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Climate Change

Climate Change Indicators in the United States


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Greenhouse Gases

Chapter Introduction

  1. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1.
  2. ibid.

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

  1. U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2015. Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990–2013. EPA 430-R-15-004. www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/usinventoryreport.html.
  2. ibid.
  3. ibid.
  4. ibid.
  5. ibid.
  6. ibid.

Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions

  1. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2014. Climate change 2014: Mitigation of climate change. Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg3.
  2. WRI (World Resources Institute). 2014. Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) 2.0: WRI's climate data explorer. Accessed May 2014. http://cait.wri.org.
  3. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 2014. FAOSTAT: Emissions—land use. Accessed May 2014. http://faostat3.fao.org/faostat-gateway/go/to/download/G2/*/E.
  4. WRI (World Resources Institute). 2014. Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) 2.0: WRI's climate data explorer. Accessed May 2014. http://cait.wri.org.
  5. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 2014. FAOSTAT: Emissions—land use. Accessed May 2014. http://faostat3.fao.org/faostat-gateway/go/to/download/G2/*/E.
  6. WRI (World Resources Institute). 2014. Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) 2.0: WRI's climate data explorer. Accessed May 2014. http://cait.wri.org.
  7. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2014. Climate change 2014: Mitigation of climate change. Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg3.

Atmospheric Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases

  1. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1.
  2. ibid.
  3. ibid.
  4. ibid.
  5. EPICA Dome C and Vostok Station, Antarctica: approximately 796,562 BC to 1813 AD
    Lüthi, D., M. Le Floch, B. Bereiter, T. Blunier, J.-M. Barnola, U. Siegenthaler, D. Raynaud, J. Jouzel, H. Fischer, K. Kawamura, and T.F. Stocker. 2008. High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000–800,000 years before present. Nature 453:379–382. www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/pubs/luethi2008/luethi2008.html.

    Law Dome, Antarctica, 75-year smoothed: approximately 1010 AD to 1975 AD
    Etheridge, D.M., L.P. Steele, R.L. Langenfelds, R.J. Francey, J.M. Barnola, and V.I. Morgan. 1998. Historical CO2 records from the Law Dome DE08, DE08-2, and DSS ice cores. In: Trends: A compendium of data on global change. Oak Ridge, TN: U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed September 14, 2005. http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/co2/lawdome.html.

    Siple Station, Antarctica: approximately 1744 AD to 1953 AD
    Neftel, A., H. Friedli, E. Moor, H. Lötscher, H. Oeschger, U. Siegenthaler, and B. Stauffer. 1994. Historical carbon dioxide record from the Siple Station ice core. In: Trends: A compendium of data on global change. Oak Ridge, TN: U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed September 14, 2005. http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/co2/siple.html.

    Mauna Loa, Hawaii: 1959 AD to 2014 AD
    NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. Annual mean carbon dioxide concentrations for Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Accessed June 15, 2015. ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/products/trends/co2/co2_annmean_mlo.txt.

    Barrow, Alaska: 1974 AD to 2013 AD
    Cape Matatula, American Samoa: 1976 AD to 2013 AD

    South Pole, Antarctica: 1976 AD to 2013 AD
    NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2014. Monthly mean carbon dioxide concentrations for Barrow, Alaska; Cape Matatula, American Samoa; and the South Pole. Accessed December 29, 2014. ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/data/trace_gases/co2/in-situ.

    Cape Grim, Australia: 1992 AD to 2006 AD
    Shetland Islands, Scotland: 1993 AD to 2002 AD
    Steele, L.P., P.B. Krummel, and R.L. Langenfelds. 2007. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ppmv) derived from flask air samples collected at Cape Grim, Australia, and Shetland Islands, Scotland. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. Accessed January 20, 2009. http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ftp/trends/co2/csiro.

    Lampedusa Island, Italy: 1993 AD to 2000 AD
    Chamard, P., L. Ciattaglia, A. di Sarra, and F. Monteleone. 2001. Atmospheric carbon dioxide record from flask measurements at Lampedusa Island. In: Trends: A compendium of data on global change. Oak Ridge, TN: U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed September 14, 2005. http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/co2/lampis.html.

  6. EPICA Dome C, Antarctica: approximately 797,446 BC to 1937 AD
    Loulergue, L., A. Schilt, R. Spahni, V. Masson-Delmotte, T. Blunier, B. Lemieux, J.-M. Barnola, D. Raynaud, T.F. Stocker, and J. Chappellaz. 2008. Orbital and millennial-scale features of atmospheric CH4 over the past 800,000 years. Nature 453:383–386. www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/pubs/loulergue2008/loulergue2008.html.

    Law Dome, Antarctica: approximately 1008 AD to 1980 AD
    Etheridge, D.M., L.P. Steele, R.J. Francey, and R.L. Langenfelds. 2002. Historic CH4 records from Antarctic and Greenland ice cores, Antarctic firn data, and archived air samples from Cape Grim, Tasmania. In: Trends: A compendium of data on global change. Oak Ridge, TN: U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed September 13, 2005. http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/atm_meth/lawdome_meth.html.

    Cape Grim, Australia: 1984 AD to 2013 AD
    NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2014. Monthly mean CH4 concentrations for Cape Grim, Australia. Accessed December 29, 2014. ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/data/trace_gases/ch4/flask/surface/ch4_cgo_surface-flask_1_ccgg_month.txt.

    Mauna Loa, Hawaii: 1987 AD to 2014 AD
    NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. Monthly mean CH4 concentrations for Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Accessed June 5, 2015. ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/data/trace_gases/ch4/in-situ/surface/mlo/ch4_mlo_surface-insitu_1_ccgg_month.txt.

    Shetland Islands, Scotland: 1993 AD to 2001 AD
    Steele, L.P., P.B. Krummel, and R.L. Langenfelds. 2002. Atmospheric methane record from Shetland Islands, Scotland (October 2002 version). In: Trends: A compendium of data on global change. Oak Ridge, TN: U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed September 13, 2005. http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/atm_meth/csiro/csiro-shetlandch4.html.

