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Yarrow Asteraceae Achillea millefolium Feathery leaves, flat-topped flower heads. *
Corn-cockle Caryophyllaceae Agrostemma githago N/A
Mimosa Fabaceae Albizia julibrissen Leaf: Alternate, bi-pinnately compound and very feathery, 10-20 inches long. Each leaflet is narrow and small, approximately 3/8 inch long.

Flower: Very showy, occurring in rounded pink fluffy heads. Individual flowers are small with long pink (1+ inch long) stamens. Usually appearing in mid- to late-summer.

Fruit: A flattened pod, 5-6 inches long, gray-brown when mature, containing several hard seeds.

Twig: Medium textured, zigzag, green-brown to gray-brown in color, with numerous lenticels. Buds are few scaled, small and rounded.

Bark: Smooth and gray-brown, even on larger stems.

Form: Small tree with a strongly decurrent habit and low branching, especially when open-grown. Quickly develops a flat top.

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Pigweed Amaranthaceae Amaranthus hybridus Common in cultivated cropland as a pest. Large seedheads clog farm machinery. Can grow to 7 feet tall. *
Thorny Amaranth Amaranthaceae Amaranthus spinosus Seen most commonly around livestock lots where (along with Jimson Weed, Datura stamonium) the animals won't eat it. Also in cultivated fields. Very thorny. *
Common Ragweed Asteraceae Ambrosia artemisiifolia Can also act as a winter annual in NC if it germinates in early fall. Very hardy plant. *
Ragweed Asteraceae Ambrosia trifida N/A
Peppervine Viticeae Ampelopsis arborea N/A
Pussy-toes Asteraceae Antennaria plantaginifolia
var. ambigens
N/A Fabaceae Apios americana N/A
Columbine Ranunculaceae Aquilegia canadensis N/A
Mouse-ear Cress Brassicaceae Arabidopsis thaliana N/A
Devil's Walking Club Araliaceae Aralia spinosa Leaf: Alternate, bi or tri-pinnately compound, up to 5 feet long. The rachis has scattered prickles. Leaflets are 2 to 4 inches long, serrate and glaucous.

Flower: White and quite small, borne on 12 to 18 inch clusters at the ends of branches. Present July to August

Fruit: A round, fleshy drupe, purple to black and 1/4 inch long. Borne in quantity on a pink-red infructesence. Maturing in late August or September.

Twig: Very stout and spiny, gray to straw clolored, with leaf scars that encircle1/2 of the stem. Buds are relatively small, ovoid and oppressed with very few scales.

Bark: Stout and spiny, much like the twig.

Form: A large stem or small tree with club-shaped branches, often forms a thicket.

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Jack-in-the-Pulpit Araceae Arisemaema triphyllum N/A
Giant Cane Poaceae Arundinaria gigantea N/A
Butterfly Weed Asclepiadaceae Asclepia tuberosa Orange blossoms. Plant lives a long time. None of the milky sap that is indicative of many milkweeds (Family Asclepiadaceae). *
N/A Asclepiadaceae Asclepias amplexicaulis N/A
N/A Asclepiadaceae Asclepias verticillata N/A
Dwarf Pawpaw Annonaceae Asimina parviflora More common in CP than A. triloba. Shrub to 2 m tall with rusty twigs, buds, and leaf undersides. Fruit approximately 3 cm long, from May to August. *
Starved Aster Asteraceae Aster lateriflorus N/A
Groundsel Tree Asteraceae Baccharus halimifolia This genus contains the only shrubs or small trees of Asteraceae. Indicator of disturbed areas in CP/PM. Dioecious. *
N/A Scrophulariaceae Bacopa monnieri N/A
Winter Cress Brassicaceae Barbarea vulgaris var. arcuata N/A
N/A Rhamnaceae Berchemia scadens N/A
False Nettle Urticaceae Boehmeria cylindrica N/A
Watershield Cabamaceae Brasenia schreberi N/A
Pale Indian-Plantain Asteraceae Cacalia atriplicifolia N/A
French Mulberry Verbenaceae Callicarpa americana The French Mulberry is a large deciduous shrub growing 6'-8' tall with a compact form and outward pointing branches. Lilac flowers surround the stem in the springtime and give rise to berry-like drupes (fruits) in striking magenta in the fall.
Trumpetvine Bignoniaceae Campsis radicans N/A
Shepherd's Purse Brassicaceae Capsella bursa-pastoris N/A
New Jersey Tea Rhamnaceae Ceanothus americanus N/A
N/A Apiaceae Centella asiatica Perennial, moist sandy areas *
Butterfly Pea Fabaceae Centrosema virginianum N/A
Buttonbush Rubiaceae Cephalanthus occidentalis Leaf: Opposite or whorled, elliptical, pointed tip, entire margins, 3 to 5 inches long, shiny dark green above.

