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Cochise County Arizona

Information provided for informational purposes only

Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.

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Pesticide Table for the Cochise Pincushion Cactus
Pesticide Table for the Desert Pupfish and the Gila (Yaqui) Topminnow
Pesticide Table for the Gila (Yaqui) Topminnow and the Yaqui Chub
About the Cochise Pincushion
About the Desert Pupfish | About the Gila (Yaqui) Topminnow | About the Yaqui Chub
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Desert Pupfish and the Gila (Yaqui) Topminnow

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code TAR*
ALDICARB 2a  
AZINPHOS-METHYL  2a
BENOMYL  2a
BENSULIDE 2a  
CAPTAN 1a  
CARBARYL 3a  
CARBOFURAN 2a  
CHLOROTHALONIL 2a  
CHLORPYRIFOS   
Alfalfa
43a  
Apples
41a  
All Other Uses Except
as a Termiticide
3a  
COPPER SULFATE (all salts) 2a  
DIAZINON  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3a  
DICOFOL 2a  
DICROTOPHOS 2a  
DISULFOTON 2a  
ENDOSULFAN 2a  
ETHION 2a  
ETHOPROP 2a  
FENAMIPHOS 2a  
FONOFOS 2a  
ISOFENPHOS 2a  
MALATHION 3a. 5a  
MANCOZEB 2a  
METHIDATHION 2a  
METHOMYL 5a, 196 0.2
METHYL PARATHION 3a, 5a  
NALED 5a, 396 2.0
OXAMYL 2a 
OXYDEMETON-METHYL 2a  
OXYFLUORFEN 2a  
PARATHION (ethyl) 2a  
PENDIMETHALIN 2a  
PHORATE 2a  
PHOSMET 2a  
PROFENOFOS 2a  
PROPACHLOR (granular) 296 1.3
PROPACHLOR (non-granular) 396 0.4
PROPARGITE 2a
PYRETHRINS 1a, 5a
SULPROFOS 2a
TERBUFOS 2a
THIODICARB 2a
THIOPHANATE-METHYL 2a
TRIBUFOS (DEF) 2a
TRICHLORFON (granular) 2a
TRICHLORFON (non-granular) 396 3.5
TRIFLURALIN 2a

* TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of active ingredient per acre per applications)
Code Limitations
1a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
2a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
3a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
5a Do not apply ultra low volume (ULV) applications within 1 mile from the edge of water within the area described under the Shading Key.
41a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
196 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
296 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
396 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

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Gila (Yaqui) Topminnow and the Yaqui Chub

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code TAR*
CAPTAN 1x
CARBARYL 3x
CHLORPYRIFOS
Alfalfa
43a
Apples
41a
All Other Uses Except
as a Termiticide
3x, 10a
DIAZINON
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3x
MALATHION 3x, 5a, 10a
METHOMYL 1x, 5a
METHYL PARATHION 3x, 5a, 10a
NALED 5a, 396 2.0
PROPACHLOR (granular) 296 1.3
PROPACHLOR (non-granular) 396 0.4
PYRETHRINS 1x, 5a, 10a
TRICHLORFON (granular) 2a
TRICHLORFON (non-granular) 396 3.5

* TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of active per acre per application)
Code Limitations
1x Within the area described under the Shading Key and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the area, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
2a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
3x Within the area described under the Shading Key and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the area, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
5a Do not apply ultra low volume (ULV) applications within 1 mile from the edge of water within the area described under the Shading Key.
10a Do not apply directly to water within the are described under the Shading Key, nor within 1 mile upstream from the area.
43a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for groiund applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
296 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
396 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

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Cochise pincushion cactus [Coryphantha robbinsorum]

The Cochise pincushion cactus is a small, spiny, unbranched cactus that, as its names implies, resembles a rounded pincushion. Unlike other cacti, this pincushion cactus has no central spines, but typically has 11 to 17 sharp, circular spines. In March and April, pale yellow-green flowers with a slight bronze cast bloom.

The fruit of this threatened cactus ripens to orange-red in July and August, but quickly turns a dull red. The Cochise pincushion is distincitive for its unusually low reproductive capabilities compared to other, related cacti, producing only three fruits annually which each contain 20 seeds. It is normal for this species to disappear from a localized site, only to reemerge at nearby area.