  7. EPICA Dome C, Antarctica: approximately 796,475 BC to 1937 AD
    Schilt, A., M. Baumgartner, T. Blunier, J. Schwander, R. Spahni, H. Fischer, and T.F. Stocker. 2010. Glacial-interglacial and millennial scale variations in the atmospheric nitrous oxide concentration during the last 800,000 years. Quaternary Sci. Rev. 29:182–192. ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/icecore/antarctica/epica_domec/edc-n2o-2010-800k.txt.

    Antarctica: approximately 1903 AD to 1976 AD
    Battle, M., M. Bender, T. Sowers, P. Tans, J. Butler, J. Elkins, J. Ellis, T. Conway, N. Zhang, P. Lang, and A. Clarke. 1996. Atmospheric gas concentrations over the past century measured in air from firn at the South Pole. Nature 383:231–235. ftp://daac.ornl.gov/data/global_climate/global_N_cycle/data/global_N_perturbations.txt.

    Cape Grim, Australia: 1979 AD to 2012 AD
    AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment). 2014. Monthly mean N2O concentrations for Cape Grim, Australia. Accessed April 8, 2014. http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/gmd/wdcgg/cgi-bin/wdcgg/catalogue.cgi.

    South Pole, Antarctica: 1998 AD to 2013 AD
    Barrow, Alaska: 1999 AD to 2013 AD
    Mauna Loa, Hawaii: 2000 AD to 2013 AD
    NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2014. Monthly mean N2O concentrations for Barrow, Alaska; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; and the South Pole. Accessed April 8, 2014. www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/hats/insitu/cats/cats_conc.html.

  8. AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment). 2014. ALE/GAGE/AGAGE data base. Accessed May 2014. http://agage.eas.gatech.edu/data.htm.
  9. Arnold, T. 2013 update to data originally published in: Arnold, T., C.M. Harth, J. Mühle, A.J. Manning, P.K. Salameh, J. Kim, D.J. Ivy, L.P. Steele, V.V. Petrenko, J.P. Severinghaus, D. Baggenstos, and R.F. Weiss. 2013. Nitrogen trifluoride global emissions estimated from updated atmospheric measurements. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110(6):2029–2034. Data updated May 2013.
  10. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2013. Halocarbons and Other Atmospheric Trace Species group (HATS). Accessed July 2013. www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/hats.
  11. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). 2013. Data—TOMS/SBUV TOR data products. Accessed November 2013. http://science.larc.nasa.gov/TOR/data.html.
  12. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). 2014. SBUV merged ozone data set (MOD). Version 8.6. Pre-online release provided by NASA staff, May 2014. http://acdb-ext.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/merged/index.html.
  13. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). 2014. Tropospheric ozone data from AURA OMI/MLS. Accessed May 2014. http://acdb-ext.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/cloud_slice/new_data.html.
  14. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1.

Climate Forcing

  1. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index. Accessed May 2015. www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi.
  2. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1.

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Weather and Climate

U.S. and Global Temperature

  1. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. National Centers for Environmental Information. Accessed April 2015. www.ncei.noaa.gov.
  2. ibid.
  3. ibid.

High and Low Temperatures

  1. Melillo, J.M., T.C. Richmond, and G.W. Yohe (eds.). 2014. Climate change impacts in the United States: The third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program. http://nca2014.globalchange.gov.
  2. National Research Council. 2011. Climate stabilization targets: Emissions, concentrations, and impacts over decades to millennia. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  3. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1.
  4. CCSP (U.S. Climate Change Science Program). 2008. Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.3: Weather and climate extremes in a changing climate. www.globalchange.gov/browse/reports/sap-33-weather-and-climate-extremes-changing-climate.
  5. Kunkel, K. 2015. Updated version of Figure 2.3 in: CCSP (U.S. Climate Change Science Program). 2008. Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.3: Weather and climate extremes in a changing climate. www.globalchange.gov/browse/reports/sap-33-weather-and-climate-extremes-changing-climate.
  6. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. U.S. Climate Extremes Index. Accessed March 2015. www.ncdc.noaa.gov/extremes/cei.
  7. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. U.S. Climate Extremes Index. Accessed May 2015. www.ncdc.noaa.gov/extremes/cei.
  8. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. National Centers for Environmental Information. Accessed June 2015. www.ncdc.noaa.gov.
  9. ibid.
  10. Meehl, G. A., C. Tebaldi, G. Walton, D. Easterling, and L. McDaniel. 2009. Relative increase of record high maximum temperatures compared to record low minimum temperatures in the U.S. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36:L23701.
  11. ibid.

U.S. and Global Precipitation

  1. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. National Centers for Environmental Information. Accessed April 2015. www.ncei.noaa.gov.
  2. Blunden, J., and D.S. Arndt, eds. 2014. State of the climate in 2013. B. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 95(7):S1-S257.
  3. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. National Centers for Environmental Information. Accessed April 2015. www.ncei.noaa.gov.

Heavy Precipitation

  1. Melillo, J.M., T.C. Richmond, and G.W. Yohe (eds.). 2014. Climate change impacts in the United States: The third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program. http://nca2014.globalchange.gov.
  2. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2012. National Climatic Data Center. Personal communication: Analysis by Derek Arndt, April 2012.
  3. CCSP (U.S. Climate Change Science Program). 2008. Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.3: Weather and climate extremes in a changing climate. www.globalchange.gov/browse/reports/sap-33-weather-and-climate-extremes-changing-climate.
  4. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. U.S. Climate Extremes Index. Accessed March 2015. www.ncdc.noaa.gov/extremes/cei.
  5. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. Standardized Precipitation Index data files. Accessed March 2015. ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/cirs/climdiv/.

Drought

  1. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1.
  2. Heim, R.R. 2002. A review of twentieth-century drought indices used in the United States. B. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 83(8):1149–1165.
  3. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2013. State of the climate: Drought: December 2012. Accessed July 2013. www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/drought/2012/12.
  4. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. National Centers for Environmental Information. Accessed March 2015. http://www7.ncdc.noaa.gov/CDO/CDODivisionalSelect.jsp.
  5. National Drought Mitigation Center. 2015. Maps and data. Accessed March 2015. http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/MapsAndData.aspx.