Flower: Small, white, tubular flowers occur in a dense round (1 inch across) cluster at the end of a slender 1 to 2 inch stalk. Appearing June to July.

Fruit: Round cluster of achenes, dark brown, mature August to November.

Twig: Slender to moderately stout, dark reddish-brown, speckled with lighter, elongated lenticels. Tips of twigs typically die back, lateral buds small and embedded in bark, leaf scar "D"-shaped or nearly round with a single "U"-shaped bundle scar.

Bark: Thin and smooth on young stems, becoming fissured and scaly.

Form: Upright, multiple branching shrub, may reach 25 feet in height.

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Mouse-ear Chickweed Caryophyllaceae Cerastium glomeratum N/A
Wild Chervil Apiaceae Chaerophyllum tainturieri N/A
Turtleheads Scrophulariaceae Chelone glabra N/A
Lamb's Quarters Chenopodiaceae Chenopodium album N/A
Spotted Wintergreen Ericaceae Chimaphila maculata N/A
Fringetree Oleaceae Chionanthus virginicus A shrub-like tree with a short trunk and a rounded crown. Opposite, deciduous, elliptical dark green glossy leaves. White, fragrant, somewhat showy blooms appear with the foliage in the spring. Bearing dark blue, oval drupes about 1" long.
Ox-eye Daisy Asteraceae Chrysanthemum leucanthemum N/A
Chicory Asteraceae Cichorium intybus N/A
Water Hemlock Apiaceae Cicuta maculata Perennial, to 9 ft tall. Usually on edges of waterways or low swamps. Looks like a huge celery plant, with large umbels. Not rare in CP. Stalks typically have black oblong spots. *
Sweet-pepperbush Clethraceae Clethra alnifolia N/A
Butterfly Pea Fabaceae Clitoria mariana  
Dayflower Commelinaceae Commelina communis N/A
Dayflower Commelinaceae Commelina erecta N/A
N/A Asteraceae Coreopsis lanceolata N/A
Hawthorn Rosaceae Crataegus marshallii N/A
N/A Euphorbiaceae Croton glandulosus var. septentrionalis N/A
Compact Dodder Convolvulaceae Cuscuta compacta N/A
N/A Cyrillaceae Cyrilla racemosa N/A
Jimson Weed Solanaceae Datura stramonium N/A
Wild Carrot Apiaceae Daucus carota N/A
N/A Apiaceae Daucus pusillus N/A
Water Loosestrife Lythraceae Decodon verticillatus N/A
N/A Fabaceae Desmodium glabellum N/A
N/A Convolvulaceae Dichondra carolinensis N/A
Venus Flytrap Dionaeaceae Dionaea muscipula N/A
Wild Yam Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea villosa N/A
Sundew Droseraceae Drosera capillaris N/A
Indian Strawberry Rosaceae Duchesnea indica N/A
Beechdrops Orobanchaceae Epifagus virginiana N/A
Trailing Arbutus Ericaceae Epigaea repens N/A
Daisy Fleabane Asteraceae Erigeron annuus Blooms May/June *
Heronsbill Gernaiaceae Erodium circutarium N/A
N/A Apiaceae Eryngium integrifolium More upright than E. prostratum; blue petals *
N/A Apiaceae Eryngium prostratum N/A
Button Snakeroot Apiaceae Eryngium yuccifolium Coarse perennial *
Strawberry Bush Celastraceae Euonymus americanus Leaf: Opposite, simple, narrow and fine toothed, 2 to 4 inches long, bright green.

