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Appendices to the Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Canada on Air Quality


ANNEX 1: SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES CONCERNING SULFUR DIOXIDE AND NITROGEN OXIDES

Sulphur Dioxide

For the United States:

  1. Reduction of annual sulfur dioxide emissions by approximately 10 million tons from 1980 levels in accordance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act i.e., reduction of annual sulphur dioxide emissions to approximately 10 million tons below 1980 levels by 2000 (with the exception of sources repowering with qualifying clean coal technology in accordance with section 409 of the Clean Air Act, and sources receiving bonus allowances in accordance with section 405(a)(2) and (3) of the Clean Air Act.).
  2. Achievement of a permanent national emission cap of 8.95 million tons of sulfur dioxide per year for electric utilities by 2010, to the extent required by Title IV of the Clean Air Act.
  3. Promulgation of new or revised standards or such other action under the Clean Air Act as the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) deems appropriate, to the extent required by section 406 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549), aimed at limiting sulphur dioxide emissions from industrial sources in the event that the Administrator of EPA determines that annual sulfur dioxide emissions from industrial sources may reasonably be expected to exceed 5.6 million tons.

For Canada:

  1. Reduction of sulphur dioxide emissions in the seven easternmost Provinces to 2.3 million tonnes per year by 1994 and the achievement of a cap on sulfur dioxide emissions in the seven easternmost Provinces at 2.3 million tons per year from 1995 through December 31, 1999.
  2. Achievement of a permanent national emissions cap of 3.2 million tonnes per year by 2000.

Nitrogen Oxides

For the United States:

  1. With a view to a reduction of total annual emissions of nitrogen oxides by approximately 2 million tons from 1980 emission levels by 2000:

Stationary Sources:

Implementation of the following nitrogen oxides control program for electric utility boilers to the extent required by Title IV of the Clean Air Act:

  1. By January 1, 1995, tangentially fired boilers must meet an allowable emission rate of 0.45 lb/mmBtu and dry bottom wall-fired boilers must meet an allowable emission rate of 0.50 lb/mmBtu (unless the Administrator of EPA determines that these rates cannot be achieved using NOx burner technology).
  2. By January 1, 1997, EPA must set allowable emission limitations for:

    —wet bottom wall-fired boilers;
    —cyclones;
    —units applying cell burner technology; and
    —all other types of utility boilers.

Mobile Sources:

Implementation of the following mobile source nitrogen oxides control program to the extent required by Title II of the Clean Air Act:

Light Duty Trucks (LDT) (up to 6000 lbs gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR)) and Light Duty Vehicle (LDV) — standards for model years after 1993:

  5 yrs/50,000 miles
(useful life)
10 yrs/100,000 miles
LDTs
(0 to 3750 lbs
Loaded Vehicle Weight
LVW) and LDVs
0.4 grams per mile
(gpm)
0.6 gpm
Diesel LDTs
(0 to 3750 lbs LVW) and
LDVs (before 2004)
1.0 gpm 1.25 gpm
LDTs
(3751 to 5750 lbs LVW)
0.7 gpm 0.97 gpm

In model year 1994, 40% of each manufacturer's sales volume must meet the above standards. In 1995, the percentage shall increase to 80% and, after 1995, to 100%.

Light Duty Trucks more than 6000 lbs GVWR (after model year 1995):

  Gasoline
5 yrs/50,000 miles
Gasoline and Diesel
11 yrs/120,000 miles
LDTs
(3751 to 5750 lbs
Test Weight (TW))
0.7 gpm 0.98 gpm
LDTs
(over 5750 lbs TW)
1.1 gpm 1.53 gpm

In model year 1996, 50% of each manufacturer's sales volume must meet the above standards. Thereafter, 100% of each manufacturer's sales volume must meet the standard.

Heavy Duty Trucks (HDT) of more than 8500 lbs GVWR (after model year 1990):

  Gasoline & Diesel Engines
HDT (Effective model year 1991) 5.0 grams per brake horsepower-hour (gphp-hr)
HDT (model year 1998 and later) 4.0 gbhp-hr

Useful Life

Gasoline Engine

8 yrs/110,000 miles
Diesel Engines
Light heavy-duty:
Medium heavy-duty:
Heavy heavy-duty:

8 yrs/110,000 miles
8 yrs/185,000 miles
8 yrs/290,000 miles

B. For Canada:

Stationary Sources:

  1. As an interim requirement, reduction, by 2000, of annual national emissions of nitrogen oxides from stationary sources by 100,000 tonnes below the year 2000 forecast level of 970,000 tonnes.
  2. By January 1, 1995, development of further annual national emission reduction requirements from stationary sources to be achieved by 2000 and/or 2005.