A Closer Look: Temperature and Drought in the Southwest

  1. MacDonald, G.M. 2010. Water, climate change, and sustainability in the Southwest. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107(50):21256–21262.
  2. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. National Centers for Environmental Information. Accessed March 2015. www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/ncdc.html.
  3. National Drought Mitigation Center. 2015. Maps and data. Accessed March 2015. http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/MapsAndData.aspx.
  4. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. National Centers for Environmental Information. Accessed March 2015. www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/ncdc.html.

Tropical Cyclone Activity

  1. Melillo, J.M., T.C. Richmond, and G.W. Yohe (eds.). 2014. Climate change impacts in the United States: The third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program. http://nca2014.globalchange.gov.
  2. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1.
  3. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2012. Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. http://ipcc-wg2.gov/SREX.
  4. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. The Atlantic Hurricane Database Re-analysis Project. www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/hurdat/comparison_table.html.
  5. Vecchi, G.A., and T.R. Knutson. 2011. Estimating annual numbers of Atlantic hurricanes missing from the HURDAT database (1878–1965) using ship track density. J. Climate 24(6):1736–1746. www.gfdl.noaa.gov/bibliography/related_files/gav_2010JCLI3810.pdf.
  6. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. The Atlantic Hurricane Database Re-analysis Project. www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/hurdat/comparison_table.html.
  7. Emanuel, K.A. 2015 update to data originally published in: Emanuel, K.A. 2007. Environmental factors affecting tropical cyclone power dissipation. J. Climate 20(22):5497–5509.
  8. Knutson, T.R., J.L. McBride, J. Chan, K. Emanuel, G. Holland, C. Landsea, I. Held, J.P. Kossin, A.K. Srivastava, and M. Sugi. 2010. Tropical cyclones and climate change. Nature Geosci. 3:157–163.

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Oceans

Ocean Heat

  1. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1.
  2. Levitus, S., J.I. Antonov, T.P. Boyer, O.K. Baranova, H.E. Garcia, R.A. Locarnini, A.V. Mishonov, J.R. Reagan, D. Seidov, E.S. Yarosh, and M.M. Zweng. 2012. World ocean heat content and thermosteric sea level change (0–2000 m), 1955–2010. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39:L10603.
  3. ibid.
  4. Based on a total global energy supply of 13,113 million tons of oil equivalents in the year 2011, which equates to 5.5 x 1020 joules. Source: IEA (International Energy Agency). 2014. Key world energy statistics. www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/KeyWorld2014.pdf.
  5. CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation). 2015 update to data originally published in: Domingues, C.M., J.A. Church, N.J. White, P.J. Gleckler, S.E. Wijffels, P.M. Barker, and J.R. Dunn. 2008. Improved estimates of upper-ocean warming and multi-decadal sea-level rise. Nature 453:1090–1094. www.cmar.csiro.au/sealevel/thermal_expansion_ocean_heat_timeseries.html.
  6. MRI/JMA (Meteorological Research Institute/Japan Meteorological Agency). 2015 update to data originally published in: Ishii, M., and M. Kimoto. 2009. Reevaluation of historical ocean heat content variations with time-varying XBT and MBT depth bias corrections. J. Oceanogr. 65:287–299.
  7. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. Global ocean heat and salt content. Accessed June 2015. www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/3M_HEAT_CONTENT.

Sea Surface Temperature

  1. For example, see: Ostrander, G.K., K.M. Armstrong, E.T. Knobbe, D. Gerace, and E.P. Scully. 2000. Rapid transition in the structure of a coral reef community: The effects of coral bleaching and physical disturbance. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 97(10):5297–5302.
  2. Pratchett, M.S., S.K. Wilson, M.L. Berumen, and M.I. McCormick. 2004. Sublethal effects of coral bleaching on an obligate coral feeding butterflyfish. Coral Reefs 23(3):352–356.
  3. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1.
  4. ibid.
  5. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. Extended reconstructed sea surface temperature (ERSST.v3b). National Centers for Environmental Information. Accessed April 2015. www.ncdc.noaa.gov/ersst.
  6. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1.
  7. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. Merged Land–Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis: Global Gridded 5° x 5° Data. National Centers for Environmental Information. Accessed May 2015. ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/mlost/operational/.

Sea Level

  1. Titus, J.G., E.K. Anderson, D.R. Cahoon, S. Gill, R.E. Thieler, and J.S. Williams. 2009. Coastal sensitivity to sea-level rise: A focus on the Mid-Atlantic region. U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. http://downloads.globalchange.gov/sap/sap4-1/sap4-1-final-report-all.pdf.
  2. University of Colorado at Boulder. 2015. Sea level change: 2015 release #2. Accessed June 2015. http://sealevel.colorado.edu.
  3. CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation). 2015 update to data originally published in: Church, J.A., and N.J. White. 2011. Sea-level rise from the late 19th to the early 21st century. Surv. Geophys. 32:585–602. www.cmar.csiro.au/sealevel/sl_data_cmar.html.
  4. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. Laboratory for Satellite Altimetry: Sea level rise. Accessed June 2015. http://ibis.grdl.noaa.gov/SAT/SeaLevelRise/LSA_SLR_timeseries_global.php.
  5. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015 update to data originally published in: NOAA. 2009. Sea level variations of the United States 1854–2006. NOAA Technical Report NOS CO-OPS 053. www.tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/publications/Tech_rpt_53.pdf.

A Closer Look: Land Loss Along the Atlantic Coast

  1. Crowell, M., K. Coulton, C. Johnson, J. Westcott, D. Bellomo, S. Edelman, and E. Hirsch. 2010. An estimate of the U.S. population living in 100-year coastal flood hazard areas. J. Coastal Res. 26(2):201–211.
  2. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2013. Coastal Change Analysis Program. Accessed December 2013. www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/data/ccapregional.
  3. ibid.
  4. Titus, J.G., E.K. Anderson, D.R. Cahoon, S. Gill, R.E. Thieler, and J.S. Williams. 2009. Coastal sensitivity to sea-level rise: A focus on the Mid-Atlantic region. U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. http://downloads.globalchange.gov/sap/sap4-1/sap4-1-final-report-all.pdf.