Flower: Small (1/3 inch across), greenish-purple petals, in clusters, appearing May to June.

Fruit: Very unique, 4-lobed capsules which when opened reveal an orange-red warty aril, the "husks" are pink to purple, open September to October.

Twig: Slender, square and green, terminal buds reddish-orange, 1/4 inch long, pointed.

Bark: Green, but does split and become darker.

Form: A loose, sprawling shrub usually between 2 and 5 feet tall.

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Dog Fennel Asteraceae Eupatorium capillifolium Can grow to 2 meters tall. Crushed leaves thought by some to smell similar to dog urine. *
Mistflower Asteraceae Eupatorium coelestinum N/A
Queen of the Meadow Asteraceae Eupatorium fistulosum N/A
Boneset Asteraceae Eupatorium perfoliatum Late summer bloomer. Head-on view of white flowers looks like porous bone. *
N/A Asteraceae Eupatorium rotundifolium N/A
Round-leaf Thoroughwort Asteraceae Eupatorium rotundifolium N/A
Flowering Spurge Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia corollata N/A
Strawberry Rosaceae Fragaria
Galax Diapensiaceae Galax aphylla N/A
Bedstraw Rubiaceae Galium triflorum N/A
Wintergreen Ericaceae Gaultheria procumbens Leaf: Alternate, simple, evergreen, minutely serrated, dark shiny green above, paler below, thickened, with a wintergreen odor when crushed, leaves appear whorled since they cluster at tips of plant.

Flower: Originate from leaf axils, white, 1/4 inch in diameter, hanging beneath the leaves, mild wintergreen taste, persist throughout the winter, ripen in August to September.

Twig: Slender, green turning brown with age.

Form: Low plant with a height of only 3 to 5 inches; stems shoot out of the ground and end in a tight cluster of leaves.

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Yellow Jessamine Logoniaceae Gelsemium sempervirens This evergreen vine is as beautiful as it is easy to grow. Glossy rich green leaves are about 2-4" long by 1/2" wide and grow in opposite pairs along wirey stems. The vine will grow 10-20' up tree trunks and along fences or other support.
Cranesbill Geranium Geraniaceae Geranium carolinianum N/A
Wild Geranium Geraniaceae Geranium maculatum N/A
N/A Lamiaceae Glecoma hederacea N/A
Yellow Fringed-orchid Orchidaceae Habenaria ciliaris N/A
Witch-hazel Hamamelidaceae Hamamelis virginica Leaf: Alternate, simple, inequilateral, 3 to 6 inches long, ovate to obovate with a wavy margin, nearly dentate. Petioles are pubescent.

Flower: Yellow, with 1/2 to 3/4 inch long petals that look like yarn. Appearing in September to November.

Fruit: Two shiny black seeds, 1/4 inch long, forcibly discharged from 1/2 inch long woody, brown capsules. Empty capsules persistant. Maturing in August, dispersing in autumn.

Twig: Slender, brown, pubescent, with long (1/2 inch), brown buds that lack scales, resembling a deer foot. Flower buds are globose, borne on short stalks.

Bark: Smooth, gray to gray-brown even on very old stems.

Form: A small tree or shrub with arching branches, usually growing in dense multi-stemmed clumps.

