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Health and Environmental Assessment - Resources: Publications and Reports

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Publications and Reports

Public Audiences:
Human &Environmental Risk Assessment
UK Booklet on Human Health and Air Pollution
UK Health Effects of Air Pollutants
U.S. EPA Booklet on the Human Health Effects of Ozone
U.S. EPA Factsheet on Asthma and Outdoor Air Pollution
U. S. EPA Human Health Topics
U.S. EPA Medical Poster on the Effects of Common Air Pollutants

Technical Audiences:
Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) Journal
EU Position Paper on Arsenic, Cadmium, and Nickel
EU Position Paper on Benzene
EU Position Paper on Carbon Monoxide
EU Position Paper on Lead
EU Position Paper on Mercury
EU Position Paper on Nitrogen Dioxide
EU Position Paper on Ozone
EU Position Paper on Particulate Matter
EU Position Paper on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
EU Position Paper on Sulfur Dioxide
The Health Effect Institute (HEI) Research
Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants
The Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management
UK Air Quality Standards and Objectives
U.S. Air Trends: Effects of Acid Rain
U.S. Air Trends: Effects of Carbon Monoxide
U.S. Air Trends: Effects of Ground-Level Ozone
U.S. Air Trends: Effects of Lead
U.S. Air Trends: Effects of Nitrogen Dioxide
U.S. Air Trends: Effects of Particulate Matter
U.S. Air Trends: Effects of Stratospheric Ozone
U.S. Air Trends: Effects of Sulfur Dioxide
U.S. Air Trends: Effects of Toxics Air Pollutants
U.S. EPA Benefits and Costs of the Clean Air Act 1990 - 2010:Report to Congress
U.S. EPA Benefits and Costs of the Clean Air Act 1970 - 1990: Final Report to Congress
U.S. EPA Colloquia on a Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment
U.S. EPA Cost of Illness Handbook
U.S. EPA's Draft Ecological Benefits Assessment Strategic Plan
U.S. EPA's Draft Report of the Environment, Human Health Chapter
U.S. EPA Final Heavy Duty Engine/Diesel Fuel Rule: Benefits Analysis Technical Support Document
U.S. EPA Handbook on Valuing Children's Health
U.S. EPA Health Effects of Mercury
Regulatory Economic Analysis at EPA
World Health Organization (WHO) Health Impact Assessment

AQM System Flow Chart Highlighting Human and Environmental Assessment

Public Audiences:

Human &Environmental Risk Assessment

http://www.heraproject.com/Initiative.cfm Exit EPA

HERA (Human &Environmental Risk Assessment) is a European project initiated in September 1999. It concerns the assessment of the risks to human health and the environment from ingredients of household cleaning products during the two scenarios 'Use in the Household' and 'Disposal to the Environment'.

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UK Booklet on Human Health and Air Pollution

http://www.defra.gov.uk/ENVIRONMENT/airquality/publications/airpoll/ Exit EPA

This booklet entitled "Air Pollution - what it means for your health" explains where to get current information on levels of air pollution, what air pollution can mean for your health, and what you can do about it. The booklet can either be viewed on-line or downloaded. It is designed to be an easy guide to the UK's Air Pollution Information Service (which is accessed via internet at http://www.airquality.co.uk or via phone), which covers sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, and particles (PM10).

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UK Health Effects of Air Pollutants

http://www.advisorybodies.doh.gov.uk/comeap/statementsreports/healtheffects.htm Exit EPA

The Department of Health website has a range of reports on health effects due to air pollution. For example, the Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants (COMEAP) published a report in 1998 on the quantification of the health effects of air pollutants in the UK, including an estimate of the numbers of people affected. The report details the effects of particulate matter (PM10) and sulfur dioxide in urban areas of Great Britain, and ozone in both urban and rural areas of Great Britain (during summer only). Other reports linked to the website include advisory group reports on ozone, sulfur dioxide, acid aerosols and particulates, nitrogen oxides, and exposure to combinations of pollutants.

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U.S. EPA Booklet on the Human Health Effects of Ozone

http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health/smog.pdf (PDF, 10pp., 818 KB) Exit EPA

This booklet provides background information on ozone and smog, describes four groups who are most at risk from exposure to ozone, provides a table of the ozone concentrations and corresponding Air Quality Index (AQI) values, and summarizes various health effects that are caused by ozone and simple measures or protective actions that can be taken to reduce that health risk.

