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Graham County, Arizona

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Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.

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Pesticide Table for the Apache Trout | Pesticide Table for the Arizona Cliffrose
Pesticide Table for the Gila (Yaqui) Topminnow
Pesticide Table for the Loach Minnow and the Spikedace
About the Apache Trout | About the Arizona Cliffrose | About the Gila (Yaqui) Topminnow |
About the Loach Minnow | About the Spikedace
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Graham County, Arizona
Graham County, Arizona

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Apache Trout

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code TAR*
AZINPHOS-METHYL 3x, 5a  
BENOMYL 1x  
CAPTAN 1x  
CARBARYL 3x  
CARBOFURAN (granular) 196 0.7
CARBOFURAN (non-granular) 1x  
CHLOROTHALONIL (granular) 1a  
CHLOROTHALONIL (non-granular) 196 2.8
CHLORPYRIFOS    
Alfalfa
43a  
Apples
41a  
All Other Uses Except
as a Termitcide
3x, 10a  
DIAZINON    
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3x  
DIFLUBENZURON 1x  
DIMETHOATE (granular) 1a, 5a  
DIMETHOATE (non-granular) 5a, 196 2.3
DISULFOTON    
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3x  
FENITROTHION 3x  
MALATHION 3x, 5a, 10a  
MANCOZEB 196 0.75
METHOMYL 1x, 5a  
METHYL PARATHION 3x, 5a, 10a  
NALED 5a, 196 2.0
OXYDEMETON-METHYL 196 2.5
OXYFLUORFEN (granular) 1a  
OXYFLUORFEN (non-granular)196 0.75  
PHOSMET 1x  
PROPACHLOR (granular) 296 1.3
PROPACHLOR (non-granular) 396 0.4
PYRETHRINS 1x, 5a, 10a  
THIOPHANATE-METHYL 1x  
TRICHLORFON (granular) 2a  
TRICHLORFON (non-granular) 396 3.5

* TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of active ingredients per acre per application)
Code Limitations
1a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
1x Within the area described under the Shading Key and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the area, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
2a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
3x Within the area described under the Shading Key and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the area do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
5a Do not apply ultra low volume (ULV) applications within 1 mile from the edge of water within the area described under the Shading Key.
10a Do not apply directly to water within the area described under the Shading Key, nor within 1 mile up all streams from the area.
41a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
196 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
296 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
396 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

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Arizona Cliffrose

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code
2, 4-D (all forms) 29
ATRAZINE 29
CLOPYRALID 29
DICAMBA (all forms) 29
DICHLORPROP (2, 4-DP) 29
HEXAZINONE 29
MCPA (all forms) 29
METRIBUZIN 32a
OXYFLUORFEN (granular) 17b
OXYFLUORFEN (non-granular) 17b
PARAQUAT 29
PICLORAM (all forms) 29
SULFOMETURON METHYL 32a
TEBUTHIURON 29
Code Limitations
17b Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 100 yards of the habitat, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
29 Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 20 yards of the habitat, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
32a Do not apply this pesticide on rights-of-way in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key).

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Gila (Yaqui) Topminnow

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code TAR*
CAPTAN 1x  
CARBARYL 3x  
CHLORPYRIFOS    
Alfalfa
43a  
Apples
41a  
All Other Uses Excepta
as a Termiticide
3x, 10a  
DIAZINON    
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3x  
MALATHION 3x, 5a, 10a  
METHOMYL 5a, 196 0.2
METHYL PARATHION 3x, 5a, 10a  
NALED 5a, 396 2.0
PROPACHLOR (granular) 296 1.3
PROPACHLOR (non-granular) 396 0.4
PYRETHRINS 1x, 5a, 10a  
TRICHLORFON (granular) 2a  
TRICHLORFON (non-granular) 396 3.5

* TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of active ingredient per acre per application)
Code Limitations
1x Within the area described under the Shading Key and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the area, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
2a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
3x Within the area described under the Shading Key and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the area, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
5a Do not apply ultra low volume (ULV) applications within 1 mile from the edge of water within the area described under the Shading Key.
10a Do not apply directly to water within the are described under the Shading Key, nor within 1 mile upstream from the area.
41a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
196 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
296 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
396 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

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Loach Minnow and the Spikedace