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Bitter Sneeze Weed Asteraceae Helenium amarum Common pasture pest. Yellow flowers. *
Sunflower Asteraceae Helianthus divaricatus N/A
Daylily Liliaceae Hemerocallis fulva N/A
Liverleaf Ranunculaceae Hepatica americana N/A
Camphor Weed Asteraceae Heterotheca subaxillaris Found on roadsides and cultivated fields. Tomentose stems and leaves, 0.5 inch yellow flowers. Crushed leaves and stems smell like camphor. *
Wild Ginger Aristolochiaceae Hexastylis arifolia Evergreen wild ginger, as opposed to the deciduous wild ginger (Asarum canadense). Heart-shaped leaf. *
Rose Mallow Malvaceae Hibiscus moscheutos N/A
Bluet Rubiaceae Houstonia caerulea N/A
Marsh Pennywort Apiaceae Hydrocotyle umbellata N/A
N/A Apiaceae Hydrocotyle verticillata N/A
N/A Hypericaceae Hypericum perforatum N/A
Yellow Star-grass Amaryllidacea Hypoxis hirsuta Yellow flowers *
Sweet Gallberry Aquifoliaceae Ilex coriacea Found in pocosins/bays. Less common than Ilex glabra. Similar to I. glabra, but leaves, plant and fruit are larger than I. Glabr *
Deciduous Holly Aquifoliaceae Ilex decidua Leaf: Alternate, simple, deciduous, margin finely, blunt toothed, lance to egg-shaped, glabrous and green above, paler below, 2 to 3 inches long.

Flower: Dioecious, both male and females are stalked and greenish-white, usually in clusters, appear in April to May

Fruit: Round drupes, 1/4 inch in diameter, reddish-orange to red in

clusters of 2 to 4, ripening in fall but persisting through the winter.

Twig: Slender, gray, with scattered light lenticels, buds and leaf scars

are small, one vascular bundle scar, spur shoots common.

Bark: Thin, smooth and grayish-brown.

Form: Upright shrub with multiple stems, reaches heights of 10 to 15 feet.

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Inkberry Aquifoliaceae Ilex glabra Also known as bitter gallberry because berries are bitter. Common in and around Carolina bays/pocosins. Evergreen leaves *
Winterberry Aquifoliaceae Ilex verticillata Deciduous. More common in CP than I. decidua. Brilliant red berries all winter. *
Yaupon Aquifoliaceae Ilex vomitoria Leaves evergreen and more elongated than I. decidua or I. verticillata. *
Spotted Touch-me-not Balsaminaceae Impatiens
Common Morning Glory Convolvulaceae Ipomoea purpurea N/A
Dwarf Iris Iridaceae Iris cristata N/A
Blue Flag Iris Iridaceae Iris virginica N/A
Mountain Laurel Ericaceae Kalmia latifolia Leaf: Alternate, simple, evergreen, shiny/waxy above, light green below, 2 to 5 inches long, elliptical in shape, mid-vein raised on upper surfaces.

Flower: Very showy clusters, white to rose colored with purple markings, 1 inch across, with the petals forming a distinct firm bowl about the pistil and stamens. Present March to July.

Fruit: A round, brown dehiscent capsule, 1/4 inch long, splitting into 5 valves when dry; releasing very small seeds. Maturing in September and October.

Twig: Generally forked and twisted, green when young, later brownish-red.

Bark: Thin, dark brown to red in color, shredding.

Form: A small tree or shrub with many twisted stems.

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Lamb-kill Ericaceae Kalmia latifolia
var caroliniana
Dwarf dandelion Asteraceae Krigia virginica N/A
False Boneset Asteraceae Kuhnia eupatorioides N/A
Henbit Lamiaceae Lamium amplexicaule N/A
Wood-nettle Urticaceae Laportea canadensis N/A
Poor-Man's Pepper Brassicaceae Lepidium virginicum N/A
N/A Fabaceae Lespedeza
Korean Lespedeza Fabaceae Lespedeza striata N/A
Privet Oleaceae Ligustrum sinense Leaf: Opposite, simple, entire, oblong, shiny dark green above, lighter below, somewhat thickened, 1 to 2 inches in length.

Flower: Upright panicle of white flowers, often very dense, very fragrant, appearing in June at ends of twigs.

Fruit: Shiny, bluish-black berry, 1/4 inch in diameter, ripens in September.

Twig: Slender, grayish-green, glabrous or finely pubescent, small opposite buds.

Bark: Smooth, grayish-brown.

