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Sumter County, Alabama

Information provided for informational purposes only

Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.

Sumter County, Alabama

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Freshwater Mollusks

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active IngredientCode
AZINPHOS-METHYL2c
BENOMYL1c
BENSULIDE2c
CAPTAN1c
CARBARYL2c
CARBOFURAN1c
CHLORPYRIFOS  
Alfalfa, Peanuts
43
Apples
41
All Other Uses
2c
DEF2c
DIAZINON2c
DICOFOL2c
DIMETHOATE2c
ENDOSULFAN2c
ESFENVALERATE1c
ETHION2c
ETHROPROP2c
FENAMIPHOS2c
FLURIDONE20
FONOFOS2c
MALATHION2c
METHIDATHION2c
METHOMYL1c
METHYL PARATHION1c
MEVINPHOS2c
NALED1c
NITRAPYRIN1c
PARATHION (ethyl)2c
PENDIMETHALIN2c
PERMETHRIN1c
PHORATE1c
PHOSMET1c
PHOSPHAMIDON1c
PYRETHRINS2c
TERBUFOS2c
TRICHLORFON2c
CodeLimitations
1cFor ground applications do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of the water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.
2cFor ground applications do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of the water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications do not apply this pesticide within 200 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.
20Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area.
41Do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile of the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards of the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

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Freshwater mussel [Unionidae]

Freshwater mollusks in this area are Judge Tait's mussel, the stirrup shell, the penitent mussel, and Marshall's mussel. These mussels are in the family Unionidae, a family restricted to North America. A far larger percentage of this family are imperiled than any other taxonomic (species) group. Freshwater mussels can live up to 50 years. In the parasitic larval stage of the mollusk lifecycle it is dependant on fish within its habitat for nutrients and mobility. However, only a few host fish are known. Mature mussels bury themselves in the riffles and shoals and feed by siphoning phytoplankton and other plant matter from the water. Reverse siphoning is used to expell undigestible particles from the shell. Silt in the water can kill mussels by clogging their feeding siphons.

Major factors affecting mussel populations are alterations in temperature, waterflow, and siltation caused by stream damming and channeling. Agricultural runoffs and industrial practices have also affected the mussel habitat by degrading water quality and causing siltation. Because mussels are filter feeders, the effects of pollution are intensified due to the large quantities of water drawn through their siphons in the feeding process. Another significant threat to this species is the widespread and rapid population growth of the introduced zebra mussel. The zebra mussel not only competes with native species, but also attatches to them, adding so much weight that the native species cannot open to feed. In the past, commerial harvests contributed to the decline of freshwater mussels but this industry has since been reduced.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 955-956.

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