the current federal CAFO regulatory requirements included in the 2012 CAFO Rule Revision to remove the 5th Circuit Court's vacated elements, and include the 2008 and 2003 final CAFO rules into a single document.
- Federal Register Notice for the Final Action on the 2011 Proposed NPDES CAFO Reporting Rule (4 pp, 219K)
- Q&As (PDF)(3 pp, 155K)
More information from EPA
NPDES Permit Writers' Manual for CAFOs - Provides information to states, producers, and the general public including: 1) general information on Clean Water Act and NPDES requirements for CAFOs, 2) information to explain CAFO permitting requirements under the CWA, and 3) technical information to help states and producers understand options for nutrient management planning.
Livestock Environmental Stewardship Brochures - pictorial brochures for four agriculture sectors (poultry, beef, dairy, and swine) to be used as compliance assistance tools. The brochures present management practices found at agricultural facilities. The goal of the brochures is to benefit the producer by identifying and promoting best management practices and environmental stewardship.
Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Research on CAFOs - CAFO waste releases in the eastern U.S. have prompted a closer evaluation of the environmental impact on surface waters, but a corresponding effort has not been initiated for ground waters. GWERD researchers are evaluating these impacts for ground waters.
Contaminants of Emerging Concern - Chemicals are being discovered in water that previously had not been detected or are being detected at levels that may be significantly different than expected. These are often generally referred to as "contaminants of emerging concern" (CECs) because the risk to human health and the environment associated with their presence, frequency of occurrence, or source may not be known.
More information from USDA
eXtension Livestock and Poultry Environmental Learning Center
Information from States
Arsenic in Poultry Litter: Organic Regulations - Fact sheet on arsenic in poultry litter and how it can affect crops, soil, and water.
Information from Educational Institutions
Kansas State University - Carcass Disposal: A Comprehensive Review - provides a comprehensive summary of the scientific, technical, and social aspects of various carcass disposal technologies