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code TAR*
ALDICARB 196 0.5
AZINPHOS-METHYL 3x, 5d  
BENOMYL 3x  
BENSULIDE    
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
396 4
CAPTAN 1x  
CARBARYL 3x  
CARBOFURAN (granular) 296 0.7
CHLOROTHALONIL (granular) 2a  
CHLOROTHALONIL (non-granular) 396 2.8
CHLORPYRIFOS    
Alfalfa
43a  
Apples
41a  
All Other Uses Except
as a Termitcide
3x, 10a  
COPPER SULFATE (all salts) 1x  
DIAZINON    
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3x  
DIFLUBENZURON 1x  
DIMETHOATE (granular) 3a, 5a  
DIMETHOATE (non-granular) 3x, 5a  
DISULFOTON    
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3x  
DIURON 196 4
ENDOSULFAN 3x, 5a  
ETHION 396 0.5
ETHOPROP 1x  
FENAMIPHOS 1x  
FLURIDONE 20a  
FONOFOS 1x  
ISOFENPHOS (granular) 1a  
ISOFENPHOS (non-granular) 196 2.8
MALATHION 3x, 5a, 10a  
MANCOZEB 196 0.75
METHIDATHION 1x  
METHOMYL 5a, 396 0.2
METHYL PARATHION 3x, 5a, 10a  
NALED 5a, 396 2.0
OXAMYL (granular) 1a  
OXAMYL (non-granular) 196 1.5
OXYDEMETON-METHYL 196 2.5
OXYFLUORFEN (granular) 2a  
OXYFLUORFEN (non-granular)396 0.75  
PARATHION (ethyl) (granular) 2a  
PARATHION (ethyl) (non-granular) 3x  
PENDIMETHALIN  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3x  
PHORATE 3x  
PHOSMET 3x  
PHOSPHAMIDON 196 4
PROFENOFOS 3x  
PROPACHLOR (granular) 296 1.3
PROPACHLOR (non-granular) 396 0.4
PROPARGITE 196 1.5
PYRETHRINS 3x, 5a, 10a  
SULPROFOS 196 1.5
TERBUFOS 3x  
THIOPHANATE-METHYL 1x  
TRIBUFOS (DEF) 5a, 396 1
TRICHLORFON (granular) 2a  
TRICHLORFON (non-granular) 396 3.5
TRIFLURALIN    
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
396 0.5

* TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of active ingredients per acre per application)
Code Limitations
1a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
1x Within the area described under the Shading Key and up to 1/2 mile up all streams that join the area, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
2a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
3x Within the area described under the Shading Key and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the area, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
5a Do not apply ultra low volume (ULV) applications within 1 mile from the edge of water within the area described under the Shading Key.
10a Do not apply directly to water within the area described under the Shading Key, nor within 1 mile upstream from the area.
20a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply directly to water.
41a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
196 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
296 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
396 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

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Apache trout [Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) apache]

The Apache trout is distinguished by its deep, compressed body with a large dorsal fin. Also known as the Arizona trout, the fish grows to a mature length of 18-23 centimeters (7-9 in). This yellowish or yellow-olive trout is distinctive for the uniformly spaced dark, brown spots which cover its back and sides. The species feeds on terrestrial and aquatic insects by taking them from the surface.

The Apache trout commonly inhabits fast-flowing mountain streams. The severe winters at this high altitude habitat significantly deplete trout numbers, producing a large fluctuation in fish populations. In addition, this species does not spawn until individuals are three years old. Thus, the slow and variable reproduction is a natural barrier to the recovery of this endangered species.

Currently, the largest numbers of the Apache trout are found in the headwaters of the White and Black River systems on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. Streams in the Gila and Apache-Sitgreaves national forests have been rehabilitated to support reintroduced populations, and several thousand of these fish have been spotted in the East Fork of the White River. Prior to these reintroductions, the range of the Apache trout was reduced to approximately 48 kilometers (30 mi) of stream, an area less than 5 percent of its historic range in Arizona and New Mexico.

Ironically, the largest threat to the existence of the Apache trout is not from direct exploitation, but rather indirectly as a result of introducing non-native fish species into the trout's natural habitat. Brook, rainbow, and brown trouts were introduced into many streams as game fish and have competed with the Apache trout for survival. In addition, the Apache trout has the ability to interbreed with brown trout, producing hybrids and jeopardizing the status of the this species as a genetically identifiable species. During the past twenty years, the Fish and Wildlife Service has struggled, with little success, to eradicate the non-native fish populations from the waters of the Apache trout. However, the development of methods for raising the Apache trout in captivity has greatly improved the chances of a prosperous future for the species. In an effort to return the trout to their natural habitat, hatcheries hope to raise 50,000 fish a year to restock the streams. This action virtually ensures the long-term survival of the Apache trout, as long as suitable habitat exists.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 938-939.

