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Key Commitments of the Acid Rain Annex

Table of Contents

SO2 Emission Reduction Requirements


Canada United States

SO2 emission reductions in the seven easternmost provinces to 2.3 million tonnes1 by 1994.

SO2 emission reductions of 10 million tons2 from 1980 levels by 2000, taking into account credits (“allowances”)
Maintenance of 2.3 million-tonne annual cap for eastern Canada through December 1999. Permanent national cap of 8.95 million tons of SO2 per year for electric utilities by the year 2010.
Permanent national cap for SO2 emissions of 3.2 million tonnes by 2000. National SO2 emission cap of 5.6 million tons for industrial sources beginning in 1995.
1 One tonne is equal to 1.1 short tons.
2 One (short) ton is equal to 0.907 tonnes.

Canada and the United States have been successful in reducing SO2 emissions under their respective Acid Rain Programs. In 2000, Canada’s total SO2 emissions of approximately 2.5 million tonnes were 20 percent below the national emission cap commitment of 3.2 million tonnes. New emission reduction targets have been set for SO2 under the Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000. SO2 emissions in the United States have been reduced by 6.7 million tons (39 percent) when compared with 1980 levels. Full implementation of the program in 2010 will result in SO2 emission reductions of about 50 percent from 1980 levels. See Figure 1 and Figure 2.

Figure 1. Canada SO2 Emissions Contributing to Acid Rain, 1980-2000

Figure 1. Canada SO2 Emissions Contributing to Acid Rain, 1980-2000

[Source: 2001 Annual Progress Report on the Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000, December 2002]


Figure 2. U.S. SO2 Emissions for Phase I and Phase II Units

Figure 2. U.S. SO2 Emissions for  Phase I and Phase II Units

This figure includes electric generating and industrial sources that have voluntarily joined the Acid Rain Program.


NOx Emission Reduction Requirements


Canada United States

By 2000, reduce stationary source emissions 100,000 tonnes below the forecast level of 970,000 tonnes.*

By 2000, reduce total annual emissions of NOx by 2 million tons.
By 1995, develop further annual emission reduction requirements from stationary sources to be achieved by 2000 and/or 2005. Implement stationary source control program for electric utility boilers.
Implement a NOxcontrol program for mobile sources. Implement mobile source control program.
*The 970,000 tonnes is forecast for 2005 in the NOx/VOC Emission Forecast 90-B from the 1990NOx/VOC Management Plan. Historical emissions and projections are subject to change as methodologies improve for estimating and forecasting emissions.

Canada and the United States have surpassed NOxreduction targets and will gain further reductions from mobile source, ground-level ozone, and regional haze programs. In the United States, all sources affected by the Acid Rain Program’s NOx requirements reduced their combined NOx emissions by 25 percent from 1990 levels in 2001; emissions from those sources were more than 40 percent below projected 2000 emissions without the Acid Rain Program. Canada projects further NOxreductions relative to the “base case” level as a result of the new On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations and Sulphur in Diesel Fuel Regulations.

Figure 3. Canada Forecast of NOx Emissions from On-Road Vehicles


Figure 3. Canada Forecast of NOx Emissions from On-Road Vehicles

New regulations and programs aimed at reducing vehicle emissions as of July 2001 (“base case” level) are projected to result in a considerable reduction of NOx emissions during the 2000 to 2020 timeframe. [Source: SENES & AIR Inc., October 2002]


Figure 4. U.S. NOx Emissions for Phase I and Phase II Electric Generating Sources

Figure 4. U.S. NOx Emissions for Phase I and Phase II Electric Generating Sources

This figure includes electric generating and industrial sources that have voluntarily joined the Acid Rain Program.

 


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