Ocean Acidity

  1. Calculated from numbers in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. From 1750 to present: total human emissions of 545 Pg C and ocean uptake of 155 Pg C. Source: IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1.
  2. Wootton, J.T., C.A. Pfister, and J.D. Forester. 2008. Dynamic patterns and ecological impacts of declining ocean pH in a high-resolution multi-year dataset. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105(48):18848–18853.
  3. Bednaršek, N., G.A. Tarling, D.C.E. Bakker, S. Fielding, E.M. Jones, H.J. Venables, P. Ward, A. Kuzirian, B. Lézé, R.A. Feely, and E.J. Murphy. 2012. Extensive dissolution of live pteropods in the Southern Ocean. Nat. Geosci. 5:881–885.
  4. Feely, R.A., S.C. Doney, and S.R. Cooley. 2009. Ocean acidification: Present conditions and future changes in a high-CO2 world. Oceanography 22(4):36–47.
  5. Recreated from Environment Canada. 2008. The pH scale. www.ec.gc.ca/eau-water/default.asp?lang=En&n=FDF30C16-1.
  6. Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences. 2014 update to data originally published in: Bates, N.R., M.H.P. Best, K. Neely, R. Garley, A.G. Dickson, and R.J. Johnson. 2012. Detecting anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake and ocean acidification in the North Atlantic Ocean. Biogeosciences 9:2509–2522.
  7. González-Dávila, M. 2012 update to data originally published in: González-Dávila, M., J.M. Santana-Casiano, M.J. Rueda, and O. Llinás. 2010. The water column distribution of carbonate system variables at the ESTOC site from 1995 to 2004. Biogeosciences 7:3067–3081.
  8. Dore, J. 2014 update to data originally published in: Dore, J.E., R. Lukas, D.W. Sadler, M.J. Church, and D.M. Karl. 2009. Physical and biogeochemical modulation of ocean acidification in the central North Pacific. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:12235-12240.
  9. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 2014 update to data originally published in: Feely, R.A., S.C. Doney, and S.R. Cooley. 2009. Ocean acidification: Present conditions and future changes in a high-CO2 world. Oceanography 22(4):36–47.
  10. Feely, R.A., S.C. Doney, and S.R. Cooley. 2009. Ocean acidification: Present conditions and future changes in a high-CO2 world. Oceanography 22(4):36–47.
  11. ibid.

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Snow and Ice

Arctic Sea Ice

  1. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). 2015. Annual Arctic sea ice minimum 1979–2014 with area graph. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio. http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/details.cgi?aid=4301.
  2. NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center). 2012. Arctic sea ice 101. http://nsidc.org/icelights/arctic-sea-ice.
  3. Comiso, J. 2012. Large decadal decline of the Arctic multiyear ice cover. J. Climate 25(4):1176–1193.
  4. NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center). 2015. Sea ice data and image archive. Accessed May 2015. http://nsidc.org/data/seaice_index/archives.html.
  5. NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center). 2014. Arctic sea ice news and analysis. October 7, 2014. http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews/2014/10.

Glaciers

  1. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1.
  2. Post, A. 1958. McCall Glacier. Glacier photograph collection. Boulder, Colorado: National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology. http://nsidc.org/data/g00472.html.
  3. Nolan, M. 2003. McCall Glacier. Glacier photograph collection. Boulder, Colorado: National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology. http://nsidc.org/data/g00472.html.
  4. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1.
  5. WGMS (World Glacier Monitoring Service). 2015 update to data originally published in: WGMS. 2013. Glacier mass balance bulletin no. 12 (2010–2011). Zemp, M., S.U. Nussbaumer, K. Naegeli, I. Gärtner-Roer, F. Paul, M. Hoelzle, and W. Haeberli (eds.). ICSU (WDS)/IUGG (IACS)/UNEP/UNESCO/WMO. Zurich, Switzerland: World Glacier Monitoring Service. www.wgms.ch/mbb/mbb12/wgms_2013_gmbb12.pdf.
  6. O’Neel, S., E. Hood, A. Arendt, and L. Sass. 2014. Assessing streamflow sensitivity to variations in glacier mass balance. Climatic Change 123(2):329–341.
  7. USGS (U.S. Geological Survey). 2015. Water resources of Alaska—glacier and snow program, benchmark glaciers. http://ak.water.usgs.gov/glaciology.
  8. Melillo, J.M., T.C. Richmond, and G.W. Yohe (eds.). 2014. Climate change impacts in the United States: The third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program. http://nca2014.globalchange.gov.

Lake Ice

  1. Benson, B.J., J.J. Magnuson, O.P. Jensen, V.M. Card, G. Hodgkins, J. Korhonen, D.M. Livingstone, K.M. Stewart, G.A. Weyhenmeyer, and N.G. Granin. 2012. Extreme events, trends, and variability in Northern Hemisphere lake-ice phenology (1855–2005). Climatic Change 112(2):299–323.
  2. Detroit Lake, Minnesota, 2006–2012
    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Accessed May 2015. www.dnr.state.mn.us/ice_in.

    Geneva Lake, Wisconsin, 2005–2014
    Geneva Lake Environmental Agency Newsletters. Accessed May 2015. www.genevaonline.com/~glea/newsletters.php.

    Lake George, New York, 2005–2014
    Lake George Association. Accessed May 2015. www.lakegeorgeassociation.org/who-we-are/documents/Ice-In-Ice-Out2014-15.pdf.

    Lake Mendota and Lake Monona, Wisconsin, 2011–2014
    North Temperate Lakes Long Term Ecological Research site. Accessed May 2015. http://lter.limnology.wisc.edu/lakeinfo/ice-data?lakeid=ME and http://lter.limnology.wisc.edu/lakeinfo/ice-data?lakeid=MO.

