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Goal Setting - Resources: Publications and Reports

AQM System Flow Chart Highlighting Human and Environmental Assessment

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Publications and Reports

Technical Audience:

European Commission Position Papers for Air Quality Legislation
European Union (EU) and World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Limit Values and Guidelines
The Indian Central Pollution Control Board's India National Ambient Air Quality Standards
Nepal National Ambient Air Quality Standards
Pakistan's National Environmental Quality Standards for Industrial Gaseous Emissions
South Africa Ambient Air Quality Guidelines
UK Air Quality Standards and Objectives
U.S. EPA Criteria Document for Carbon Monoxide
U.S. EPA Criteria Document for Lead
U.S. EPA Criteria Document for Nitrogen Oxides
U.S. EPA Criteria Document for Ozone
U.S. EPA Criteria Document for Particulate Matter
U.S. EPA's National Ambient Air Quality Standards
World Bank Compilation of Air Quality Standards for Toxics
World Bank Compilation of Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
World Bank Compilation of Air Quality Standards for Particulates
World Bank Compilation of Air Quality Standards for Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)


 European Commission Position Papers for Air Quality Legislation

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/pdf/pp_co.pdf(PDF, 58 pp., 354 KB) Exit EPA
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/pdf/pp_pb.pdf (PDF, 105 pp., 661 KB) Exit EPA
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/pdf/pp_no2.pdf (PDF, 76 pp., 838 KB) Exit EPA
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/pdf/documents/pos_paper.pdf(PDF, 174 pp., 1.46 MB) Exit EPA
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/pdf/pp_pm.pdf(PDF, 75 pp., 441 KB) Exit EPA
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/pdf/pp_so2.pdf(PDF, 72 pp., 356 KB) Exit EPA

These position papers, developed in preparation for air quality legislation in Europe, provide detailed information on setting limit values for the following pollutants:

  • carbon monoxide (Section 2)
  • lead (Section 2)
  • nitrogen dioxide (Section 2)
  • ozone (Section 3)
  • particulate matter (Section 2)
  • sulfur dioxide (Section 2)

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European Union (EU) and World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Limit Values and Guidelines

http://reports.eea.eu.int/2-9167-057-X/en/page005.html Exit EPA

This section of the document entitled Air Quality in Europe for 1993 - A Pilot Report (published by the European Environment Agency) contains a table that lists the Limit and Guide values of EU and the Guideline values of WHO for the following components: sulfur dioxide (SO2, with associated values for black smoke/suspended particles), black smoke, suspended particles, lead, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO).

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The Indian Central Pollution Control Board's India National Ambient Air Quality Standards

http://www.cpcb.nic.in/National_Ambient_Air_Quality_Standards.php Exit EPA

National Ambient Air Quality Standards are listed on a table (with the method of measurement) for: sulphur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen as SO2, suspended particulate matter, respirable particulate matter (less than 10 microns in size), lead, ammonia, and carbon monoxide. More information on India's Air Quality Standards is presented in chapter 4 of the "Auto Fuel Policy Report" Exit EPA (PDF, 21 pp., 168K) published by the Indian Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas in August 2002. This report contains detail on India's national ambient air quality standards, air quality monitoring, levels of pollutants in ambient air and extent of non-attainment, and the contribution of vehicular exhausts to ambient air quality in India and other countries.

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Nepal National Ambient Air Quality Standards

http://mope.gov.np/mopepollution/index_html Exit EPA

Standards are presented for total suspended particulates (TSP), particulate matter (PM10), sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead, and benzene.

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Pakistan's National Environmental Quality Standards for Industrial Gaseous Emissions

http://www.environment.gov.pk/NEQS/SRO549%20I2000-NEQS.pdf Exit EPA

Pakistan's Environmental Protection Agency Emission presents standards for 16 pollutants, including particulate matter, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, and lead. In addition, ambient air quality levels are given for sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide.

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South Africa Ambient Air Quality Guidelines

http://www.environment.gov.za/enviro-info/sote/citysoe/johannes/virtual/csoe/csoe/html/nonjava%20site/pollution/air/air.htm Exit EPA

The South Africa Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) provides an introduction to air pollution in South Africa, including the ambient air quality guidelines, sources of pollution, and air quality data for Johannesburg.

