Other Alternative Technologies
Two additional alternative technologies for making holes conductive were evaluated in the overall DfE project's Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment. These were the non-formaldehyde electroless copper process and the conductive ink process. The non-formaldehyde process is currently in use at two facilities, one in the U.S. and one in Singapore, but neither facility was available for an interview. The conductive ink process is currently in the developmental phase for multi-layer applications.