Solders in Electronics: A Life-Cycle Assessment
This life-cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the potential environmental impacts of selected lead-free solders as alternatives to tin-lead solder. LCAs, which are generally global and non-site specific in scope, look at the full life cycle of the product being evaluated, from materials acquisition to manufacturing, use, and end-of-life (i.e., final disposition). This LCA assessed impacts related to material consumption, energy use, air resources, water resources, landfills, human toxicity, and ecological toxicity. The partnership also investigated leachability and recycling of solders at the end of their lives. The solders evaluated were: tin/lead, tin/copper, tin/silver/copper, bismuth/tin/silver, tin/silver/bismuth/copper.
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Solders in Electronics: A Life-Cycle Assessment Summary (PDF, 3.6MB, 51 Pages)
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Solders in Electronics: A Life-Cycle Assessment (PDF, 3.53 MB, 472 pages)
Download Individual Sections:
Cover and Title (PDF) (539KB, 2 pages)
Disclaimer, Acknowledgements, and Participating Organizations (PDF) (11KB, 4 pages)
Table of Contents (PDF) (30KB, 13 pages)
Executive Summary (PDF) (96KB, 32 pages)
Chapter 1: Goal Definition and Scope (PDF) (53KB, 12 pages)
Chapter 2: Life-Cycle Inventory (PDF) (351KB, 48 pages)
Chapter 3: Life-Cycle Impact Assessment (PDF) (756KB, 216 pages)
Appendices (PDF) (4.1MB, 144 pages)
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