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U.S. EPA Factsheet on Asthma and Outdoor Air Pollution

http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health-prof/Asthma_Flyer_Final.pdf (PDF, 2pp., 502KB) Exit EPA

This fact sheet is designed in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to answer questions about how people with asthma can be affected by air pollution and how they can use the Air Quality Index to reduce their exposure.

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U.S. EPA Human Health Topics

EPA Topics: Human Health
http://www.epa.gov/ebtpages/humanhealth.html
EPA Topics: Health Assessments
http://www.epa.gov/ebtpages/humahealthassessment.html
EPA Topics: Asthma
http://www.epa.gov/ebtpages/humahealtheffectsasthma.html
EPA Topics: Respiratory Disease
http://www.epa.gov/ebtpages/humahealtheffectsrespiratorydisease.html
EPA Topics: Children's Health
http://www.epa.gov/ebtpages/humachildrenshealth.html
EPA Topics: Seniors' Health
http://www.epa.gov/ebtpages/humaseniorshealth.html

Human Health EPA Topics provide recommended agency websites to learn more about each topic.

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U.S. EPA Medical Poster on the Effects of Common Air Pollutants

http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health-prof/EPA_poster-final_lo-res.pdf (PDF, 1p., 4.9MB) Exit EPA
This colorful poster is designed for use in patient waiting areas or exam rooms to educate patients about the health effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems.

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Technical Audiences:

Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) Journal

http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/ Exit EPA

The website of Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP), a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the discussion of the effect of the environment on human health. Also available in Chinese at http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/cehp/. Exit EPA

EHP is a publication of the Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS).

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The Health Effect Institute (HEI) Research

http://healtheffects.org/ongoing.htm Exit EPA

The HEI research program has addressed many important questions about the health effects of a variety of pollutants over the past two decades. These include carbon monoxide, ozone, particulate matter, and nitrogen oxides, which are regulated in the U.S. by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. In addition, many air toxics, fuel additives, and pollutant mixtures have been studied. This site lists research that has been published and provides some links to a few published HEI research reports on air toxics and particulate matter.

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The Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management

http://www.worldscinet.com/jeapm/jeapm.shtml Exit EPA

The Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management is an interdisciplinary, peer reviewed, international journal covering policy and decision-making relating to environmental assessment (EA) in the broadest sense. Uniquely, its specific aim is to explore the horizontal interactions between assessment and aspects of environmental management (not just the vertical interactions within the broad field of impact assessment) and thereby to identify comprehensive approaches to environmental improvement involving both qualitative and quantitative information.

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EU Position Paper on Arsenic, Cadmium, and Nickel

http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/air/pdf/pp_as_cd_ni.pdf (PDF, 318 pp., 2.14 MB) Exit EPA

This position paper, developed in preparation for air quality legislation in Europe, provides detailed information on the human health effects for arsenic, cadmium, and lead in section two. It also proposes limit values.

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EU Position Paper on Benzene

http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/air/pdf/ppbenzene.pdf (PDF, 147 pp., 918 KB) Exit EPA

This position paper, developed in preparation for air quality legislation in Europe, provides detailed information on human health effects for benzene in section two. Included are proposals for limit values.

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EU Position Paper on Carbon Monoxide

http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/air/pdf/pp_co.pdf (PDF, 58 pp., 354 KB) Exit EPA

This position paper, developed in preparation for air quality legislation in Europe, provides detailed information on human health effects for carbon monoxide in section two.

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EU Position Paper on Lead

http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/air/pdf/pp_pb.pdf (PDF, 105 pp., 661 KB) Exit EPA

This position paper, developed in preparation for air quality legislation in Europe, provides detailed information on human health effects for lead in section two.

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EU Position Paper on Mercury

http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/air/pdf/pp_mercury6.pdf (PDF, 36 pp., 210 KB) Exit EPA

This position paper, developed in preparation for air quality legislation in Europe, provides detailed information on human health effects for mercury in section six. Other sections of this position paper may be downloaded from http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/air/ambient.htm.

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EU Position Paper on Nitrogen Dioxide

http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/air/pdf/pp_no2.pdf (PDF, 76 pp., 838 KB) Exit EPA

This position paper, developed in preparation for air quality legislation in Europe, provides detailed information on human health effects for nitrogen dioxide in section two.