Form: Upright shrub, many stems, can be somewhat twiggy, reaches heights of 15 feet.

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Toad Flax Scrophulariaceae Linaria canadensis N/A
Spicebush Lauraceae Lindera benzoin Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately veined, elliptical in shape, 3 to 5 inches long, with an entire margin that may be somewhat ciliate. There is a strong, spicy odor when crushed. Flower: Yellow-green, appearing in axillary clusters before the leaves (March to May).

Fruit: A red drupe when ripe (green before ripening), 3/8 inch long with a large seed and a peppery taste and scent. Maturing in September or October.

Twig: Olive-green to brown in color with distinctive globose buds covered with 2 to 3 yellow-green scales. When cut, a spicy, peppery smell is obvious.

Bark: Brown to gray brown and speckled with white lenticels.

Form: A large shrub with several stems, usually rounded in outline.

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Cardinal Flower Campanulaceae Lobelia cardinalis N/A
Indian Tobacco Campanulaceae Lobelia inflata N/A
N/A Campanulaceae Lobelia puberula N/A
Japanese Honeysuckle Caprifoliaceae Lonicera japonica Leaf: Opposite, simple, ovate to oval, entire margin, sometimes lobed, semi-evergreen, light green, somewhat pubescent.

Flower: Fragrant, 1/2 to 1 inch long, white or yellowish-white long petals, appearing in late May to early June in pairs.

Fruit: Small (1/4 inch diameter), black berry, ripen in fall and persist into early winter.

Twig: Slender, initially pubescent, light brown in color developing scaly thin bark, hollow pith.

Bark: Long, shreddy peeling strips, light red-brown to straw-colored.

Form: A scrambling, twisting vine with no tendrils or aerial roots, forms dense thickets in bushes and trees and sprawls along the ground.

© Copyright 1997, Virginia Tech, all rights reserved

Coral Honeysuckle Caprifoliaceae Lonicera sempervirens N/A
Lupine Fabaceae Lupinus perennis N/A
Fringed Loosestrife Primulaceae Lysimachia ciliata N/A
Whorled Loosestrife Primulaceae Lysimachia quadrifolia N/A
Indian Cucumber Root Liliaceae Medeola virginiana N/A
White Sweet Clover Fabaceae Melilotus alba N/A
Yellow Sweet Clover Fabaceae Melilotus officinalis N/A
Climbing hempvine Asteraceae Mikania scandens Perennial, becomes more visible in fall with its blanketing effect on bushes. Fine gray flowers. *
N/A Scrophulariaceae Mimulus ringens N/A
Partridge Berry Rubiaceae Mitchella repens N/A
Indian Chickweed Aizoaceae Mollugo
Summer annual. Whorled leaves spread from central stem. Prostrate. Also known as carpetweed. *
N/A Lamiaceae Monarda punctata N/A
Pine-Sap Ericaceae Monotropa hypopithys N/A
Indian Pipe Ericaceae Monotropa uniflora N/A
Wax Myrtle Myricaceae Myrica cerifera Leaf: Evergreen, alternate and simple, fragrant smell, spatulate in shape with a tapered base, 3 inches long, 5/8 inch wide, toothed, dark green and waxy-shiny above, pale green below, yellow resin dots on both surfaces.

Flower: Dioecious, both male and female flowers are small (1/2 inch), appearing as catkins in the leaf axils in spring.

Fruit: Round, waxy, bluish-white berries (1/8 inch in diameter), appearing in clusters on short stalks.

Twig: Slender and brittle, covered with brown pubescence, becoming smooth and gray-brown with age.

Bark: Thin and smooth, gray-brown.

Form: Small tree or large shrub, often multi-stemmed and growing in clusters, generally rounded or irregular in shape, with a crooked or twisting bole.

