Election for Additional Sources
[42 U.S.C. 7651i]
(a) Applicability.--The owner or operator of any unit that is not, nor will become, an affected unit under section 403(e), 404, or 405, or that is a process source under subsection (d), that emits sulfur dioxide, may elect to designate that unit or source to become an affected unit and to receive allowances under this title. An election shall be submitted to the Administrator for approval, along with a permit application and proposed compliance plan in accordance with section 408. The Administrator shall approve a designation that meets the requirements of this section, and such designated unit, or source, shall be allocated allowances, and be an affected unit for purposes of this title.
(b) Establishment of Baseline.--The baseline for a unit designated under this section shall be established by the Administrator by regulation, based on fuel consumption and operating data for the unit for calendar years 1985, 1986, and 1987, or if such data is not available, the Administrator may prescribe a baseline based on alternative representative data.
(c) Emission Limitations.--Annual emissions limitations for sulfur dioxide shall be equal to the product of the baseline multiplied by the lesser of the unit's 1985 actual or allowable emission rate in lbs/mmBtu, or, if the unit did not operate in 1985, by the lesser of the unit's actual or allowable emission rate for a calendar year after 1985 (as determined by the Administrator), divided by 2,000.
(d) Process Sources.--Not later than 18 months after enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the Ad ministrator shall establish a program under which the owner or operator of a process source that emits sulfur dioxide may elect to designate that source as an affected unit for the purpose of receiving allowances under this title. The Administrator shall, by regulation, define the sources that may be designated; specify the emissions limitation; specify the operating, emission baseline and other data requirements; prescribe CEMS or other monitoring requirements; and promulgate permit, reporting, and any other requirements necessary to implement such a program.
(e) Allowances and Permits.--The Administrator shall issue allowances to an affected unit under this section in an amount equal to the emissions limitation calculated under subsection (c) or (d), in accordance with section 403. Such allowance may be used in accordance with, and shall be subject to, the provisions of section 403. Affected sources under this section shall be subject to the requirements of sections 403, 408, 411, 412, 413, and 414.
(f) Limitation.--Any unit designated under this section shall not transfer or bank allowances produced as a result of reduced utilization or shutdown, except that, such allowances may be transferred or carried forward for use in subsequent years to the extent that the reduced utilization or shutdown results from the replacement of thermal energy from the unit designated under this section, with thermal energy generated by any other unit or units subject to the requirements of this title, and the designated unit's allowances are transferred or carried forward for use at such other replacement unit or units. In no case may the Administrator allocate to a source designated under this section allowances in an amount greater than the emissions resulting from operation of the source in full compliance with the requirements of this Act. No such allowances shall authorize operation of a unit in violation of any other requirements of this Act.
(g) Implementation.--The Administrator shall issue regulations to implement this section not later than eighteen months after enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.
(h) Small Diesel Refineries.--The Administrator shall issue allowances to owners or operators of small diesel refineries who produce diesel fuel after October 1, 1993, meeting the requirements of subsection 211(i) of this Act.
(1) Allowance Period.--Allowances may be allocated under this subsection only for the period from October 1, 1993, through December 31, 1999.
(2) Allowance Determination.--The number of allowances allocated pursuant to this paragraph shall equal the annual number of pounds of sulfur dioxide reduction attributable to desulfurization by a small refinery divided by 2,000. For the purposes of this calculation, the concentration of sulfur removed from diesel fuel shall be the difference between 0.274 percent (by weight) and 0.050 percent (by weight).
(3) Refinery Eligibility.--As used in this subsection, the term "small refinery' shall mean a refinery or portion of a refinery--
(A) which, as of the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, has bona fide crude oil throughput of less than 18,250,000 barrels per year, as reported to the Department of Energy, and
(B) which, as of the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, is owned or controlled by a refiner with a total combined bona fide crude oil throughput of less than 50,187,500 barrels per year as reported to the Department of Energy.
(4) Limitation per Refinery.--The maximum number of allowances that can be annually allocated to a small refinery pursuant to this subsection is one thousand and five hundred.
(5) Limitation on Total.--In any given year, the total number of allowances allocated pursuant to this subsection shall not exceed thirty-five thousand.
(6) Required Certification.--The Administrator shall not allocate any allowances pursuant to this subsection unless the owner or operator of a small diesel refinery shall have certified, at a time and in a manner prescribed by the Administrator, that all motor diesel fuel produced by the refinery for which allowances are claimed, including motor diesel fuel for off-highway use, shall have met the requirements of subsection 211(i) of this Act.