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EU Position Paper on Ozone

http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/air/documents/pos_paper.pdf (PDF, 174 pp., 1.46 MB) Exit EPA

This position paper, developed in preparation for air quality legislation in Europe, provides detailed information on human health effects for ozone in section three.

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EU Position Paper on Particulate Matter

http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/air/pdf/pp_pm.pdf (PDF, 85 pp., 441 KB) Exit EPA

This position paper, developed in preparation for air quality legislation in Europe, provides detailed information on human health effects for particulate matter in section two.

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EU Position Paper on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/air/pdf/pp_pah.pdf (PDF, 56 pp., 568 KB) Exit EPA

This position paper, developed in preparation for air quality legislation in Europe, provides detailed information on human health effects for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in section four.

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EU Position Paper on Sulfur Dioxide

http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/air/pdf/pp_so2.pdf (PDF, 72 pp., 356 KB) Exit EPA

This position paper, developed in preparation for air quality legislation in Europe, provides detailed information on human health effects for sulfur dioxide in section two.

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U.S. Air Trends: Effects of Acid Rain

http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/aqtrnd95/acidrain.html

This page provides general information on the environmental effects of acid rain and links to EPA's Acid Rain program web site.

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U.S. Air Trends: Effects of Carbon Monoxide

http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/carbon.html

This page provides general information on the short and long-term human health effects of carbon monoxide.

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U.S. Air Trends: Effects of Ground-Level Ozone

http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/aqtrnd04/ozone.html

As part of the introduction of EPA's Ozone Report - Measuring Progress through 2003, health and ecological effects of ground-level ozone are described.

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U.S. Air Trends: Effects of Lead

http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/lead.html

This page provides general information on the short and long-term human health effects of lead.

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U.S. Air Trends: Effects of Nitrogen Dioxide

http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/nitrogen.html

This page includes general information on the short and long-term human health effects of nitrogen dioxide.

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U.S. Air Trends: Effects of Particulate Matter

http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/pm.html

This page provides general information on the short and long-term human health effects of particulate matter.

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U.S. Air Trends: Effects of Stratospheric Ozone

http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/aqtrnd95/stratoz.html

This page provides general information on the short and long-term human health effects of stratospheric ozone.

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U.S. Air Trends: Effects of Sulfur Dioxide

http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/sulfur.html

This page provides general information on the short and long-term human health effects of sulfur dioxide.

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U.S. Air Trends: Effects of Toxics Air Pollutants

http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/aqtrnd95/tap.html

This page provides general information on the short and long-term human health effects of toxic air pollutants.

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U.S. EPA Benefits and Costs of the Clean Air Act 1990 - 2010: Report to Congress

http://yosemite1.epa.gov/EE/epa/eerm.nsf/vwRepNumLookup/EE-0295A?OpenDocument

The economic value of the public health and environmental benefits that Americans enjoy from the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 exceed their costs by a margin of four to one, according to the study. The report projects that the Clean Air Act Amendments and their associated programs prevent thousands of premature deaths related to air pollution, and millions of asthma attacks as well as a wide range of additional human health and ecological effects.

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U.S. EPA Benefits and Costs of the Clean Air Act 1970 - 1990: Final Report to Congress

http://yosemite1.epa.gov/EE/epa/eerm.nsf/vwSER/9ADD3221C1A0064D8525643C007E4076?OpenDocument

Final report to Congress prepared in response to Section 812 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments addressing the question of how the overall health, welfare, ecological, and economic benefits of Clean Air Act Programs compare to the costs of these programs in the period 1970-90. This final report has been approved by an advisory committee formed to review it, and has been transmitted to Congress. This retrospective analysis focuses on the National Ambient Air Quality criteria pollutants sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone, and lead. The report compares and contrasts two regulatory scenarios. The "control scenario" reflects the actual conditions resulting from the historical implementation of the 1970 and 1977 Clean Air Acts. In contrast, the "no-control" scenario reflects expected conditions under the assumption that, absent the passage of the 1970 Clean Air Act, the scope, form, and stringency of air pollution control programs would have remained as they were in 1970. The "no-control" scenario represents a hypothesized "baseline" against which to measure the effects of the Clean Air Act. The differences between the public health, air quality, and economic and environmental conditions resulting from these two scenarios represent the benefits and costs of the Act's implementation from 1970 to 1990.

