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Madison County, Alabama

Information provided for informational purposes only

Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.

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Pesticide Table for the Alabama Cave Shrimp | Pesticide Table for Freshwater Mollusks
Pesticide Table for the Slackwater Darter | Pesticide Table for the Snail Darter
About the Alabama Cave Shrimp | About Freshwater Mollusks
About the Slackwater Darter | About the Snail Darter
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Madison County, Alabama Map (Shading Key) Alabama cave shrimp (Shading Key) Freshwater mollusks (Shading Key) Slackwater darter fish (Shading Key) Snail darter (fish)

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Alabama Cave Shrimp

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code
ACEPHATE 7
ATRAZINE 7
AZINPHOS-METHYL 7
BENOMYL 7
CAPTAN 7
CARBARYL 60
CARBOFURAN 60
CHLORPYRIFOS
Alfalfa, Peanuts
7
Apples
7
All other uses
7
DIAZINON 60
DIFLUBENZURON 7
DIMETHOATE 7
DISULFOTON (granular) 7
DISULFOTON (non-granular) 7
FLURIDONE 20b
MANCOZEB 7
METHOMYL (granular) 7
METHOMYL (non-granular) 7
METHYL PARATHION 60
NALED 7
OXYFLUORFEN 7
PARATHION (ethyl) 60
PHOSMET 7
PYRETHRINS 7
THIOPHANATE-METHYL 7
TRICHLORFON 7
TRIFLURALIN 7
Code Limitations
7 For ground applications do not apply this pesticide withhin 20 yards from the edge of all caverns, sinkholes, and surface waters within the shaded area. For aerial applicationsdo not apply within 100 yards of these sites.
20b Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area, including streams at the boundary of the shaded area.
60 Do not apply this pesticide within the shaded area.
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Freshwater Mollusks

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code
CARBARYL 1
CHLORPYRIFOS
Alfalfa, Peanuts
43
Apples
41
All Other Uses
1c
DIAZINON 1
FLURIDONE 20
MALATHION 1
METHYL PARATHION 1c
NALED 1
PHOSMET 1
PROPICONAZOLE 1
TRICHLORFON 1
Code Limitations
1 Do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the ede of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
1c For ground applications do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of the water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.
20 Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area.
41 Do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile of the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43 Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards of the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

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Slackwater Darter

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code *TAR
AZINPHOS-METHYL 2c --
BENOMYL 2c --
BENSULIDE 297 4.3
CAPTAN 2c --
CARBARYL 2c --
CARBOFURAN 2c --
CHLORPYRIFOS
Alfalfa, Peanuts
43 --
Apples
41 --
All Other Uses
2c,10 --
DEF 2c --
DIAZINON 2c,10 --
DICROTOPHOS 297 0.2
DISULFOTON (granular) 2c --
DISULFOTON (non-granular) 297 0.1
ENDOSULFAN 2c --
ETHION 297 0.4
FENAMIPHOS 2c --
FLURIDONE 20 --
FONOFOS 2c --
MALATHION 2c,10 --
METHIDATHION 2c --
METHOMYL (granular) 2c --
METHOMYL (non-granular) 297 0.4
METHYL PARATHION 10,297 0.6
MEVINPHOS 2c --
OXYDEMETON-METHYL 297 0.5
PARATHION (ethyl) 2c,10 --
PENDIMETHALIN 297 0.6
PHORATE 2c --
PHOSMET 2c --
PROFENOFOS 2c --
PROPACHLOR 2c --
PROPARGITE 2c --
PYRETHRINS 2c,10 --
TERBUFOS 2c --
THIOPHANATE-METHYL 2c --
TRICHLORFON 297 3.8
Code Limitations
2c For ground applications, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications, do not apply this pesticide within 200 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.
10 Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area. In addion, do not apply directly to water within 1 mile upstream from the shaded area.
41 Do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile of the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications , nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43 Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards of the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications , nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
297 For ground applications, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 40 yards from the edge of water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications, do not apply this pesticide within 200 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.

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Snail Darter

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code *TAR
ATRAZINE 297 1.5
AZINPHOS-METHYL 2c --
CARBARYL 2c --
CHLORPYRIFOS
Alfalfa, Peanuts
43 --
Apples
41 --
DEF 2c --
DIAZINON 2c,10 --
DICROTOPHOS 297 0.2
ETHION 297 0.4
FENAMIPHOS 2c --
FLURIDONE 20 --
MALATHION 2c,10 --
METHIDATHION 2c --
MEVINPHOS 2c --
PARATHION (ethyl) 2c,10 --
PHORATE 2c --
PHOSMET 2c --
PROFENOFOS 2c --
PYRETHRINS 2c --
TRICHLORFON 297 3.8

*TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of Active Ingredient per acre per application)

Code Limitations
2c For ground applications, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications, do not apply this pesticide within 200 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.
10 Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area. In addion, do not apply directly to water within 1 mile upstream from the shaded area.
41 Do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile of the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications , nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43 Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards of the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications , nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
297 For ground applications, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 40 yards from the edge of water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications, do not apply this pesticide within 200 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.