© Copyright 1997, Virginia Tech, all rights reserved

Bradford Pear Rosaceae N/A N/A
Carlona Laurel Cherry Rosaceae N/A N/A
Wild Plum Rosaceae N/A N/A
Beauty Berry Verbenaceae N/A  
Yellow Nelumbo Nelumbonaceae Nelumbo lutea N/A
Waterlily Nymphaceae Nymphea odorata N/A
Evening Primrose Onagraceae Oenothera biennis N/A
Sundrops Onagraceae Oenothera fruticosa N/A
N/A Onagraceae Oenothera laciniata N/A
N/A Onagraceae Oenothera speciosa N/A
Prickly-pear Cactus Cactaceae Opuntia compressa N/A
N/A Oxalidaceae Oxalis rubra N/A
N/A Oxalidaceae Oxalis stricta N/A
Violet Wood Sorrel Oxalidaceae Oxalis violacea N/A
Virginia Creeper Viticeae Parthenocissus quinquefolia Leaf: Alternate, palmately compound, 3 to 8 inches across, with five leaflets per leaf. Leaflets are elliptical in shape, with crenate to serrate margins.

Flower: Small, green and borne in clusters on long stems. Flowers appear June to July.

Fruit: A blue-black berry, 1/4 inch in diameter, borne in long-stemmed clusters. Maturing August to October.

Twig: New stems are slender, light brown in color, with lenticels. Tendrils are apparent opposite the buds, ending in adhesive pads. Leaf scars are nearly round and concave.

Bark: Gray-brown, becoming coarsely hairy due to tendrils.

Form: A climbing vine that may provide ground cover or ascend to fifty feet.

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Maypops Passifloraceae Passiflora incarnata N/A
Passion Flower Passifloraceae Passiflora lutea N/A
Lousewort Scrophulariaceae Pedicularis canadensis N/A
Arrow Arum Araceae Peltandra
Ditch Stonecrop Crassulaceae Penthorium sedoides N/A
Pokeweed Phytolaccaceae Phytolacca americana N/A
Plantain Plantaginaceae Plantago aristata N/A
English Plantain Plantaginaceae Plantago lanceolata N/A
Plantain Plantaginaceae Plantago virginica N/A
May-apple Berberidaceae Podophyllum peltatum N/A
N/A Polygalaceae Polygala cruciata N/A
N/A Polygalaceae Polygala incarnata N/A
Knotweed Polygonaceae Polygonum pensylvanicum N/A
N/A Polygonaceae Polygonum punctatum N/A
Pickerelweed Pontederiaceae Pontederia
Five Fingers Rosaceae Potentilla canadensis N/A
N/A Rosaceae Potentilla recta N/A
N/A Lamiaceae Prunella vulgaris N/A
N/A Apiaceae Ptilimnium capillaceum Flowers and leaves look like dill. *
Buttercup Ranunculaceae Ranunculus abortivus N/A
N/A Melastomataceae Rhexia mariana N/A
Mountain Rosebay Ericaceae Rhododendron catawbiense N/A
Pink Azalea Ericaceae Rhododendron nudiflorum Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately veined, deciduous, 1 to 3 inches long, ovate, dull green above and green below with a ciliate margin. The texture is papery.

Flower: Very showy, pink, appearing with or just before the leaves. Flowering March to May.

Fruit: An oblong capsule, 1/4 to 1/2 inch long, with ascending hairs. The capsule splits when ripe, releasing the very tiny, somewhat winged seeds. Maturing in late summer.

Twig: Very slender, red-brown to gray, bristly-hairy. The buds are multiple terminal, flower buds are 1/2 inch long. Buds are hairless.

Bark: Brown, becoming finely shreddy.

Form: A shrub that branches low, often with a crooked stem. The multiple terminal buds often result in whorls of twigs from the central stem.

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Poison Ivy Anacardiaceae Rhus radicans Leaf: Alternate, pinnately compound with 3 leaflets per leaf. Leaves are 7 to 10 inches long. Leaflets are ovate and irregularly toothed. Leaves are shiny above.

Flower: Small, yellowish, appearing in clusters. Present May to June

Fruit: Greenish-white, round, 1/4 inch in diameter, borne in clusters. Present late summer.

