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Authors, Notice, and Acknowledgements

Printed Wiring Boards Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment: Making Holes Conductive

Lori E. Kincaid, Principal Investigator
Jack R. Geibig, Research Associate
Mary B. Swanson, Senior Research Associate

and the

PWB Engineering Support Team

University of Tennessee
Center for Clean Products and Clean Technologies

Kathy Hart, Project Lead
Dipti Singh, Technical Lead
EPA Design for the Environment Program

Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics
Washington, DC 20460

This document was produced under EPA Grant #CX823856 from EPA's Environmental Technology Initiative Program.

PWB Engineering Support Team

The PWB Engineering Support Team consists of University of Tennessee faculty and graduate students who developed analytical models for the project and/or authored sections of this document. Members of the Team and the sections to which they contributed are listed below:

Exposure Assessment and Risk Characterization

Dr. Chris D. Cox, Associate Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Nicholas D. Jackson, M.S. Candidate, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Dr. R. Bruce Robinson, Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Cost Analysis

Dr. Rupy Sawhney, Assistant Professor of Industrial Engineering and Director, Lean Production Laboratory


Some information in this document was provided by individual technology vendors and has not been independently corroborated by EPA. The use of specific trade names or the identification of specific products or processes in this document are not intended to represent an endorsement by the EPA or the U.S. Government. Discussion of federal environmental statutes is intended for information purposes only; this is not an official guidance document, and should not be relied on by companies in the printed wiring board industry to determine applicable regulatory requirements.

For More Information

You can learn more about the Design for the Environment Printed Wiring Board Project, and obtain other related materials.

The DfE Web site (www.epa.gov/dfe) also contains the document, Cleaner Technology Substitutes Assessment: A Methodology and Resources Guide, which describes the basic methodology used in this assessment.

To learn more about the University of Tennessee Center for Clean Products and Clean Technologies, visit the Center's Web site at:



This document was prepared by the University of Tennessee (UT) Knoxville Center for Clean Products and Clean Technologies and the PWB Engineering Support Team with assistance from numerous UT students and staff. The authors would like to acknowledge the outstanding contributions of Chad Toney, Nayef Alteneh, Scott Brown, Sittichai Lertwattanarak and Yatesh Midha, M.S. Candidates in Industrial Engineering, who helped design and perform the cost analysis in Section 4.2; Catherine Wilt, UT Center for Clean Products and Clean Technologies, who researched and wrote the Regulatory Status section (Section 4.3); and Margaret Goergen, UT Center for Clean Products and Clean Technologies, who was the document production manager.

Valuable contributions to the project were provided by the project's Core Group members, including: Kathy Hart, EPA Project Lead and Core Group Co-Chair; Christopher Rhodes, Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits, Core Group Co-Chair; Debbie Boger, EPA Technical Lead and Technical Workgroup Co-Chair; John Lott, DuPont Electronics, Technical Workgroup Co-Chair; Michael Kerr, Circuit Center, Inc., Communication Workgroup Co-Chair; Gary Roper, Substrate Technologies, Inc., Implementation Workgroup Co-Chair; Greg Pitts, Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation; John Sharp, Teradyne Connection Systems; Steve Bold, Continental Circuits Corporation; and Ted Smith, Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition.

We would like to acknowledge Bill Birch of PWB Interconnect Solutions, Inc., and Susan Mansilla of Robisan Laboratory, Inc., for their work in planning, conducting testing for, and writing a technical paper presenting the results of the making holes conductive performance demonstration. Recognition is also given to ADI/Isola who supplied the materials for the performance demonstration, and to H-R Industries, Inc. and Hadco Corporation for volunteering their facilities to build and electroplate the boards. Performance demonstration contractor support was provided by Abt Associates, Inc., of Cambridge, MA, under the direction of Cheryl Keenan.

The following members of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Design for the Environment (DfE) Staff and the EPA Workgroup provided direction and staff support for this project.