Also known by the names of Cochiseia robbinsorum Earle, and Escobaria robbinsorum, this pincushion cactus grows in semidesert grassland on limestone hills at an elevation of 1,280 meters (4,200 ft). Although the species is endemic to the Sonoran desert of southwestern Arizona and neighborng Mexico, its current range is much more limited. Today, the Cochise pincushion is only found on isolated hills in Cochise County, Arizona, at sites averaging about 1 hectare (2.5 acres) each. Some plants have been reported in Sonora, Mexico, but their status is unknown. There are no current population estimates for this pincushion cactus, other than an indication that the numbers are very low.

Most of the known populations of this species exist on privately owned ranchland, often working cattle ranches. Cattle have been known to graze on and trample the Cochise pincushion. In addition, limestone quarrying and oil drilling, both active in the region, are potential threats to the cactus. It is also ironic that the distinguishing features of this plant have proven to be liabilities. Because of its size, rarity, and beauty, the Cochise pincushion cactus is sought by collectors. However, if these hobbyists are patient, they will be able to obtain this pincushion without threatening its existence, for the cactus has been successfully propagated in the greenhouse. Seeds, as well as cultivated plants, will hopefully be made commercially available in the near future.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol I, pp. 108-109.

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Desert pupfish [Cyprinodon macularius]

The Desert pupfish is a tiny, skinny fish with a smoothly rounded body. The male rarely grows larger than 7.5 centimeters (3 in). Like many other fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, males don bright breeding colors during the mating season to attract females. With the Desert pupfish, the males turn bright blue on the head and sides, and yellow on the tail. Females and juveniles usually have tan to olive backs and silvery sides. The narrow, vertical, dark bars on the sides of adults are often interrupted and give the curious impression of a disjunct, lateral band along the fish.

In its life of about one year, the Desert pupfish matures rapidly and propagates often, producing up to three generations during its short existence. Spawning occurs throughout the spring and summer months. Females lay their eggs on submerged plants in shallow water, and males will defend the eggs up to three days until they hatch. Within hours of birth, the young begin to feed themselves on small plants and insects.

The Desert pupfish is adapted to live in the extreme climate of a harsh desert environment. This species is capable of living in water with temperatures in excess of 43 degrees C (110 F). This fish was first described in 1853 when it was collected in the San Pedro River of Arizona. It has recently been divided into two named subspecies, with possibly a third, undescribed subpecies in Mexico. It was once common in many of the desert springs, marshes, and tributary streams of Arizona, California, and Mexico. Today, the Colorado River subspecies, C. macularius macularius, is found in several Salton Sea tributaries in California, as well as associated shoreline pools and irrigation drains. In Arizona, the subspecies C. macularius eremus lives in the Quitobaquito Spring within the Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument. The species is also thought to inhabit adjacent waters in Mexico.

The largest impacts on the Desert pupfish were the groundwater pumping and the construction of dams on the Gila, Colorado, and Salt Rivers. The dams block the water flow to the lower areas of the rivers, eliminating many of the marshy pools in which the pupfish breeds. As a result, the fish are forced into mainstream channels, where they are quickly preyed upon by larger predators, many of which are fish species introduced for recreational purposes. Although it is a resilient and hardy species in many respects, the tiny Desert pupfish is unable to adequately compete and defend itself in foreign waters populated by non-native fish.

Currently, with the irrevocable loss of so much suitable habitat, the Desert pupfish is being bred in captivity for the purpose of reintroduction into the environment. At the present time, it is unclear how successful the reintroduction programs have been. However, it is clear that there are many human obstacles which will continue to make the survival of the Desert pupfish difficult.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 825-826.

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Gila and Yaqui topminnow [Poeciliopsis occidentalis]

The Gila topminnow consists of two subspecies, the Gila (Poeciliopsis occidentalis occidentalis) and the Yaqui (P. occidentalis sonoriensis), both of which are federally listed as endangered. This topminow is included in the same family as the domesticated aquarium guppy, and is similar to the guppy in many aspects. This tiny fish averages 3 to 4 centimeters (1.2 to 1.6 in) in length. It is tan to olive on the upper portions of its body and white below. Similar to other fish, the body colors of breeding males will become more vibrant in order to entice the females. Breeding male topminnows darken to jet black and develop bright yellow fins and golden tints along their midsections.