Form: May be present as a low, spreading "carpet" on the forest floor, as a climbing vine or bush.

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Swamp Rose Rosaceae Rosa palustris N/A
Alleghany Blackberry Rosaceae Rubus allegheniensis Leaf: Alternate, palmately compound, 3 to 7, but mostly 5 leaflets, serrated margins, prickles on petiole.

Flower: Showy white flowers (one inch across), larger and persisting longer than black raspberry.

Fruit: Juicy, black multiple of drupes. When picked, the fruit does not separate from its core. Ripens in July to August.

Twig: Stout, strongly angled canes with large hooked prickles, dull reddish-brown, lacking glaucous bloom. Cane tips do not root.

Form: Sprawling, arching canes form dense thickets often well over head high.

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Black Raspberry Rosaceae Rubus
Leaf: Alternate, palmately compound, 3 to 5 leaflets with serrated margins, small prickles on petiole, light green above, paler below.

Flower: Greenish, small white petals, appearing in May, not showy.

Fruit: Juicy, black, multiple of drupes. When picked they separate from the fleshy core forming a hollow shell. Ripen in June to July.

Twig: Arching "canes" which generally live 2 years. Purplish-red with an abundance of white glaucous bloom and hooked prickles. Canes readily root at the tips when they contact the ground.

Form: Arching canes may reach 4 to 6 feet high, often forming tangles.

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Black-eyed Susan Asteraceae Rudbeckia hirta N/A
Coneflower Asteraceae Rudbeckia laciniata N/A
N/A Polygonaceae Rumex crispus N/A
N/A Polygonaceae Rumex hastatulus N/A
Sage Lamiaceae Salvia lyrata N/A
Elderberry Caprifoliaceae Sambucus canadensis Leaf: Opposite, pinnately compound, with 5 to 11 elliptical, serrate leaflets. Leaves are 4 to 11 inches long. The bottom leaflets are often 3-lobed.

Flower: Small, white, borne in dense, flat-topped clusters, up to 8 inches across. Appearing June to July

Fruit: Small, berrylike drupe, purple-black, and very juicy, up to 1/4 inch in diameter, borne in flat-topped clusters. Maturing in July to September.

Twig: Stout, yellow-gray with obvious, warty lenticles. The pith is white, large and continuous. Buds are very small, red-brown and pointed. The terminal buds are mostly lacking.

Bark: Smooth and brown becoming furrowed and rough with age.

Form: A large shrub or small tree often with multiple stems that are spreading or arching. The trunk is usually short.

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Bloodroot Papaveraceae Sanguinaria canadensis N/A
Snakeroot Apiaceae Sanicula canadensis  
Soapwort Caryophyllaceae Saponaria officinalis N/A
Pitcher Plant Sarraceniaceae Sarracenia purpurea N/A
Lizard's Tail Saururaceae Saururus cernuus N/A
Sensitive Brier Fabaceae Schrankia microphylla N/A
False Solomon's-seal Liliaceae Smilacina racemosa N/A
Greenbrier Liliaceae Smilax rotundifolia N/A
Nightshade Solanaceae Solanum carolinense N/A
Golden Rod Asteraceae Solidago nemoralis N/A
Spiny-leaved Sow-Thistle Asteraceae Sonchus asper N/A
Hardhack Rosaceae Spiraea tormentosa N/A
Grass-leaved Ladies-tresses Orchidaceae Spiranthes praecox N/A
Bladdernut Staphylaceae Staphylea trifolia Leaf: Opposite, pinnately compound with three (rarely 5) ovate or obovate leaflets that are 2 to 4 inches long. Leaflet margins are serrate.

Flower: Green-white, bell-shaped and small, borne on dangling 2 inch long panicles in April or May.

Fruit: A very unique, 1 1/2 inch, 3-lobed, papery capsule that looks inflated. The inflated bag contains several hard, small brown seeds. Maturing in September.

Twig: Slender, green to brown in color, with a large, white pith. Buds are brown, 4-scaled, ovoid and may be stalked.

Bark: Green-gray in color with white furrows.