    Otsego Lake, New York, 2005–2014
    State University of New York (SUNY) Oneonta Biological Field Station. Annual Reports. Accessed May 2015. www.oneonta.edu/academics/biofld/PUBS/ANNUAL/2013/29-Otsego-Ice-History-2014.pdf.

    Shell Lake, Wisconsin, 2005–2014
    Washburn County Clerk. 2015. Personal communication.

    All other data
    NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center). 2014. Global lake and river ice phenology. Last updated January 2014. http://nsidc.org/data/lake_river_ice.

  3. Cobbosseecontee Lake, Damariscotta Lake, Moosehead Lake, and Sebago Lake, Maine, 1800s–2008
    Hodgkins, G.A. 2010. Historical ice-out dates for 29 lakes in New England, 1807–2008. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010-1214.

    Cobbosseecontee Lake, Damariscotta Lake, Moosehead Lake, and Sebago Lake, Maine, 2009–2014
    U.S. Geological Survey. 2015. Personal communication.

    Detroit Lake, Minnesota, 2006–2014
    Lake Osakis, Minnesota, 1867–2014
    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Accessed May 2015. www.dnr.state.mn.us/ice_out.

    Geneva Lake, Wisconsin, 2005–2013
    Geneva Lake Environmental Agency Newsletters. Accessed May 2015. www.genevaonline.com/~glea/newsletters.php.

    Lake George, New York, 2005–2013
    Lake George Association. Accessed May 2015. www.lakegeorgeassociation.org/who-we-are/documents/Ice-In-Ice-Out2014-15.pdf.

    Lake Mendota and Lake Monona, Wisconsin, 2011–2014
    North Temperate Lakes Long Term Ecological Research site. Accessed May 2015. http://lter.limnology.wisc.edu/lakeinfo/ice-data?lakeid=ME and http://lter.limnology.wisc.edu/lakeinfo/ice-data?lakeid=MO.

    Mirror Lake, New York, 2007–2012
    Adirondack Daily Enterprise. Accessed December 2013. www.adirondackdailyenterprise.com.

    Mirror Lake, New York, 2013–2014
    Lake Placid News. Accessed May 2015. www.lakeplacidnews.com.

    Otsego Lake, New York, 2005–2014
    State University of New York (SUNY) Oneonta Biological Field Station. Annual Reports. Accessed May 2015. www.oneonta.edu/academics/biofld/PUBS/ANNUAL/2013/29-Otsego-Ice-History-2014.pdf.

    Shell Lake, Wisconsin, 2005–2014
    Washburn County Clerk. 2015. Personal communication.

    All other data
    NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center). 2014. Global lake and river ice phenology. Last updated January 2014. http://nsidc.org/data/lake_river_ice.

  4. Cobbosseecontee Lake, Damariscotta Lake, Moosehead Lake, and Sebago Lake, Maine, 1905–2008
    Hodgkins, G.A. 2010. Historical ice-out dates for 29 lakes in New England, 1807–2008. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010-1214.

    Cobbosseecontee Lake, Damariscotta Lake, Moosehead Lake, and Sebago Lake, Maine, 2009–2014
    U.S. Geological Survey. 2015. Personal communication.

    Detroit Lake, Minnesota, 2006–2014
    Lake Osakis, Minnesota, 1905–2014
    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Accessed May 2015. www.dnr.state.mn.us/ice_out.

    Geneva Lake, Wisconsin, 2005–2015
    Geneva Lake Environmental Agency Newsletters. Accessed May 2015. www.genevaonline.com/~glea/newsletters.php.

    Lake George, New York, 2004–2013
    Lake George Association. Accessed May 2015. www.lakegeorgeassociation.org/who-we-are/documents/Ice-In-Ice-Out2014-15.pdf.

    Lake Mendota and Lake Monona, Wisconsin, 2011–2014
    North Temperate Lakes Long Term Ecological Research site. Accessed May 2015. http://lter.limnology.wisc.edu/lakeinfo/ice-data?lakeid=ME and http://lter.limnology.wisc.edu/lakeinfo/ice-data?lakeid=MO.

    Mirror Lake, New York, 2007–2012
    Adirondack Daily Enterprise. Accessed December 2013. www.adirondackdailyenterprise.com.

    Mirror Lake, New York, 2013–2014
    Lake Placid News. Accessed May 2015. www.lakeplacidnews.com.

    Otsego Lake, New York, 2005–2014
    State University of New York (SUNY) Oneonta Biological Field Station. Annual Reports. Accessed May 2015. www.oneonta.edu/academics/biofld/PUBS/ANNUAL/2013/29-Otsego-Ice-History-2014.pdf.

    Shell Lake, Wisconsin, 2005–2014
    Washburn County Clerk. 2015. Personal communication.

    All other data
    NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center). 2014. Global lake and river ice phenology. Last updated January 2014. http://nsidc.org/data/lake_river_ice.

Community Connection: Ice Breakup in Two Alaskan Rivers

  1. Melillo, J.M., T.C. Richmond, and G.W. Yohe (eds.). 2014. Climate change impacts in the United States: The third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program. http://nca2014.globalchange.gov.
  2. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Climate Change 2013: The physical science basis. Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1.
  3. Beltaos, S., and B.C. Burrell. 2003. Climatic change and river ice breakup. Can. J. Civil Eng. 30:145–155.
  4. Nenana Ice Classic. 2015. Accessed May 2015. www.nenanaakiceclassic.com.
  5. Yukon River Breakup. 2015. Accessed May 2015. http://yukonriverbreakup.com.

Snowfall

  1. Barnett, T.P., J.C. Adam, and D.P. Lettenmaier. 2005. Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in snow-dominated regions. Nature 438:303–309.
  2. Kunkel, K.E., M. Palecki, L. Ensor, K.G. Hubbard, D. Robinson, K. Redmond, and D. Easterling. 2009. Trends in twentieth-century U.S. snowfall using a quality-controlled dataset. J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 26:33–44.
  3. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. National Centers for Environmental Information. Accessed May 2015. www.ncdc.noaa.gov.
  4. Kunkel, K.E., M. Palecki, L. Ensor, K.G. Hubbard, D. Robinson, K. Redmond, and D. Easterling. 2009. Trends in twentieth-century U.S. snowfall using a quality-controlled dataset. J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 26:33–44.
  5. ibid.
  6. Feng, S., and Q. Hu. 2007. Changes in winter snowfall/precipitation ratio in the contiguous United States. J. Geophys. Res. 112:D15109.

