Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR)
Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR)
On July 6, 2011, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized a rule that protects the health of millions of Americans by helping states reduce air pollution and attain clean air standards. This rule, known as the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR), requires states to significantly improve air quality by reducing power plant emissions that contribute to ozone and/or fine particle pollution in other states. In a separate, but related, regulatory action, EPA finalized a supplemental rulemaking on December 15, 2011 to require five states - Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin - to make summertime NOX reductions under the CSAPR ozone season control program. CSAPR requires a total of 28 states to reduce annual SO2 emissions, annual NOX emissions and/or ozone season NOX emissions to assist in attaining the 1997 ozone and fine particle and 2006 fine particle National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). On February 7, 2012 and June 5, 2012, EPA issued two sets of minor adjustments to the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR).
The timing of CSAPR's implementation has been affected by a number of court actions. On December 30, 2011, CSAPR was stayed prior to implementation. On April 29, 2014, the U.S. Supreme Court issued an opinion reversing an August 21, 2012 D.C. Circuit decision that had vacated CSAPR. Following the remand of the case to the D.C. Circuit, EPA requested that the court lift the CSAPR stay and toll the CSAPR compliance deadlines by three years. On October 23, 2014, the D.C. Circuit granted EPA's request. Accordingly, CSAPR Phase 1 implementation is now scheduled for 2015, with Phase 2 beginning in 2017.
This rule replaces EPA's 2005 Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). A December 2008 court decision kept the requirements of CAIR in place temporarily but directed EPA to issue a new rule to implement Clean Air Act requirements concerning the transport of air pollution across state boundaries. This action responds to the court's concerns.
- Read more about the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR)
- Press Release
- Presentation (PDF 33pp, 1.80 MB) Updated December 15, 2011 to reflect the final supplemental rule for CSAPR, the proposed technical revisions rule, recent implementation activities, and other information.
- Fact Sheet Updated July 18, 2011 (PDF 7pp 138 kb)
- Recording of Webinar presented on July 7, 2011 on "CSAPR Website Walkthrough" (WMV 46.77 MB)
- Public Docket for CSAPR.
The Cross-State Air Pollution Rule provides cleaner air and healthier lives for millions of Americans
|Health Effect||Number of Cases Avoided|
|Premature mortality||13,000 to 34,000|
|Non-fatal heart attacks||15,000|
|Hospital and emergency department visits||19,000|
|Upper and lower respiratory symptoms||420,000|
|Days when people miss work or school||1.8 million|
*Impacts avoided due to improvements in PM2.5 and ozone air quality. (see EPA's Regulatory Impact Analysis.)
The CSAPR will help avoid tens of thousands of premature deaths and illnesses, achieving hundreds of billions of dollars in public health benefits. Pollution reductions will also lead to improvements in visibility in national and state parks, and increased protection for sensitive ecosystems including Adirondack lakes and Appalachian streams, coastal waters and estuaries, and forests.
The benefits of the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule far outweigh the costs of the rule.
The final rule yields $120 to $280 billion in annual health and environmental benefits, including the value of avoiding 13,000 to 34,000 premature deaths. This far outweighs the estimated annual costs of CSAPR. The $800 million in annual projected costs of this rule, along with the roughly $1.6 billion per year in capital investments already under way as a result of CAIR, are improving air quality for over 240 million Americans. This rule will not disrupt a reliable flow of affordable electricity for American consumers and businesses. Health benefits will be achieved at a very low cost, and while the effect on prices for specific regions or states may vary, they are well within the range of normal electricity price fluctuations. Any such costs will be greatly outweighed by the benefits. (see EPA's Regulatory Impact Analysis.)
The Cross-State Air Pollution Rule improves air quality throughout the eastern half of the United States, helping states achieve national clean air standards.
The rule requires significant reductions in sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions that cross state lines. These pollutants react in the atmosphere to form fine particles and ground-level ozone and are transported long distances, making it difficult for other states to achieve NAAQS. To see how the rule affects each state in the CSAPR region, view the table "States that are included in the CSAPR" on the Resources for Implementation page.
CSAPR will take effect starting January 1, 2015 for SO2 and annual NOX, and May 1, 2015 for ozone season NOX. Combined with other final state and EPA actions, the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule will reduce power plant SO2 emissions by 73 percent and NOX emissions by 54 percent from 2005 levels in the CSAPR region.
The emission reductions expected from EPA's Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) are not included in the estimated emission reductions from the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule; once those standards are implemented, SO2 emissions from the power sector are likely to be reduced even further.