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Printed Wiring Board Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment: Making Holes Conductive

Printed Wiring Boards Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment: Making Holes Conductive

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Authors, Notice and Acknowledgments

Acronyms

Executive Summary


VOLUME I

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
  • 1.1 Project Background [22K PDF file]
    • 1.1.1 EPA DfE Program
    • 1.1.2 DfE Printed Wiring Board Project
  • 1.2 Overview of PWB Industry [253K PDF file]
    • 1.2.1 Types of Printed Wiring Boards
    • 1.2.2 Industry Profile
    • 1.2.3 Overview of Rigid Multi-Layer PWB Manufacturing
  • 1.3 CTSA Methodology [52K PDF file]
    • 1.3.1 Identification of Alternatives and Selection of Project Baseline
    • 1.3.2 Boundaries of the Evaluation
    • 1.3.3 Issues Evaluated
    • 1.3.4 Primary Data Sources
    • 1.3.5 Project Limitations
  • 1.4 Organization of This Report [21K PDF file]
  • References

    Click here for Chapter 1 in its entirety [335K PDF file]



Chapter 2: PROFILE OF THE MAKING HOLES CONDUCTIVE USE CLUSTER

  • 2.1 Chemistry and Process Description of MHC Technologies [535K PDF file]
    • 2.1.1 Substitutes Tree of MHC Technologies
    • 2.1.2 Overview of MHC Technologies
    • 2.1.3 Chemistry and Process Descriptions of MHC Technologies
    • 2.1.4 Chemical Characterization of MHC Technologies
  • 2.2 Additional MHC Technologies [16K PDF file]
    • 2.2.1 Lomerson Process
    • 2.2.2 Non-Formaldehyde Electroless Nickel
  • 2.3 Market Profile of MHC Technologies [13K PDF file]
  • References

    Click here for Chapter 2 in its entirety [56K PDF file]



Chapter 3: RISK

  • 3.1 Source Release Assessment [576K PDF file]
    • 3.1.1 Data Sources and Assumptions
    • 3.1.2 Overall Material Balance for MHC Technologies
    • 3.1.3 Source and Release Information For Specific MHC Technology Categories
    • 3.1.4 Uncertainties in the Source Release Assessment
  • 3.2 Exposure Assessment [198K PDF file]
    • 3.2.1 Exposure Setting
    • 3.2.2 Selection of Exposure Pathways
    • 3.2.3 Exposure-Point Concentrations
    • 3.2.4 Exposure Parameters and Potential Dose Rate Models
    • 3.2.5 Uncertainty and Variability
    • 3.2.6 Summary
  • 3.3 Human Health and Ecological Hazards Summary [196K PDF file]
    • 3.3.1 Carcinogenicity
    • 3.3.2 Chronic Effects (Other than Carcinogenicity)
    • 3.3.3 Ecological Hazard Summary
    • 3.3.4 Summary
  • 3.4 Risk Characterization [125K PDF file]
    • 3.4.1 Summary of Exposure Assessment
    • 3.4.2 Summary of Human Health Hazards Assessment
    • 3.4.3 Methods Used to Calculate Human Health Risks
    • 3.4.4 Results of Calculating Risk Indicators
    • 3.4.5 Uncertainties
    • 3.4.6 Conclusions
  • 3.5 Process Safety Assessment [89K PDF file]
    • 3.5.1 Chemical Safety Concerns
    • 3.5.2 Corrosive, Oxidizer, and Reactive MHC Chemical Products
    • 3.5.3 MHC Chemical Product Health Hazards
    • 3.5.4 Other Chemical Hazards
    • 3.5.5 Process Safety Concerns
  • References

    Click here for Chapter 3 in its entirety [335K PDF file]