EPA Design for the Environment Staff

Kathy Hart Bill Hanson
Debbie Boger Joe Breen
Dipti Singh  

EPA Risk Management Workgroup

We would like to express appreciation to the EPA Risk Management Workgroup, who provided valuable expertise in the development of the CTSA and provided comments on project documents.

Sid Abel Terry O'Bryan
Susan Dillman Daljit Sawhney
Gail Froiman John Shoaff
Susan Krueger Tracy Williamson
Dave Mauriello

Participating Suppliers

We would like to thank the suppliers for their participation in the Design for the Environment Printed Wiring Board Project. In addition to supplying critical information regarding the various technologies, these companies also made significant contributions in planning and conducting the performance demonstration. The participating suppliers are listed below.

Atotech U.S.A., Inc.
Mike Boyle
1750 Overview Drive
Rock Hill, SC 29731-2000
Phone: (803) 817-3500

Electrochemicals, Inc.
Michael Carano
5630 Pioneer Creek Drive
Maple Plain, MN 55359
Phone: (612) 479-2008

Enthone-OMI, Inc.
Kathy Nargi-Toth
P.O. Box 1900
New Haven, CT 06508
Phone: (203) 932-8635

LeaRonal, Inc.
Denis Morrissy
272 Buffalo Avenue
Freeport, NY 11520
Phone: (516) 868-8800

MacDermid, Inc.
Mike Wood
245 Freight Street
Waterbury, CT 06702
Phone: (203) 575-5700

Shipley Company
Martin Bayes
455 Forest Street
Marlborough, MA 01752
Phone: (508) 229-7263

Solution Technology Systems
Eric Harnden
112 First Street
Redlands, CA 92373
Phone: (909) 793-9493

W.R. Grace and Company
David Peard
55 Hayden Avenue
Lexington, MA 02173
Phone: (617) 861-6600, ext. 2704

Performance Demonstration Sites

We would like to recognize the twenty-six test sites that volunteered the use of their facilities for the performance demonstration, and thank them for their commitments of resources and time. We also appreciate the assistance they provided in gathering data necessary for the preparation of this document.

Altron, Inc.

Bureau of Engraving Inc.

Circuit Connect, Inc.

Circuit Science, Inc.

Circuit Center, Inc.

Cray Research, Inc.

Details, Inc.

Dynacircuits Manufacturing Co.

Electronic Service and Design

GCI, Inc.

GE Fanuc Automation

Graphic Products, Inc.

Greule GmbH

Hadco Corporation

LeaRonal, Inc.

M-Tek/Mass Design, Inc.

MacDermid, Inc.

Metalex GmbH

Nicolitch S.A.

Omni-Circuits, Inc.

Poly Print GmbH

Pronto Circuit Technologies

Sanmina Corporation

Schoeller & Co. Elektronik GmbH

Sigma Circuits, Inc.

Texas Instruments Printed Circuit Resources

Technical Workgroup

We appreciate the industry representatives and other interested parties who participated in the Printed Wiring Board Project Technical Workgroup, and provided comments on the individual modules of the CTSA. Many thanks to the members of this workgroup for their voluntary commitments to this project.

Martin Bayes
Shipley Company

Bill Birch
PWB Interconnect Solutions, Inc.

Robert Boguski, Jr.
Apogee Engineering, Inc.

Mike Boyle
Atotech U.S.A., Inc.

Eric Brooman
Concurrent Technologies Corporation

Michael Carano
Electrochemicals, Inc.

Thomas Carroll
Hughes Aircraft Company

Alan Cash
Northrop Grumman Corporation

Nitin Desai
Motorola, Inc.

David Di Margo
Phibro-Tech, Inc.

Bernard Ecker
Teledyne Systems Company

Phil Edelstein
Phibro-Tech, Inc.

Ted Edwards
Honeywell, Inc.

