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You are here: EPA Home » DfE » Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment: Professional Fabricare Processes

Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment: Professional Fabricare Processes

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover, Disclaimer and Acknowledgements:
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Acronyms and Abbreviations: 
HTML || PDF [12K]

Executive Summary:
HTML (introduction only) || PDF [61K]

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION:
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  • 1.1  PROJECT BACKGROUND
  • 1.2  CTSA APPROACH
    • 1.2.1 Coverage of Fabricare Alternatives
    • 1.2.2 Description of Health and Environmental Risks
    • 1.2.3 Performance Data
    • 1.2.4 Analysis of the Costs of the Alternative Clothes Cleaning Technologies
    • 1.2.5 Selected Federal Regulations
    • 1.2.6 Environmental Improvements
    • 1.2.7 Evaluation of Trade-Off Issues
    • 1.2.8 Emerging Technologies
    • 1.2.9 Additional Information
  • 1.3  HOW TO USE THIS DOCUMENT
    • 1.3.1 Clothes Cleaners
    • 1.3.2 Other Readers
  • REFERENCES
CHAPTER 2. OVERVIEW OF PROFESSIONAL FABRICARE TECHNOLOGIES:
HTML (summary only) || PDF [97K]
  • 2.1  TECHNOLOGIES EVALUATED IN THE CTSA
  • 2.2  CLOTHES CLEANING PROCESS
  • 2.3  PROCESS EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS
    • 2.3.1 Perchloroethylene Processes Equipment
    • 2.3.2 Hydrocarbon Processes Equipment
    • 3.3.2 Machine Wetcleaning Processes Equipment
  • 2.4  CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TECHNOLOGIES
    • 2.4.1 Drycleaning -- Solvents
    • 2.4.2 Machine Wetcleaning -- Detergents
  • 2.5  COMMERCIAL FABRICARE INDUSTRY MARKET PROFILE
    • 2.5.1 Introduction
    • 2.5.2 Perchloroethylene Market Share and Volume
    • 2.5.3 Hydrocarbon Solvents Market Share and Volume
    • 2.5.4 Machine Wetcleaning
    • 2.5.5 Fabricare Industry Trends
  • REFERENCES
CHAPTER 3. HAZARD SUMMARY:
HTML (summary only) || PDF [78K]
  • 3.1  INTRODUCTION
  • 3.2  OVERALL SUMMARY
    • 3.2.1 Human Health Hazard
    • 3.2.2 Environmental Hazard
  • 3.3  HAZARD SUMMARIES BY TECHNOLOGY
    • 3.3.1 Drycleaning Technologies
    • 3.3.2 Machine Wetcleaning Technology
  • REFERENCES
CHAPTER 4. RELEASE AND EXPOSURE:
HTML (summary only) || PDF [186K]
  • 4.1  INTRODUCTION
  • 4.2  ENVIRONMENTAL RELEASE ASSESSMENT
    • 4.2.1 Drycleaning Technologies
    • 4.2.2 Machine Wetcleaning Release Assessment
  • 4.3  EXPOSURE OVERVIEW
    • 4.3.1 Background and Definitions
    • 4.3.2 Exposure Descriptors
    • 4.3.3 Exposure Comparisons
  • 4.4  EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS
    • 4.4.1 Drycleaning Technologies: Perchloroethylene Processes
    • 4.4.2 Drycleaning: Hydrocarbon Solvents
    • 4.4.3 Machine Wetcleaning Process
  • REFERENCES
CHAPTER 5. RISK:
HTML (summary only) || PDF [147K]
  • 5.1  RISK CHARACTERIZATION -- INTRODUCTION
    • 5.1.1 Scope of the CTSA Risk Assessments
    • 5.1.2 Background Information on Human Risk Assessment Methodology
  • 5.2  DRYCLEANING USING PERCHLOROETHYLENE (PCE)
    • 5.2.1 Human Health
    • 5.2.2 Human Health Risks
    • 5.2.3 Occupational Risks -- Drycleaning Workers
    • 5.2.4 Risks to Residents Co-Located with Drycleaning Establishments
    • 5.2.5 General Population Risks
    • 5.2.6 Special Sub-Populations
    • 5.2.7 Environmental Risk
    • 5.2.8 Human and Environmental Risks -- Overall Summary and Conclusions
  • 5.3  DRYCLEANING USING HYDROCARBON (HC) SOLVENTS
    • 5.3.1 Human Health