Chapter 4: COMPETITIVENESS

  • 4.1 Performance Demonstration Results [147K PDF file]
    • 4.1.1 Background
    • 4.1.2 Performance Demonstration Methodology
    • 4.1.3 Test Vehicle Design
    • 4.1.4 Electrical and Microsection Testing Methodology
    • 4.1.5 Results
    • 4.1.6 Comparison of Microsection and IST Test Results
  • 4.2 Cost Analysis [426K PDF file]
    • 4.2.1 Overview of the Cost Methodology
    • 4.2.2 Simulation Results
    • 4.2.3 Cost Formulation Details and Sample Calculations
    • 4.2.4 Results
    • 4.2.5 Sensitivity Analysis
    • 4.2.6 Conclusions
  • 4.3 Regulatory Status [213K PDF file]
    • 4.3.1 Clean Water Act
    • 4.3.2 Safe Drinking Water Act
    • 4.3.3 Clean Air Act
    • 4.3.4 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
    • 4.3.5 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act
    • 4.3.6 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act and Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act
    • 4.3.7 Toxic Substances Control Act
    • 4.3.8 Occupational Safety and Health Act
    • 4.3.9 Summary of Regulations by MHC Technology
  • 4.4 International Information [13K PDF file]
    • 4.4.1 World Market for PWBs
    • 4.4.2 International Use of MHC Alternatives
    • 4.4.3 Regulatory Framework
    • 4.4.4 Conclusions
  • References

    Click here for Chapter 4 in its entirety [1,546K PDF file]



Chapter 5: CONSERVATION

  • 5.1 Resource Conservation [109K PDF file]
    • 5.1.1 Natural Resource Consumption
    • 5.1.2 Conclusions
  • 5.2 Energy Impacts [60K PDF file]
    • 5.2.1 Energy Consumption During MHC Process Operation
    • 5.2.2 Energy Consumption Environmental Impacts
    • 5.2.3 Energy Consumption in Other Life-Cycle Stages
    • 5.2.4 Conclusions
  • References

    Click here for Chapter 5 in its entirety [275K PDF file]



Chapter 6: ADDITIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENT OPPORTUNITIES

  • 6.1 Pollution Prevention [69K PDF file]
    • 6.1.1 Management and Personnel Practices
    • 6.1.2 Materials Management and Inventory Control
    • 6.1.3 Process Improvements
  • 6.2 Recycle, Recovery, and Control Technologies Assessment [43K PDF file]
    • 6.2.1 Recycle and Resource Recovery Opportunities
    • 6.2.2 Control Technologies
  • References

    Click here for Chapter 6 in its entirety [665K PDF file]



Chapter 7: CHOOSING AMONG MHC TECHNOLOGIES

  • 7.1 Risk, Competitiveness, and Conservation Data Summary [108K PDF file]
    • 7.1.1 Risk Summary
    • 7.1.2 Competitiveness Summary
    • 7.1.3 Resource Conservation Summary
  • 7.2 Social Benefits/Costs Assessment [105K PDF file]
    • 7.2.1 Introduction to Social Benefits/Costs Assessment
    • 7.2.2 Benefits/Costs Methodology and Data Availability
    • 7.2.3 Private Benefits and Costs
    • 7.2.4 External Benefits and Costs
    • 7.2.5 Summary of Benefits and Costs
  • 7.3 Technology Summary Profiles [683K PDF file]
    • 7.3.1 Electroless Copper Technology
    • 7.3.2 Carbon Technology
    • 7.3.3 Conductive Polymer Technology
    • 7.3.4 Graphite Technology
    • 7.3.5 Non-Formaldehyde Electroless Copper Technology
    • 7.3.6 Organic-Palladium Technology
    • 7.3.7 Tin-Palladium Technology
  • References

    Click here for Chapter 7 in its entirety [459K PDF file]

Click here for Volume I in its entirety [4,680K PDF file]



Volume II: APPENDICES

APPENDIX A: Data Collection Sheets

APPENDIX B: Publicly-Available Bath Chemistry Data

APPENDIX C: Chemical Properties Data

APPENDIX D: Supplemental Exposure Assessment Information

APPENDIX E: Comprehensive Exposure Assessment and Risk Characterization Results

APPENDIX F: Supplemental Performance Demonstration Information

APPENDIX G: Supplemental Cost Analysis Information

APPENDIX H: H2P Computer Printouts: Pollutants Generated by Energy Production [459K PDF file]

Click here for Volume II in its entirety [5,002K PDF file]

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