Snow Cover

  1. Rutgers University Global Snow Lab. 2015. Area of extent data: North America (no Greenland). Accessed April 2015. http://climate.rutgers.edu/snowcover.
  2. ibid.

Snowpack

  1. Mote, P.W., A.F. Hamlet, M.P. Clark, and D.P. Lettenmaier. 2005. Declining mountain snowpack in Western North America. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 86(1):39–49.
  2. Mote, P.W., and D. Sharp. 2015 update to data originally published in: Mote, P.W., A.F. Hamlet, M.P. Clark, and D.P. Lettenmaier. 2005. Declining mountain snowpack in Western North America. B. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86(1):39–49.
  3. Mote, P.W., A.F. Hamlet, M.P. Clark, and D.P. Lettenmaier. 2005. Declining mountain snowpack in Western North America. B. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86(1):39–49.

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Health and Society

Heating and Cooling Degree Days

  1. EIA (Energy Information Administration). 2015. 2009 Residential energy consumption survey. Accessed May 2015. www.eia.gov/consumption/residential/index.cfm.
  2. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. 1981-2010 U.S. climate normals. Accessed May 2015. www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/land-based-station-data/land-based-datasets/climate-normals/1981-2010-normals-data.
  3. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. National Centers for Environmental Information. Accessed April 2015. www.ncei.noaa.gov.
  4. ibid.
  5. ibid.

Heat-Related Deaths

  1. Hansen, J., M. Sato, and R. Ruedy. 2012. Perception of climate change. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. Published online: August 6, 2012.
  2. Melillo, J.M., T.C. Richmond, and G.W. Yohe (eds.). 2014. Climate change impacts in the United States: The third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program. http://nca2014.globalchange.gov.
  3. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2014. Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Working Group II contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg2.
  4. Zanobetti, A., M.S. O'Neill, C.J. Gronlund, and J.D. Schwartz. 2012. Summer temperature variability and long-term survival among elderly people with chronic disease. P Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109(17):6608–6613.
  5. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2014. Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Working Group II contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg2.
  6. Medina-Ramón, M., and J. Schwartz. 2007. Temperature, temperature extremes, and mortality: A study of acclimatization and effect modification in 50 U.S. cities. Occup. Environ. Med. 64(12):827–833.
  7. ibid.
  8. Melillo, J.M., T.C. Richmond, and G.W. Yohe (eds.). 2014. Climate change impacts in the United States: The third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program. http://nca2014.globalchange.gov.
  9. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2014. Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Working Group II contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg2.
  10. CDC (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2015. CDC WONDER database. Accessed June 2015. http://wonder.cdc.gov/mortSQL.html.
  11. CDC (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2015. Indicator: Heat-related mortality. National Center for Health Statistics. Annual national totals provided by National Center for Environmental Health staff in June 2015. http://ephtracking.cdc.gov/showIndicatorPages.action.
  12. Anderson, G.B., and M.L. Bell. 2011. Heat waves in the United States: Mortality risk during heat waves and effect modification by heat wave characteristics in 43 U.S. communities. Environ. Health Persp. 119(2):210–218.
  13. CDC (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 1995. Heat-related mortality – Chicago, July 1995. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 44(31):577–579.
  14. NRC (National Research Council). 2011. Climate stabilization targets: Emissions, concentrations, and impacts over decades to millennia. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
  15. CDC (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2012. CDC WONDER database. Accessed August 2012. http://wonder.cdc.gov/mortSQL.html.
  16. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2012. National Centers for Environmental Information. Accessed August 2012. www.ncdc.noaa.gov.
  17. Medina-Ramón, M., and J. Schwartz. 2007. Temperature, temperature extremes, and mortality: A study of acclimatization and effect modification in 50 U.S. cities. Occup. Environ. Med. 64(12):827–833.
  18. Kaiser, R., A. Le Tertre, J. Schwartz, C.A. Gotway, W.R. Daley, and C.H. Rubin. 2007. The effect of the 1995 heat wave in Chicago on all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Am. J. Public Health 97(Supplement 1):S158–S162.
  19. Weisskopf, M.G., H.A. Anderson, S. Foldy, L.P. Hanrahan, K. Blair, T.J. Torok, and P.D. Rumm. 2002. Heat wave morbidity and mortality, Milwaukee, Wis., 1999 vs. 1995: An improved response? Am. J. Public Health 92:830–833.

Lyme Disease

  1. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2015. Lyme disease data and statistics. www.cdc.gov/lyme/stats/index.html. Accessed March 2015.
  2. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2013. CDC provides estimate of Americans diagnosed with Lyme disease each year. www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2013/p0819-lyme-disease.html.
  3. Leighton, P.A., J.K. Koffi, Y. Pelcat, L.R. Lindsay, and N.H. Ogden. 2012. Predicting the speed of tick invasion: An empirical model of range expansion for the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis in Canada. J. Appl. Ecol. 49(2): 457-464.
  4. ibid.
  5. Süss, J., C. Klaus, F.-H. Gerstengarbe, and P.C. Werner. 2008. What makes ticks tick? Climate change, ticks, and tick-borne diseases. J. Travel Med. 15(1):39-45.
  6. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2015. Lyme disease data and statistics. www.cdc.gov/lyme/stats/index.html. Accessed March 2015.
  7. ibid.
  8. ibid.
  9. Diuk-Wasser, M.A., A.G. Hoen, P. Cislo, R. Brinkerhoff, S.A. Hamer, M. Rowland, R. Cortinas, G. Vourc'h, F. Melton, G.J. Hickling, J.I. Tsao, J. Bunikis, A.G. Barbour, U. Kitron, J. Piesman, and D. Fish. 2012. Human risk of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, in eastern United States. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 86(2):320–327.
  10. Stromdahl, E.Y., and G.J. Hickling. 2012. Beyond Lyme: Aetiology of tick-borne human diseases with emphasis on the south-eastern United States. Zoonoses Public Hlth. 59(Supplement 2):48–64.
  11. U.S. Census Bureau. 2015. Population estimates: Intercensal estimates. Accessed March 16, 2015. www.census.gov/popest/data/intercensal/index.html.
  12. U.S. Census Bureau. 2015. Population estimates: Current estimates data. Accessed March 16, 2015. www.census.gov/popest/data/index.html.