    • 5.3.2 Human Health Risks
    • 5.3.3 Occupational Risks -- Drycleaning Workers
    • 5.3.4 General Population Risks -- Residents Co-Located with Drycleaning         Establishments
    • 5.3.5 General Population Risks
    • 5.3.6 Special Sub-Populations
    • 5.3.7 Environmental Risk -- Summary and Conclusions
  • 5.4  MACHINE WETCLEANING PROCESS
    • 5.4.1 Human Health
    • 5.4.2 Human Health Risks
    • 5.4.3 Occupational Risks -- Wetcleaning Workers
    • 5.4.4 General Population Risks
    • 5.4.5 Environmental Risk -- Summary and Conclusions
  • REFERENCES
CHAPTER 6. PERFORMANCE DATA ANALYSIS:
HTML (summary only) || PDF [168K]
  • 6.1  PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PROFESSIONAL FABRICARE
    • 6.1.1 Performance Assessment Protocol
    • 6.1.2 Subjective Measures of Cleaning Performance
    • 6.1.3 Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Clothes Cleaning
    • 6.1.4 Clothes Cleaning and Textile Damage Potential
  • 6.2  REVIEW OF PERFORMANCE STUDIES FOR FABRICARE OPTIONS
    • 6.2.1 Summary of Findings
    • 6.2.2 Alternative Clothes Cleaning Demonstration (The Greener Cleaner)
    • 6.2.3 Final Report for the Green Clean Project
    • 6.2.4 Pollution Prevention in the Garment Care Industry: Assessing the Viability of   Professional Wetcleaning; Final Report (Cleaner by Nature)
    • 6.2.5 Alternative Textile Care Technologies: Part I
    • 6.2.6 Alternative Textile Care Technologies: Part II
    • 6.2.7 University of Guelph Fabric Swatch Study
  • REFERENCES
CHAPTER 7. PROCESS COST ESTIMATES:
HTML (summary only) || PDF [106K]
  • 7.1  SUMMARY OF TECHNOLOGIES AND COST ELEMENTS MODELED
  • 7.2  ASSUMPTIONS AND COST ESTIMATION METHODOLOGY
    • 7.2.1 Clothes Cleaning Plant Capacity
    • 7.2.2 Equipment Capacity
    • 7.2.3 Capital Equipment Costs
    • 7.2.4 Equipment Maintenance Costs
    • 7.2.5 Energy Costs
    • 7.2.6 Installation Costs
    • 7.2.7 Solvent and Other Material Costs
    • 7.2.8 Filters/Cleaning Supplies
    • 7.2.9 Hazardous Waste Disposal Costs
    • 7.2.10 Regulatory Compliance
    • 7.2.11 Labor Costs
  • 7.3  COST ESTIMATES FOR PCE MACHINE CONFIGURATIONS
    • 7.3.1 PCE Transfer with No Carbon Adsorption or Refrigerated Condenser (PCE-A1)
    • 7.3.2 PCE Transfer with Carbon Adsorber (PCE-A2)
    • 7.3.3 PCE Transfer with Refrigerated Condenser (PCE-A3)
    • 7.3.4 PCE Dry-to-Dry with No Carbon Adsorption or Refrigerated Condenser (PCE-B1)
    • 7.3.5 PCE Dry-to-Dry with Carbon Adsorber (PCE-B2)
    • 7.3.6 PCE Dry-to-Dry Converted to Closed-Loop (PCE-B3)
    • 7.3.7 PCE Dry-to-Dry Closed-Loop with no Carbon Adsorber or with Door Fan and Small Carbon Adsorber (PCE-C)
    • 7.3.8 PCE Dry-to-Dry Closed-Loop with Unvented Integral Secondary Carbon Adsorber (PCE-D)
  • 7.4  COST ESTIMATES FOR HYDROCARBON SOLVENT MACHINE CONFIGURATIONS
    • 7.4.1 HC Transfer Machine with Standard Dryer and No Condenser (HC-A1)
    • 7.4.2 HC Transfer Machine with Recovery Dryer (HC-A2)
    • 7.4.3 HC Dry-to-Dry Closed-Loop with Refrigerated Condenser (HC-B)
  • 7.5  COST ESTIMATES FOR MACHINE WETCLEANING
  • REFERENCES
CHAPTER 8.  SELECTED FEDERAL REGULATIONS:
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  • 8.1  CLEAN AIR ACT
    • 8.1.1 Perchloroethylene Cleaning
    • 8.1.2 Hydrocarbon Solvent Cleaning
    • 8.1.3 Machine Wetcleaning
  • 8.2  CLEAN WATER ACT
    • 8.2.1 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Program
    • 8.2.2 Wastewater Discharges to Publicly-owned Treatment Works
    • 8.2.3 Perchloroethylene Cleaning
    • 8.2.4 Hydrocarbon Solvent Cleaning
