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Additional Illustrations of Spatial/Temporal Co-occurrence

Explanation of the Illustrations of Types of Evidence.  These illustrations provide graphic explanations of the types of evidence.  They are somewhat abstract to convey that they are representative of the concept rather than illustrations of particular applications.  The live fish (green and upright) represent unimpaired organisms, populations or communities of all types, not just fish.  The dead fish (white and belly-up at the surface) represent all biological impairments, not just dead fish.  The pipe represents all sources and the yellow effluent plume represents all causal agents (stressors), not just effluents or even chemicals.  Clock faces represent the passage of time, not the particular time difference illustrated.  Fish in beakers represent laboratory tests.  Other graphic elements used in particular illustrations are explained in the caption.
Figure 3-2a. Spatial/Temporal Co-occurrence with Positive Reference Sites, Supports. The impairment (dead fish) occurs in similar ecosystems exposed to the same causal agent (effluent from the same industry) at another site.
Explanation of the Illustrations of Types of Evidence.  These illustrations provide graphic explanations of the types of evidence.  They are somewhat abstract to convey that they are representative of the concept rather than illustrations of particular applications.  The live fish (green and upright) represent unimpaired organisms, populations or communities of all types, not just fish.  The dead fish (white and belly-up at the surface) represent all biological impairments, not just dead fish.  The pipe represents all sources and the yellow effluent plume represents all causal agents (stressors), not just effluents or even chemicals.  Clock faces represent the passage of time, not the particular time difference illustrated.  Fish in beakers represent laboratory tests.  Other graphic elements used in particular illustrations are explained in the caption.
Figure 3-2b. Spatial/Temporal Co-occurrence with Positive Reference Sites, Refutes. The impairment (dead fish) does not occur in similar ecosystems exposed to the same causal agent (effluent from the same industry) at another site.
Explanation of the Illustrations of Types of Evidence.  These illustrations provide graphic explanations of the types of evidence.  They are somewhat abstract to convey that they are representative of the concept rather than illustrations of particular applications.  The live fish (green and upright) represent unimpaired organisms, populations or communities of all types, not just fish.  The dead fish (white and belly-up at the surface) represent all biological impairments, not just dead fish.  The pipe represents all sources and the yellow effluent plume represents all causal agents (stressors), not just effluents or even chemicals.  Clock faces represent the passage of time, not the particular time difference illustrated.  Fish in beakers represent laboratory tests.  Other graphic elements used in particular illustrations are explained in the caption.
Figure 3-3a. Spatial/Temporal Co-occurrence Through Time at a Site, Supports. The impairment (dead fish) occurs when the causal agent occurs (the effluent is being discharged) but not when it does not occur (no discharge).
Explanation of the Illustrations of Types of Evidence.  These illustrations provide graphic explanations of the types of evidence.  They are somewhat abstract to convey that they are representative of the concept rather than illustrations of particular applications.  The live fish (green and upright) represent unimpaired organisms, populations or communities of all types, not just fish.  The dead fish (white and belly-up at the surface) represent all biological impairments, not just dead fish.  The pipe represents all sources and the yellow effluent plume represents all causal agents (stressors), not just effluents or even chemicals.  Clock faces represent the passage of time, not the particular time difference illustrated.  Fish in beakers represent laboratory tests.  Other graphic elements used in particular illustrations are explained in the caption.
Figure 3-3b. Spatial/Temporal Co-occurrence Through Time at a Site, Refutes. The impairment (dead fish) occurs whether the causal agent occurs (the effluent is being discharged) or not (no discharge).
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