Length of Growing Season

  1. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2014. Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Working Group II contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg2.
  2. Kunkel, K.E. 2015 update to data originally published in: Kunkel, K.E., D.R. Easterling, K. Hubbard, and K. Redmond. 2004. Temporal variations in frost-free season in the United States: 1895–2000. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31:L03201.
  3. ibid.
  4. Kunkel, K.E. 2015 expanded analysis of data originally published in: Kunkel, K.E., D.R. Easterling, K. Hubbard, and K. Redmond. 2004. Temporal variations in frost-free season in the United States: 1895–2000. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31:L03201.
  5. Kunkel, K.E. 2015 update to data originally published in: Kunkel, K.E., D.R. Easterling, K. Hubbard, and K. Redmond. 2004. Temporal variations in frost-free season in the United States: 1895–2000. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31:L03201.
  6. Kunkel, K.E. 2015 expanded analysis of data originally published in: Kunkel, K.E., D.R. Easterling, K. Hubbard, and K. Redmond. 2004. Temporal variations in frost-free season in the United States: 1895–2000. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31:L03201.
  7. ibid.
  8. Kunkel, K.E. 2015 update to data originally published in: Kunkel, K.E., D.R. Easterling, K. Hubbard, and K. Redmond. 2004. Temporal variations in frost-free season in the United States: 1895–2000. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31:L03201.

Ragweed Pollen Season

  1. Schappert, S.M., and E.A. Rechtsteiner. 2011. Ambulatory medical care utilization estimates for 2007. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital and Health Statistics 13(169). www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_13/sr13_169.pdf.
  2. Arbes, S.J., Jr., P.J. Gergen, L. Elliott, and D.C. Zeldin. 2005. Prevalences of positive skin test responses to 10 common allergens in the U.S. population: Results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J. Allergy Clin. Immun. 116(2):377–383.
  3. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. 2011. Pollen allergy. www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/allergicDiseases/understanding/pollenallergy/Pages/default.aspx.
  4. Wayne, P., S. Foster, J. Connolly, F. Bazzaz, and P. Epstein. 2002. Production of allergenic pollen by ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is increased in CO2-enriched atmospheres. Ann. Allerg. Asthma Im. 88:279–282.
  5. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1.
  6. Ziska, L., K. Knowlton, C. Rogers, D. Dalan, N. Tierney, M. Elder, W. Filley, J. Shropshire, L.B. Ford, C. Hedberg, P. Fleetwood, K.T. Hovanky, T. Kavanaugh, G. Fulford, R.F. Vrtis, J.A. Patz, J. Portnoy, F. Coates, L. Bielory, and D. Frenz. 2011. Recent warming by latitude associated with increased length of ragweed pollen season in central North America. P Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108:4248–4251.
  7. Ziska, L., K. Knowlton, C. Rogers, National Allergy Bureau, Aerobiology Research Laboratories, Canada. 2014 update to data originally published in: Ziska, L., K. Knowlton, C. Rogers, D. Dalan, N. Tierney, M. Elder, W. Filley, J. Shropshire, L.B. Ford, C. Hedberg, P. Fleetwood, K.T. Hovanky, T. Kavanaugh, G. Fulford, R.F. Vrtis, J.A. Patz, J. Portnoy, F. Coates, L. Bielory, and D. Frenz. 2011. Recent warming by latitude associated with increased length of ragweed pollen season in central North America. P Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108:4248–4251.
  8. Ziska, L., K. Knowlton, C. Rogers, D. Dalan, N. Tierney, M. Elder, W. Filley, J. Shropshire, L.B. Ford, C. Hedberg, P. Fleetwood, K.T. Hovanky, T. Kavanaugh, G. Fulford, R.F. Vrtis, J.A. Patz, J. Portnoy, F. Coates, L. Bielory, and D. Frenz. 2011. Recent warming by latitude associated with increased length of ragweed pollen season in central North America. P Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108:4248–4251.