    • 8.2.5 Machine Wetcleaning
  • 8.3  SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT - UNDERGROUND INJECTION
    • 8.3.1 Perchloroethylene Cleaning
    • 8.3.2 Hydrocarbon Solvent Cleaning
    • 8.3.3 Machine Wetcleaning
  • 8.4  RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT
    • 8.4.1 Classification of Hazardous Wastes
    • 8.4.2 Classification of Hazardous Waste Generators
    • 8.4.3 Underground Storage Tanks
    • 8.4.4 Perchloroethylene Cleaning
    • 8.4.5 Hydrocarbon Solvent Cleaning
    • 8.4.6 Machine Wetcleaning
  • 8.5  COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION AND LIABILITY ACT
    • 8.5.1 Perchloroethylene Cleaning
    • 8.5.2 Hydrocarbon Solvent Cleaning
    • 8.5.3 Machine Wetcleaning
  • 8.6  OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT
    • 8.6.1 Perchloroethylene Cleaning
    • 8.6.2 Hydrocarbon Solvent Cleaning
    • 8.6.3 Machine Wetcleaning
  • 8.7  CARE LABELING RULE
  • 8.8  OTHER APPLICABLE REGULATIONS
  • REFERENCES
CHAPTER 9. ADDITIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENT APPROACHES:
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  • 9.1  PCE AND HC DRYCLEANING FACILITIES
    • 9.1.1 Recommended Operating and Maintenance Procedures
    • 9.1.2 Impact of Facility Conditions and Remedial Actions on PCE Concentrations in Co-located Residences
  • 9.2  MACHINE WETCLEANING FACILITIES
  • 9.3  TRADE ASSOCIATION CONTACTS FOR FURTHER INFORMATION
  • REFERENCES
CHAPTER 10. TRADE-OFF ISSUES:
HTML (summary only) || PDF [117K]
  • 10.1  SUMMARY OF TRADE-OFF FACTORS
    • 10.1.1 Potential Health and Environmental Risks
    • 10.1.2 Federal Regulatory Environment
    • 10.1.3 Costs
    • 10.1.4 Performance Characteristics
    • 10.1.5 Other Factors
    • 10.1.6 Summary of Trade-Off Considerations
  • 10.2  APPROACHES FOR CONSIDERING TRADE-OFFS
    • 10.2.1 Benefit/Cost Analysis
    • 10.2.2 Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
    • 10.2.3 Comparison of Alternative PCE-Based Machine Configurations
    • 10.2.4 A Comparison of Alternative Hydrocarbon Solvent-Based Technologies
  • REFERENCES
CHAPTER 11. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES:
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  • 11.1  LIQUID CARBON DIOXIDE PROCESS
  • 11.2  ULTRASONIC CLEANING PROCESS
  • 11.3  RYNEX SOLVENT
  • 11.4  BIOTEX SOLVENT
  • REFERENCES
APPENDICES:APPENDIX A. CHEMISTRY AND FATE [PDF, 86K]
  • A.1  CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND INFORMATION
  • A.2  PERCHLOROETHYLENE ENVIRONMENTAL FATE SUMMARY
  • A.3  HYDROCARBON ENVIRONMENTAL FATE SUMMARY
  • A.4  MACHINE WETCLEANING ENVIRONMENTAL FATE SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
APPENDIX B. ECOLOGICAL HAZARD METHODOLOGY [PDF, 9K]
  • B.1  DEVELOPMENT OF HAZARD PROFILE
  • B.2  DETERMINATION OF CONCERN CONCENTRATION
  • REFERENCES
APPENDIX C. HEALTH HAZARD SUMMARIES [PDF, 178K]
  • C.1  DRYCLEANING
    • C.1.1 Perchloroethylene
    • C.1.2 Hydrocarbon Solvents
  • C.2  MACHINE WETCLEANING EXAMPLE DETERGENT CHEMICALS
    • C.2.1 Surfactants
    • C.2.2 Surfactant Aids
  • REFERENCES
APPENDIX D. DOSE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENTS [PDF, 43K]
  • D.1  DRYCLEANING
    • D.1.1 Perchloroethylene
    • D.1.2 Hydrocarbon Solvents
  • D.2  MACHINE WETCLEANING CHEMICALS
  • REFERENCES
APPENDIX E. RELEASE AND EXPOSURE METHODOLOGY AND DATA [PDF, 94K]

APPENDIX F. SUMMARY OF EXTERNAL TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW
[PDF, 20K]

Download the entire CTSA in PDF format [1.9MB].


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