Elahe Enssani
San Francisco State University
College of Science and Engineering

Frederick Fehrer

Chris Ford
Printed Circuit Corporation

Joan Girard
Electrotek Corporation

Eric Harnden
Solution Technology Systems

John Howard
California Occupational Safety and Health Agency

H. Martin Jessen
U.S. Filter Recovery Services

Greg Karras
Communities for a Better Environment

Michael Kerr
Circuit Center, Inc.

John Lott
DuPont Electronics

Jim Martin
LeaRonal, Inc.

C. Al McPherson
Motorola, Inc.

Peter Moleux
Peter Moleux P.E. and Associates

Darrin Moore
Raytheon Company

John Mukhar
City of San Jose Environmental Services

Suzanne Nachbor
Honeywell, Inc.

Kathy Nargi-Toth
Enthone-OMI, Inc.

David Peard
W.R. Grace and Company

Greg Pitts
Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation

Mostafa Pournejat
Zycon Corporation

Neal Preimesburger
Hughes Aircraft Company

Christopher Rhodes
Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits

Gary Roper
H-R Industries, Inc.

Tim Scott
Advanced Quick Circuits

John Sharp
Merix Corporation

Jodie Siegel
University of Massachusetts
Toxics Use Reduction Institute

Ted Smith
Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition

Evan Sworzyn
Teledyne Systems Company

C. Edwin Thorn
Electrochemicals, Inc.

Jane Tran
Orange County Sanitation District

Russ Tremblay
M/A-COM, Inc.

Laura Turbini
Georgia Institute of Technology
Materials Science and Engineering

Phil Van Buren
Sandia National Laboratories

Lee Wilmot
Hadco Corporation

Mike Wood
MacDermid, Inc.

James Zollo
Motorola, Inc.


ABC activity-based costing
ADD average daily dose
AsF assessment factor
AT averaging time
ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
BOA bill of activities
BCME bis-chloromethyl ether
Btu British Thermal Units
BW body weight
CAA Clean Air Act
CC concern concentration
CEB Chemical Engineering Branch
CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act
CO carbon monoxide
CO2 carbon dioxide
CTSA Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment
CuSO4 copper sulfate
CWA Clean Water Act
DEC Digital Equipment Corporation of Canada
DfE Design for the Environment
ED exposure duration
EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacedic acid
EPCRA Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
FTE full-time employee equivalent
g gram
gal gallon
GI gastro intestinal
gpm gallons per minute
H2SO4 sulfuric acid
HASL hot air solder leveling
HC Henry's Law Constant
HEAST Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables
HQ hazard quotient
HSDB Hazardous Substances Data Bank
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
IPC Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronics Circuits
IRIS Integrated Risk Information System
ISCLT Industrial Source Complex - Long Term
IST Interconnect Stress Test
KUB Knoxville Utility Board
kW kilowatt
LADD lifetime average daily dose
LEPC Local Emergency Planning Commission
LOAEL lowest-observed-adverse-effect level
MACT maximum achievable control technology
MCC Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation
MHC making holes conductive
MnO2 manganese dioxide
MOE margin of exposure
MSDS material safety data sheet
MTL Master Testing List
MW molecular weight
NCP National Contingency Plan
NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
NOAEL no-observed-adverse-effect level
NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
NPDWR National Primary Drinking Water Regulations
NSDWR National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations
NTP National Toxicology Program
OEM original equipment manufacturer
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration
PEL permissible exposure limit
PDR potential dose rate
POTW publicly-owned treatment work
PPE personal protective equipment
psi per square inch
PTH plated-through holes
PWB printed wiring board
RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
RfC reference concentration
RfD reference dose
RTECS Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances
RQ reportable quantity
SARA Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
SAT Structure-Activity Team
SDWA Safe Drinking Water Act
SERC State Emergency Response Commission
SF slope factor
SIC standard industrial code
SOx sulfur oxides
SPC statistical process control
ssf surface square feet
TMCR Technology Market Research Council
TPY tons per year
TRI Toxic Release Inventory
TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act
TWA time-weighed average
UT University of Tennessee
UR utilization ratio
VOC volatile organic compounds
WOE weight-of-evidence

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