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Ecosystems

Wildfires

  1. MRLC (Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics) Consortium. 2015. National Land Cover Database 2011 (NLCD 2011) product statistics. www.mrlc.gov/nlcd11_stat.php.
  2. Stein, S.M., J. Menakis, M.A. Carr, S.J. Comas, S.I. Stewart, H. Cleveland, L. Bramwell, and V.C. Radeloff. 2013. Wildfire, wildlands, and people: Understanding and preparing for wildfire in the wildland-urban interface. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-299. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. www.fs.fed.us/openspace/fote/wildfire-report.html.
  3. Johnston, F. H., S.B. Henderson, Y. Chen, J.T. Randerson, M. Marlier, R.S. DeFries, P. Kinney, D. Bowman, and M. Brauer. 2012. Estimated global mortality attributable to smoke from landscape fires. Environ. Health Persp. 120(5):695–701. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3346787.
  4. National Association of State Foresters. 2009. Quadrennial fire review. www.nifc.gov/policies/pol_ref_QFR.html.
  5. NIFC (National Interagency Fire Center). 2015. Historical wildland fire information: Federal firefighting costs: Suppression only (1985–2014). www.nifc.gov/fireInfo/fireInfo_documents/SuppCosts.pdf.
  6. NIFC (National Interagency Fire Center). 2015. Wildland fire fatalities by year (1910–2014). www.nifc.gov/safety/safety_documents/Fatalities-by-Year.pdf.
  7. NWCG (National Wildfire Coordinating Group). 2014. Glossary of wildland fire terminology. Updated October 2014. www.nwcg.gov/pms/pubs/glossary/index.htm.
  8. For example, see: Peterson, W.T., and F.B. Schwing. 2003. A new climate regime in northeast Pacific ecosystems. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(17).
  9. Kitzberger, T., P.M. Brown, E.K. Heyerdahl, T.W. Swetnam, and T.T. Veblen. 2007. Contingent Pacific–Atlantic Ocean influence on multicentury wildfire synchrony over western North America. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104(2):543–548.
  10. Westerling, A.L., H.G. Hidalgo, D.R. Cayan, and T.W. Swetnam. 2006. Warming and earlier spring increase western U.S. forest wildfire activity. Science 313(5789):940–943.
  11. NIFC (National Interagency Fire Center). 2015. Total wildland fires and acres. Accessed March 2015. www.nifc.gov/fireInfo/fireInfo_stats_totalFires.html.
  12. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) Forest Service. 2014. 1991–1997 wildland fire statistics. Prepared by USDA Forest Service, State and Private Forestry, Fire and Aviation Management staff, and supplemented with historical records provided by Forest Service staff, April 2014.
  13. NIFC (National Interagency Fire Center). 2015. Total wildland fires and acres (1960–2014). Accessed March 2015. www.nifc.gov/fireInfo/fireInfo_stats_totalFires.html.
  14. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) Forest Service. 2014. 1991–1997 wildland fire statistics. Prepared by USDA Forest Service, State and Private Forestry, Fire and Aviation Management staff, and supplemented with historical records provided by Forest Service staff, April 2014.
  15. MTBS (Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity). 2015. MTBS data summaries. www.mtbs.gov/data/search.html.
  16. ibid.
  17. ibid.

Streamflow

  1. USGS (U.S. Geological Survey). 2014. Analysis of data from the National Water Information System. Accessed January 2014.
  2. ibid.
  3. ibid.
  4. ibid.
  5. Lins, H.F. 2012. USGS Hydro-Climatic Data Network 2009 (HCDN-2009). U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2012-3047.

Great Lakes Water Levels and Temperatures

  1. Gronewold, A.D., V. Fortin, B. Lofgren, A. Clites, C.A. Stow, and F. Quinn. 2013. Coasts, water levels, and climate change: A Great Lakes perspective. Climatic Change 120:697–711.
  2. Posey, J. 2012. Climate change impacts on transportation in the Midwest. U.S. National Climate Assessment, Midwest Technical Input Report.
  3. Burnett, A.W., M.E. Kirby, H.T. Mullins, and W.P. Patterson. 2003. Increasing Great Lake-effect snowfall during the twentieth century: A regional response to global warming? J. Climate 16:3535–3542.
  4. Rahel, F.J., and J.D. Olden. 2008. Assessing the effects of climate change on aquatic invasive species. Conserv. Biol. 22(3):521–533.
  5. Kanoshima, I., L. Urmas, and J.-M. Leppanen. 2003. The influence of weather conditions (temperature and wind) on cyanobacterial bloom development in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea). Harmful Algae 2:29–41.
  6. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. Great Lakes water level observations. Accessed April 2015. www.glerl.noaa.gov/data/dashboard/data.
  7. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. NOAA CoastWatch, Great Lakes node. Accessed April 2015. http://coastwatch.glerl.noaa.gov.
  8. Quinn, F.H. 1985. Temporal effects of St. Clair River dredging on Lakes St. Clair and Erie water levels and connecting channel flow. J. Great Lakes Res. 11(3):400–403.

Bird Wintering Ranges

  1. La Sorte, F.A., and F.R. Thompson III. 2007. Poleward shifts in winter ranges of North American birds. Ecology 88(7):1803–1812.
  2. National Audubon Society. 2009. Northward shifts in the abundance of North American birds in early winter: A response to warmer winter temperatures? www.audubon.org/bird/bacc/techreport.html.
  3. ibid.
  4. National Audubon Society. 2014 update to data originally published in: National Audubon Society. 2009. Northward shifts in the abundance of North American birds in early winter: A response to warmer winter temperatures? www.audubon.org/bird/bacc/techreport.html.
  5. ibid.
  6. National Audubon Society. 2009. Northward shifts in the abundance of North American birds in early winter: A response to warmer winter temperatures? www.audubon.org/bird/bacc/techreport.html.
  7. ibid.

Leaf and Bloom Dates

  1. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2014. Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Working Group II contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg2.
  2. Schwartz, M.D., R. Ahas, and A. Aasa. 2006. Onset of spring starting earlier across the Northern Hemisphere. Glob. Chang. Biol. 12:343–351.
  3. Schwartz, M.D., T.R. Ault, and J.L. Betancourt. 2013. Spring onset variations and trends in the continental United States: Past and regional assessment using temperature-based indices. Int. J. Climatol. 33:2917–2922.
  4. For example, see: Schwartz, M.D., R. Ahas, and A. Aasa. 2006. Onset of spring starting earlier across the Northern Hemisphere. Glob. Chang. Biol. 12:343–351.
  5. Schwartz, M.D. 2015 update to data originally published in: Schwartz, M.D., T.R. Ault, and J.L. Betancourt. 2013. Spring onset variations and trends in the continental United States: Past and regional assessment using temperature-based indices. Int. J. Climatol. 33:2917–2922.
  6. ibid.
  7. ibid.
  8. Schwartz, M.D., T.R. Ault, and J.L. Betancourt. 2013. Spring onset variations and trends in the continental United States: Past and regional assessment using temperature-based indices. Int. J. Climatol. 33:2917–2922.

Community Connection: Cherry Blossom Bloom Dates in Washington, D.C.

  1. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2014. Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Working Group II contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg2.
  2. National Park Service. 2015. Bloom schedule. Accessed April 24, 2015. www.nps.gov/cherry/cherry-blossom-bloom.htm.
  3. Chung, U., L. Mack, J.I. Yun, and S. Kim. 2011. Predicting the timing of cherry blossoms in Washington, D.C. and Mid-Atlantic states in response to climate change. PLoS ONE 6(11):e27439.

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