Mobile Sources:

Implementation of a more stringent mobile source nitrogen oxides control program for gasoline powered vehicles with standards no less stringent than the following:

Light Duty Vehicles (up to 6000 lbs GVWR) (By Model year 1996 for passenger cars) (By model year 1996 for light duty trucks)

  5 yrs/80,000 kilometers (useful life)
Cars and Light Duty
(0 to 3750 lbs LVW)
0.4 gpm
Light Duty Trucks
(3751 to 5750 lbs LVW)
0.7 gpm

Medium Duty Vehicles (6001 to 8500 lbs GVWR) (By model year 1997):

  5 yrs/80,000 kilometers (useful life)
0 to 3750 lbs LVW 0.4 gpm
3751 to 5750 lbs LVW 0.7 gpm
Over 5750 lbs LVW 1.1 gpm

Heavy Duty Vehicles (over 8500 lbs GVWR) (By model year 1998):

  8 yrs/110,000 miles (useful life)
Over 8500 lbs GVWR 4.0 gbhp-hr

Implementation of a more stringent mobile source nitrogen oxides control program for diesel powered vehicles and engines with standards, to the extent possible, no less stringent that the standards for the respective duty classes of gasoline powered vehicles and engines.

Compliance Monitoring

Utility Units

A. For the United States:

Requirement that, by January 1, 1995, each new electric utility unit and each electric utility unit greater than 25 MWe existing on the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (November 15, 1990) emitting sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides install and operate continuous emission monitoring systems or alternative systems approved by the Administrator of EPA, to the extent required by section 412 of the Clean Air Act.

B. For Canada:

Requirement that, by January 1, 1995, Canada estimate sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from each new electric utility unit and each existing electric utility unit great that 25 MWe using a method of comparable effectiveness to continuous emission monitoring, as well as investigate the feasibility of using and implement, where appropriate, continuous emission monitoring systems.

For Both Parties:

The Parties shall consult, as appropriate, concerning the implementation of the above.

Other Major Stationary Sources Requirement that the Parties work towards utilizing comparably effective methods of emission estimation for sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from all major industrial boilers and process sources, including smelters.

Prevention of Air Quality Deterioration and Visibility Protection

Recognizing the importance of preventing significant air quality deterioration and protecting visibility, particularly for international parks, national, state, and provincial parks, and designated wilderness areas:

A. For the United States:

Requirement that the United States maintain means for preventing significant air quality deterioration and protecting visibility, to the extent required by Part C of Title I of the Clean Air Act, with respect to sources that could cause significant transboundary air pollution.

B. For Canada:

Requirement that Canada, by January 1, 1995, develop and implement means affording levels of prevention of significant air quality deterioration and protection of visibility comparable to those in paragraph A above, with respect to sources that could cause significant transboundary air pollution.

For Both Parties:

The Parties shall consult, as appropriate, concerning the implementation of the above.

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ANNEX 2: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL ACTIVITIES AND ECONOMIC RESEARCH

  1. For the purpose of determining and reporting on air pollutant concentrations and deposition, the Parties agree to coordinate their air pollutant monitoring activities through:
    • coordination of existing networks;
    • additions to monitoring tasks of existing networks of those air pollutants that the Parties agree should be monitored for the purposes of this Agreement;
    • addition of stations or networks where no existing monitoring facility can perform a necessary function for purposes of this Agreement;
    • the use of compatible data management procedures, formats, and methods; and
    • the exchange of monitoring data.
  2. For the purpose of determining and reporting air emissions levels, historical trends, and projections with respect to the achievement of the general and specific objectives set forth in this Agreement, the Parties agree to coordinate their activities through:
    • identification of such air emissions information that the Parties agree should be exchanged for the purposes of this Agreement;
    • the use of measurement and estimation procedures of comparable effectiveness;
    • the use of compatible data management procedures, formats, and methods; and
    • the exchange of air emission information.
  3. The Parties agree to cooperate and exchange information with respect to:
    • their monitoring of the effects of changes in air pollutant concentrations and deposition with respect to changes in various effects categories, e.g. aquatic ecosystems, visibility, and forests;
    • their determination of any effects of atmospheric pollution on human health and ecosystems, e.g. research on health effects of acid aerosols, research on the long-term effects of low concentrations of air pollutants on ecosystems, possibly in a critical loads framework;
    • their development and refinement of atmospheric models for purposes of determining source receptor relationships and transboundary transport and deposition of air pollutants;
    • their development and demonstration of technologies and measures for controlling emissions of air pollutants, in particular acidic deposition precursors, subject to their respective laws, regulations and policies;
    • their analysis of market-based mechanisms, including emissions trading; and
    • any other scientific and technical activities or economic research that the Parties may agree upon for purposes of supporting the general and specific objectives of this Agreement.
  4. The Parties further agree to consult on approaches to, and share information and results of research on, methods to mitigate the impacts of acidic deposition, including the environmental effects and economic aspects of such methods.

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