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UK Air Quality Standards and Objectives

http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/airquality/strategy/index.htm(PDF, 34 pp., 222 KB) Exit EPA

Chapter 4 of The Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland discusses how to set air quality standards for pollutants, established limit values for several pollutants, and sets objectives and target dates for seven pollutants: benzene, 1,3-butadiene, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, and sulfur dioxide. This report was published by the UK Department for Environment, Food &Rural Affairs

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U.S. EPA Criteria Document for Carbon Monoxide

http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=18163

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in criteria documents. The last air quality criteria document for carbon monoxide (CO) was completed by EPA in 1991. This revised criteria document (2000) consolidates and updates the current scientific basis for another reevaluation of the NAAQS for CO, currently set at 9 ppm (10 mg/m3) for 8 h and 35 ppm (40 mg/m3) for one hour. Although emphasis is placed on the presentation of health effects data, other scientific data are presented and evaluated to provide a better understanding of the nature, sources, distribution, measurement, and concentration of CO in the environment, as well as the measurement of population exposure to CO.

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U.S. EPA Criteria Document for Lead

http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=45189

The evaluations contained in the 1986 Criteria Document, addendum, and supplement are to serve as scientific inputs to decision-making with regard to review and revision, as appropriate, of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Lead. The Air Quality Criteria document for Lead evaluates in detail the latest scientific information concerning sources, routes, and levels of lead (Pb) exposure and associated health effects and potential risks. An Addendum (1986) to that document focuses on additional studies concerning the effects of lead on cardiovascular function and on early physical and neurobehavioral development. The 1989 Supplement evaluates further still newer information in the published literature concerning (1) lead effects on blood pressure and other cardiovascular endpoints and (2) the effects of lead exposure during pregnancy or early postnatally on birth outcomes and/or the neonatal physical and neuropsychological development of affected children.

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U.S. EPA Criteria Document for Nitrogen Oxides

http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=40179

This 1993 criteria document focuses on a review and assessment of the effects on human health and welfare of the nitrogen oxides, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and the related compounds, nitrites, nitrates, nitrogenous acids, and nitrosamines. Although the emphasis is on presentation of health and welfare effects data, other scientific data are presented in order to provide a better understanding of these pollutants in the environment. To this end, separate chapters are included which discuss the nitrogen cycle, sources and emissions, atmospheric chemical processes which transform emissions of nitrogen oxides into related airborne compounds, transport and removal processes, measurement methods, and atmospheric concentrations of nitrogenous pollutants.

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U.S. EPA Criteria Document for Ozone

http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=2831

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in air quality criteria issued under the Clean Air Act. The purpose of this revised (July 1996) air quality criteria document for ozone (O3) and related photochemical oxidants is to critically evaluate and assess the latest scientific data associated with exposure to the concentrations of these pollutants found in ambient air. Emphasis is placed on the presentation of health and environmental effects data; however, other scientific data are presented and evaluated in order to provide a better understanding of the nature, sources, distribution, measurement, and concentrations of ozone and related photochemical oxidants and their precursors in the environment.

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Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter (External Review Draft)

http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=201805

This external review draft document is a draft revision of the Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2001, and it will serve as the basis for reevaluating the current National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) set in 1997. The present external review draft critically assesses the latest scientific information relative to determining the health and welfare effects associated with exposure to various concentrations of PM in ambient air. (Note that sulfates are one of the major components of fine particles; thus, sulfates and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are addressed in this criteria document and not in a separate document for SO2.)

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U.S. EPA's National Ambient Air Quality Standards

http://www.epa.gov/air/criteria.html

U.S. EPA's National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are listed for the following six criteria pollutants: ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM - both for particles less than 2.5 and 10 micrometers), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and lead (Pb).

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World Bank Compilation of Air Quality Standards for Toxics

http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/em/power/standards/airqstd.stm#taq Exit EPA

The World Bank has compiled an overview of environmental standards and guidelines used in the power sector for air toxics for Indonesia (lead, hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia) and India (lead).

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World Bank Compilation of Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)

http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/em/power/standards/airqstd.stm#nox Exit EPA

The World Bank has compiled an overview of environmental standards and guidelines used in the power sector for nitrogen oxides (NOx) for China, India, Indonesia, Philippines, Poland, Thailand, World Bank, United States, Germany, Japan, and the European Union (EU).

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World Bank Compilation of Air Quality Standards for Particulates

http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/em/power/standards/airqstd.stm#caq Exit EPA

The World Bank has compiled an overview of environmental standards and guidelines used in the power sector for particulate matter for China, India, Indonesia, Philippines, Poland, Thailand, World Bank, United States, Germany, and Japan.

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World Bank Compilation of Air Quality Standards for Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/em/power/standards/airqstd.stm#so2 Exit EPA

The World Bank has compiled an overview of environmental standards and guidelines used in the power sector for sulfur dioxide (SO2) for China, India, Indonesia, Philippines, Poland, Thailand, World Bank, United States, Germany, and Japan.

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