Form: A large shrub or small tree that is heavily branched and suckers readily, forming a thicket.

© Copyright 1997, Virginia Tech, all rights reserved.

Chickweed Caryophyllaceae Stellaria media N/A
Pencil Flower Fabaceae Stylosanthes biflora N/A
Indian Current Caprifoliaceae Symphoricarpos orbitulatus N/A
Sweetleaf Symplocaceae Symplocos
Common Dandelion Asteraceae Taraxacum officinale Lawn weed. *
Goat's Rue Fabaceae Tephrosia virginiana N/A
N/A Lamiaceae Teucrium canadense N/A
Meadow Parsnip Apiaceae Thaspium trifoliatum N/A
Spanish Moss Bromeliaceae Tillandsia usneoides N/A
Blue Curls Lamiaceae Trichostema dichotomum N/A
Red Clover Fabaceae Trifolium pratense N/A
White Clover Fabaceae Trifolium repens N/A
Bladderwort Lentibulariaceae Utricularia subulata N/A
Sparkleberry Ericaceae Vaccinium arboreum N/A
Corn Salad Valerianaceae Valerianella radiata N/A
N/A Scrophulariaceae Verbascum blattaria N/A
Woolly Mullein Scrophulariaceae Verbascum thapsus N/A
N/A Scrophulariaceae Veronica hederaefolia N/A
N/A Scrophulariaceae Veronica peregrina N/A
Mapleleaf Viburnum Caprifoliaceae Viburnum acerifolium Leaf: Opposite, simple, palmately veined, suborbicular in shape, 3-lobed, 3 to 4 inches long, coarsely dentate, pubescent below and on the petiole.

Flower: White, appearing in panicles 1 1/2 to 3 inches across. Flowering early summer.

Fruit: Drupes, 1/4 inch in diameter, rounded, red turning purple to black when ripe. Borne in a cluster. Maturing in September.

Twig: Slender, velvety-gray with stalked buds. Buds have 4 scales.

Bark: Smooth, grayish brown.

Form: An upright shrub that often grows in dense clumps.

© Copyright 1997, Virginia Tech, all rights reserved

Arrowood Caprifoliaceae Viburnum dentatum N/A
Possomhaw Caprifoliaceae Viburnum nudum N/A

Caprifoliaceae Viburnum prunifolium Leaf: Opposite, simple, pinnately veined, elliptical in shape, very finely serrate, 1 to 3 inches long with a reddish petiole.

Flower: White, appearing in panicles, 2 to 4 inches wide. Flowering April to May.

Fruit: Drupes, 1/4 inch long, elliptical, blue-black with a whitish bloom. Maturing September to October.

Twig: Coarse in appearance and rigid, with dark bark, buds are valvate, red-brown or purple, pubescent and pointed. Flower buds are larger and appear swollen.

Bark: Dark brown to black, broken in square plates--like alligator hide.

Form: A large shrub or small tree with a twisted trunk and arching branches. Branches and spur shoots are obviously opposite and right-angled, looks like a fish skeleton.

© Copyright 1997, Virginia Tech, all rights reserved

Bluehaw Caprifoliaceae Viburnum rufidulum N/A
Vetch Fabaceae Vicia angustifolia N/A
Smooth Vetch Fabaceae Vicia dasycarpa N/A
Hairy Vetch Fabaceae Vicia villosa N/A
N/A Violaceae Viola arvensis N/A
N/A Violaceae Viola palmata var. triloba N/A
Birdfoot Violet Violaceae Viola pedata N/A
Muscadine Viticeae Vitis rotundifolia N/A
Cocklebur Asteraceae Xanthium strumarium Each 3/4 inch long bur has 2 seeds. Hairy stems and leaves. Black-spotted stem may be 2 meters tall. *
Meadow Parsnip Apiaceae Zizia aptera N/A
Golden Alexander Apiaceae Zizia aurea N/A

Database Designed by Ashton Horne and Naomi Patterson
* Comments by Dr. A. J. Bullard, Botanist

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