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Arizona cliffrose [Purshia (=Cowania) subintegra]

The Arizona cliffrose is a plant that is well adapted to the harsh environment of the desert. It is an evergreen shrub with pale gray, ragged bark. It's leaves, twigs, and flowers are covered with dense, short white hairs. The thick bark and white hairs enable the cliffrose to insulate itself against the extreme heat of the desert climate. The leaves also have a prominent vein, and the blooming five-petaled flowers are white or yellow. This plant can grow up to 8 feet tall.

The Arizona cliffrose was listed with the scientific name of Cowania subintegra, but has been reclassified as Purshia subintegra. The plant is found on the low rolling hills of the central Arizona uplands, between 2,000 and 3,600 feet elevation. It grows on somewhat gravelly, sandy loam soil, apparently always associated with limestone. Despite its common name, this species occurs on gentle slopes and terraces more often than on very steep slopes. For nearly thirty years, this plant was only known from one population. However, a second population was discovered in 1970, and two more were located in 1984 and 1985. These populations are widely separated in Mohave, Yavapai, Maricopa, and Graham counties.

There are various problems which threaten the existence of the Arizona cliffrose. First of all, the plant reproduces at a very low rate, which severely hampers any recovery of the shrub. Although one population seems capable of viable reproduction, the others have have been unable to adequately sustain themselves. Poor seed viability appears to be a major factor with these latter groups. In addition, over 100 mining claims have been filed in and around one site. The exploration that accompanies these mines scrapes the surface of the ground, destroying plants and extensively damaging the ecosystem. The grazing of cattle, mule deer, and feral burros also threatens the cliffrose, and one population is jeopardized by urbanization.

Currently, three of the Arizona cliffrose populations occur on Federal land, which makes the preservation of most of the plant's habitat feasible. Management programs are attempting to supervise the mining activities, and there is a possibility of fencing portions of the habitat to deter grazing animals.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol I, pp. 114-115.

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Gila and Yaqui topminnow [Poeciliopsis occidentalis]

The Gila topminnow consists of two subspecies, the Gila (Poeciliopsis occidentalis occidentalis) and the Yaqui (P. occidentalis sonoriensis), both of which are federally listed as endangered. This topminow is included in the same family as the domesticated aquarium guppy, and is similar to the guppy in many aspects. This tiny fish averages 3 to 4 centimeters (1.2 to 1.6 in) in length. It is tan to olive on the upper portions of its body and white below. Similar to other fish, the body colors of breeding males will become more vibrant in order to entice the females. Breeding male topminnows darken to jet black and develop bright yellow fins and golden tints along their midsections.

Although the lifespan of the Gila topminnow is only about one year, the species is a prolific breeder. Gestation varies from 24 to 28 days for the Gila topminnow and 12 to 14 days for the Yaqui subspecies. Unlike most other fish, the topminnow gives birth to live young, as opposed to laying eggs. The onset of breeding is affected by water temperature, daylight, and food availability.

Topminnows are able to exist in a broad range of habitats. Though they prefer shallow, warm, and fairly quiet waters, these fish are also found in moderate currents and depths up to 1 meter (3.3 ft). They make their homes in permanent and intermittent streams, marshes, and river banks, where they seek dense mats of algae and debris with sandy substrates for their preferred living environment.

Historically, this topminnow was abundant throughout the Gila River system and Rio Yaqui drainage in Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Sonora and Chihuahua, Mexico. The current severe reductions of population and suitable habitat are reasons for grave concern for the survival of the this species. The Gila Topminnow still occurs in natural populations at only eight isolated locations in the Santa Cruz River System. It is believed that extensive groundwater pumping and diversion of water for the irrigation of agriculture in Mexico have annihilated the species from that country. The Yaqui topminnow is found only at eight US locations within the Yaqui River headwaters, but is more abundant in Mexico.

Water projects such as dam building and crop irrigation transformed all free-flowing southwestern rivers into intermittent, deeply cut streams or broad, sandy washes, reducing the topminnow populations to a fraction of their pre-1860's range. As with other species of fish found in Arizona, the topminnow is also threatened by aggressive and predatory, non-native fish which have been introduced for recreational purposes. Other introduced species like the related mosquitofish harass adult topminnows and feed on the young, and are a major obstacle to the continuing survival of these fish. Only when a habitat is sufficiently large can these two species coexist.