Although the lifespan of the Gila topminnow is only about one year, the species is a prolific breeder. Gestation varies from 24 to 28 days for the Gila topminnow and 12 to 14 days for the Yaqui subspecies. Unlike most other fish, the topminnow gives birth to live young, as opposed to laying eggs. The onset of breeding is affected by water temperature, daylight, and food availability.

Topminnows are able to exist in a broad range of habitats. Though they prefer shallow, warm, and fairly quiet waters, these fish are also found in moderate currents and depths up to 1 meter (3.3 ft). They make their homes in permanent and intermittent streams, marshes, and river banks, where they seek dense mats of algae and debris with sandy substrates for their preferred living environment.

Historically, this topminnow was abundant throughout the Gila River system and Rio Yaqui drainage in Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Sonora and Chihuahua, Mexico. The current severe reductions of population and suitable habitat are reasons for grave concern for the survival of the this species. The Gila Topminnow still occurs in natural populations at only eight isolated locations in the Santa Cruz River System. It is believed that extensive groundwater pumping and diversion of water for the irrigation of agriculture in Mexico have annihilated the species from that country. The Yaqui topminnow is found only at eight US locations within the Yaqui River headwaters, but is more abundant in Mexico.

Water projects such as dam building and crop irrigation transformed all free-flowing southwestern rivers into intermittent, deeply cut streams or broad, sandy washes, reducing the topminnow populations to a fraction of their pre-1860's range. As with other species of fish found in Arizona, the topminnow is also threatened by aggressive and predatory, non-native fish which have been introduced for recreational purposes. Other introduced species like the related mosquitofish harass adult topminnows and feed on the young, and are a major obstacle to the continuing survival of these fish. Only when a habitat is sufficiently large can these two species coexist.

Some of the topminnow populations are found on National Wildlife Refuges and are well protected. The species is also successfully reared in captivity and has been reintroduced into the wild. However, even with the gifted fertility of this fish, it is clear that the Gila and Yaqui topminnows need large, stable habitats to ensure their survival.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 928-929.

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Yaqui chub [Gila purpurea]

The Yaqui chub is distinctive for its streamlined body, terminating with a narrow tail and a V-shaped caudal fin. Its other fins are enlarged and fan-shaped. This chub is a medium-sized minnow, ranging from 12.5 to 15 centimeters (5 to 6 in) in size. There is a single dark band on the side of the fish, and a dark spot at the base of the tail. During the breeding season, the male's belly turns a reddish color.

This species feeds on insects, plant matter, and other small organic materials. The fish often uses the backwaters and pools of clean, narrow, permanent streams or desert springs for feeding and shelter. The chub probably lays its eggs in deep pools with aquatic vegetation. It is important that the habitat of this species is free of introduced fish species.

Historically, the Yaqui chub existed in the Rio Yaqui basin of southeastern Arizona, northwestern Sonora, and portions of eastern Chihuahua, Mexico. Today, the distribution of the chub has decreased considerably, with existing populations known in only a few springs in the San Bernardino National Wildlife refuge and Leslie Creek in Cochise County. When searching for the Yaqui chub in the Rio Yaqui basin in 1979, scientists only found one fish, signaling a serious decline in numbers. As a result of this dire situation, reintroductions of the fish were initiated, and by 1997 the chub had been transplanted into all of the suitable waters of the San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge.

The largest past impact and current deterrent to the survival of the Yaqui chub has been the destruction of habitat. The range of the chub has dramatically reduced as a result of arroyo modification, water diversion, dam construction, and excessive pumping of groundwater. Drives of livestock have trampled the fish's habitat when drinking out of the streams. As with other species of Arizona, it is assumed that the Yaqui chub is threatened by such introduced predatory fish as large mouth bass, bluegill, black bullhead, channel catfish, and green sunfish which are present in the Rio Yaqui basin and probably feed on the chub. Biologists also fear that the proposed exploration and development of leases for geothermal resoures on lands adjacent to the San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge could cause further depletion and possible pollution of groundwater.

The current status of the Yaqui chub in Mexico is unknown. Many Mexican rivers have been highly modified from the irrigation of agriculture, and the water quality has drastically declined due to chemical and sewage contamination. The Yaqui chub receives no legal protection from the Mexican government.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 881-882.

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