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Alabama cave shrimp [Palaemonias ganteri]

The Alabama cave shrimp is a small, nearly transparent crustacean with reduced eyes. Lack of pigmentation indicates that it has survived underground in the absence of light for perhaps thousands of years. The cave shrimp is a nonselective grazer, feeding on protozoans, tiny insects, fungae and algae that have entered the cave in groundwater. It is believed to have a low reproductive potential as females produce only 6 to 12 eggs after breeding.

A search of over 200 caves in northern Alabama located the shrimp in only two locations in Madison County, Alabama, in the Shelta and Bobcat caves of the Huntsville Spring Branch and Indian Creek drainages. The size of caveshrimp populations have declined significantly in recent years, and many researchers fear that it may already have been eliminated from Shelta Cave. The size of the shrimp population in Bobcat Cave has not been estimated, but is considered to be very low because of small cave habitats.

Residential and commercial development has disrupted the ecological balance of the underground water supply by introducing contaminants and by diverting water from the aquifer. Increased groundwater pumping could further reduce the water table, causing the caves to dry. The Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the Army division that administers Bobcat Cave of the Redstone Arsenal, are working to develop a habitat management plan to protect Bobcat Cave against potentially damaging groundwater contamination. The FWS is also working with the National Speleological Society to develop a protection plan for recreational spelunkers who use Shelta Cave.

Mosely, C.J. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol. II, pp. 1031-2.

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Freshwater mussel [Unionidae]

Freshwater mollusks found in this area are orange-footed mucket pearly mussel and the pink mucket pearly mussel. These mussels are in the family Unionidae, a family restricted to North America. A far larger percentage of this family are imperiled than any other taxonomic (species) group.

Freshwater mussels can live up to 50 years. In the parasitic larval stage of the mollusk lifecycle it is dependant on fish within its habitat for nutrients and mobility. However, only a few host fish are known. Mature mussels bury themselves in the riffles and shoals and feed by siphoning phytoplankton and other plant matter from the water. Reverse siphoning is used to expell undigestible particles from the shell. Silt in the water can kill mussels by clogging their feeding siphons.

Major factors affecting mussel populations are alterations in temperature, waterflow, and siltation caused by stream damming and channeling. Agricultural runoffs and industrial practices have also affected the mussel habitat by degrading water quality and causing siltation. Because mussels are filter feeders, the effects of pollution are intensified due to the large quantities of water drawn through their siphons in the feeding process. Another significant threat to this species is the widespread and rapid population growth of the introduced zebra mussel. The zebra mussel not only competes with native species, but also attatches to them, adding so much weight that the native species cannot open to feed. In the past, commerial harvests contributed to the decline of freshwater mussels but this industry has since been reduced.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 955-956.

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Slackwater darter [Etheostoma boschungi]

The slackwater darter ranges from 1.6 to 3 inches in length. It is characterized by a blue-black bar under the eyes, and by three prominent dark dorsal saddles. This fish feeds on insects and small crustaceans and lives no more than three years. It is found in small to moderate, slow-flowing upland streams no more than 40 feet wide and less than 7 feet deep, or in wider streams with overhanging banks without riffles or rapids. This species has distinct breeding habits that rely on spring rains in seepage areas such as open fields, pastures or woods where they spawn in water approximately 3 inches deep.

Historically, populations of the slackwater darter were probabally more widely distributed throughout smaller streams of the Tennessee River basin. Current populations are found in limited numbers in five tributaries in the south bend of the Tennessee River: Buffalo River and Shoal Creek (Lawrence County), Tennessee; and Flint River (Madison County), Swan Creek (Limestone County), and Cypress Creek (Lauderdale County), Alabama.

The slackwater darter's habitat has been significantly reduced due to falling water tables throughout the region. Heavy groundwater use for agricultural and human consumption has dried up many seepage areas and closed off numerous spawning areas. Current threats to the remaining populations are herbicides, pesticides, industrial wastes, and sewage which enters the groundwater stystem and degrades water quality.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol. II, pp. 839-40.

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Snail darter [Percina tanasi]

The snail darter fish is a small, robust fish about 3.4 inches in length. The body is brown with green and white marks above and below four, dark brown patches on its back. The upper portion of the head is dark brown and its cheeks are mottled brown and yellow. The snail dartar lives up to five or six years, feeding primarily on aquatic snails in moderately flowing, vegetated streams with sandy bottoms and wide shoals for spawning.

The snail darter was first collected in 1973 in the lower reaches of the Little Tennessee River, an area that was eventually altered by completion of the Tellico Dam. According to the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), it is difficult to determine the range of the snail darter before the construction of the dam but was probally confined to the upper portions of the Tennessee River, and the lower portions of the Hiwassee, Clinch, Little Tennessee, French Broad and Holston rivers. Current populations of this fish are found in the main channel of the Tennessee River and in six of its tributaries in Hamilton, Loudon, Marion, Meigs and Polk counties in Tennessee, and in Jackson and Madison counties in Alabama.

Unknown to anyone before 1973, the snail darter became the focus of a major political controversy when its existance halted the completion of the Tennesse Valley Authority's Tellico Dam on the Little Tennessee River because it was designated as critical habitat for this fish. Since then, other populations have been discovered and efforts to transplant the darter has led the snail darter to be downlisted to Threatened. If substantial new populations are discovered or current populations increase over a ten-year period, the FWS will consider removing the darter from the Federal Endangered Species list.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 921-923.

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