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References

Adams, W. C. (2006) Comparison of chamber 6.6-h exposures to 0.04–0.08 PPM ozone via square-wave and triangular profiles on pulmonary responses. Inhal. Toxicol. 18: 127-136

Anderson, H. R.; Spix, C.; Medina, S.; Schouten, J. P.; Castellsague, J.; Rossi, G.; Zmirou, D.; Touloumi, G.; Wojtyniak, B.; Ponka, A.; Bacharova, L.; Schwartz, J.; Katsouyanni, K. (1997) Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 European cities: results from the APHEA project. Eur. Respir. J. 10: 1064-1071.

Apte MG, Buchanan IS, Mendell MJ. (2008) Outdoor ozone and building-related symptoms in the BASE Study. Indoor Air ;18:156-70.

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Bell, M. L.; Dominici, F.; Samet, J. M. (2005) A meta-analysis of time-series studies of ozone and mortality with comparison to the national morbidity, mortality, and air pollution study. Epidemiology 16: 436-445.

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Burnett, R. T.; Brook, J. R.; Yung, W. T.; Dales, R. E.; Krewski, D. (1997) Association between ozone and hospitalization for respiratory diseases in 16 Canadian cities. Environ. Res. 72: 24-31.

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Folinsbee et al. (1988) Pulmonary function and symptom response after 6.6-hour exposure to 0.12 ppm ozone with moderate exercise. JAPCA 38: 28-35.

Friedman, M.S.; Powell, K.E.; Hutwagner, L.; Graham, L.M.; Teague, W.G. (2001) Impact of changes in transportation and commuting behaviors during the 1996 Olympic games in Atlanta on air quality and childhood asthma. JAMA. 285(7): 897-905

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Kehrl, H. R.; Peden, D. B.; Ball, B. A.; Folinsbee, L. J.; Horstman, D. H. (1999) Increased specific airway reactivity of persons with mild allergic asthma after 7.6 hours of exposure to 0.16 ppm ozone. J. Allergy. Clin. Immunol. 104: 1198-1204. [22101]

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U.S. EPA (1996) Review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Assessment of Scientific and Technical Information, OAQPS Staff Paper. EPA-452/R-96-007. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park, NC.

Vagaggini, B.; Taccola, M.; Conti, I.; Carnevali, S.; Cianchetti, S.; Bartoli, M. L.; Bacci, E.; Dente, F. L.; Di Franco, A.; Giannini, D.; Paggiaro, P. L. (2001) Budesonide reduces neutrophilic but not functional airway response to ozone in mild asthmatics. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 164: 2172-2176.

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Figures and Tables

What is Ozone?
Figure 1: U.S. counties with high ozone concentrations in 2008

General Population Effects

Figure 2: Pyramid of effects caused by ozone

Figure 3: Ozone is highly reactive in the respiratory tract

Figure 4: Ozone induces neurally mediated responses in the bronchial airways

Figure 5: Effects of ozone on lung function

Figure 6: Effects of ozone on the lung's lining

Figure 7: Variability of response to ozone exposure

Figure 8: Sensitivity to ozone exposure is age related

Figure 9: The number of emergency or urgent daily respiratory admissions to acute care hospitals is related to estimated ozone exposure

Effects on Patients with Asthma
Figure 10: Factors involved in induction and exacerbation of asthma

Figure 11: Unscheduled daily asthma medication use by children with asthma is associated with summertime haze air pollution

Figure 12: Childhood asthma and reactive airway disease appears to be exacerbated after periods of high ozone pollution

Figure 13: Ozone exposure increases the responsiveness of people with allergic asthma to inhaled house dust mite antigen

Air Quality Index
Table 1: Gradation of Individual Responses to Short-Term Ozone Exposure in Healthy People

Table 2: Gradation of Individual Responses to Short-Term Ozone Exposure in People with Lung Disease

Figure 14: Air Quality Index (AQI) levels of health concern

Figure 15: The AQI Guide for Ozone

Figure 16: Nick Walker of The Weather Channel giving an air quality forecast

Figure 17: AQI forecast map

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