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U.S. EPA Colloquia on a Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment

http://cfpub2.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=12186

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recognized the need to develop a framework for human health risk assessment that puts a perspective on the approaches in practice throughout the Agency. This site provides a summary of the discussions regarding this framework, which is intended to be a communication piece that will lay out the scientific basis, principles, and policy choices underlying past and current risk assessment approaches and will provide recommendations for integrating/harmonizing risk assessment methodologies for all human health endpoints.

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U.S. EPA Cost of Illness Handbook

http://www.epa.gov/oppt/coi/

The Cost of Illness Handbook -- This web page contains information on the per capita incremental direct medical costs associated with illnesses linked to environmental pollutants.

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U.S. EPA's Draft Ecological Benefits Assessment Strategic Plan

http://yosemite1.epa.gov/ee/epa/eed.nsf/webpages/EBASPlanReview.html

This site describes the Agency's Draft Ecological Benefits Assessment Strategic Plan. The overall goal of the Plan is to improve the Agency's ability to identify, quantify, and value the ecological impacts of its actions in order to improve decision-making and better communicate the results.

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U.S. EPA's Draft Report of the Environment, Human Health Chapter

EPA's Draft Report of the Environment, Human Health Chapter

Describes the EPA's move towards outcome-based health and ecological indicators.

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U.S. EPA Economics &Cost Analysis Support

http://www.epa.gov/ttnecas1/

The purpose of this site is to make available in one place the documents developed by the U.S. EPA's Innovative Strategies and Economics Group (ISEG). Tools include the databases and models that have been developed by ISEG for cost, benefit, and economic impact analyses. Documents include analytical guidance and reports on conducting analysis of costs, benefits, and economic impacts of air quality management strategies, programs, and regulations. The guidance documents and technical reports are useful for understanding analyses prepared by ISEG staff and serve as a resource for others conducting similar types of analyses. Models and tools developed by ISEG and its contractors are made available here to facilitate others in conducting analyses of costs, benefits, and economic impacts.

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U.S. EPA Handbook on Valuing Children's Health

http://yosemite.epa.gov/ee/epa/eed.nsf/webpages/HandbookChildrensHealthValuation.html

The Children's Health Valuation Handbook is a companion document to EPA's Guidelines for Preparing Economic Analyses (2002). The Handbook is a reference tool for analysts conducting economic analyses of EPA policies when those policies are expected to affect risks to children's health. Because the state of knowledge surrounding the valuation of children's health is still in it's infancy, this document is designed to be more informative than prescriptive. The Handbook's three-ring binder format will facilitate making updates as new information in this expanding state of knowledge becomes available.

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U.S. EPA Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants

http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html

The Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants has detailed information about the health effects of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) is available in separate fact sheets, for nearly every HAP specified in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

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U.S. EPA Health Effects of Mercury

http://www.epa.gov/mercury/health.htm

Desription of how mercury causes health problems including symptoms of mercury poisoning.

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U.S. EPA Regulatory Economic Analysis

http://yosemite1.epa.gov/ee/epa/eed.nsf/webpages/RegulatoryEconomicAnalysisAtEPA.html

This report serves two purposes. First, it's an update of a 1987 report entitled EPA's Use of Benefit-Cost Analysis 1981-1986, which updates a number of sections, adds summaries of some more recent Economic Analyses, and reviews other reviews of EPA Economic Analyses. Second, it's an introduction, survey, and overview of EPA's Regulatory Economic Analyses Inventory (REAI) database, which contains over 2,200 documents, some 400 of which are classified as Regulatory Impact Analyses (RIAs) or more recently as Economic Analyses (EAs), as well as many related reports and information.

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UK Air Quality Standards and Objectives

http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/airquality/strategy/pdf/air-qualitystrategy-vol2.pdf (PDF, 34 pp., 222 KB) Exit EPA

The Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland document contains standards and human health effect information for eight pollutants: benzene, 1,3-butadiene, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and ammonia.

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World Health Organization (WHO) Health Impact Assessment

http://www.who.int/hia/en/ Exit EPA

The WHO's Health Impact Assessment (HIA) provides decision makers with information about how any policy, program, or project may affect the health of people.  HIA seeks to influence decision makers to improve the proposal. WHO supports the use of HIA because of its ability to influence policies, programs and/or projects.

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