Some of the topminnow populations are found on National Wildlife Refuges and are well protected. The species is also successfully reared in captivity and has been reintroduced into the wild. However, even with the gifted fertility of this fish, it is clear that the Gila and Yaqui topminnows need large, stable habitats to ensure their survival.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 928-929.

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Loach minnow [Tiaroga cobitis]

The Loach minnow is notable for its highly angled mouth and its eyes that point markedly upward. Its olive-colored body is marked with dirty white spots on its back and tail. The vivid red-orange streaks which cover the bodies of breeding males, when added to the other physical descriptions, produces a striking appearence. To observe the minnow, one will have to look closely, for this slender-bodied fish is typically less than 8 centimeters (3.1 in) in length. The Loach Minnow is the only species in its genus. The fish's behavior has been poorly studied. It is assumed that it is a bottom feeder, eating insects and plant matter from the stream floor.

The Loach minnow makes its home in shallow streams with perennial flow, concentrating in turbulent riffles over a rocky bottom. Recurrent flooding keeps the stream floor free of silt and sediment, and because it is better adapted to strong currents, the minnow is able to maintain its population against encroaching non-native fishes.

This species was once common throughout the Verde, Salt, San Francisco, and Gila river systems, totaling 2,800 kilometers (1,750 mi) of stream habitat. This original habitat has been reduced by 80 percent, with the Loach minnow currently found in Aravaipa Creek, Blue River, and the White River in Arizona, and in the upper Gila River and its tributaries in New Mexico. Historically, the fish also existed in Mexico, but habitat there has been largely destroyed by diversion of water for irrigation and the species is thought to be extinct.

As with other native fishes of the Gila River system, the Loach minnow has been seriously harmed by human alteration of the ecosystem. Water diversion and groundwater pumping have detrimentally affected the delicate free-flowing streams in which the minnow makes its home. Stream impoundments, which cause sendimentation to cover the required rocky bottom for the fish, further jeopardizes this threatened species. Despite its advantages in the fast moving water, the minnow is still at risk from the predatory, competitive, non-native fish introduced for recreational purposes.

More than half of the existing Loach minnow population exists on public land. However, competition for water resources is always a potential threat to aquatic species in this arid region. Critical habitat has been designated along 257 km (159 (mi) of stream currently occupied by the minnow, thus ensuring that all water projects are developed in a way that accomodates the species and its habitat.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 825-826.
US Department of Interior. 1994. Designation of Critical Habitat for the Threatened Loach Minnow (Tiaroga cobitis). Federal Register, vol. 59, pp. 10898-10906. March 8, 1994.

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Spikedace [Meda fulgida]

The only species in the genus Meda, the Spikedace is distinctive for its silvery sides and its sharp spines on the dorsal and pelvic fins. During the breeding season, it will even turn a brassy, golden color. This is a slender, small fish, less than 7.5 centimeters (3 in) in length.

The Spikedace is a highly mobile creature. Although it has a high reproductive potential, it periodically experiences large fluctuations in population size. This species spawns in spring and feeds on insects, larvae, and plant matter. The fish is found in medium to large perennial streams where it lives in stream pools and shallow riffles over gravel bottoms, with moderate to swift currents. The Spikedace is tolerant of occasional flooding, which gives it a competitive edge over other native fishes in the ecosystem.

Historically, the Spikedace existed in most of the major waters upstream from Phoenix. However, the current distribution of this species in Arizona is limited to the Aravaipa Creek, Eagle Creek, and a portion of the upper Verde River, an area representing only 6 percent of its historic range. The severe decline of this fish is largely due to human manipulation of the rivers. Dam construction, artificial channeling of stream beds, water diversion and groundwater pumping have all resulted in detrimental effects on the habitat of the Spikedace. Similar to the plight of other Arizona fish species, the Spikedace is threatened by the introduction of non-native fish which act as predators and competitors.

Currently, there is stiff competition for the use of water in the sun-drenched state of Arizona. Additional dam construction on the upper Gila River has been proposed, and other water projects also threaten the Spikedace. To help protect this fish's waters, critical habitat has been designated for 154 km (95 mi) of rivers that are currently occupied. The critical habitat designation would not necessarily preclude flood control projects, but would require that such projects also safeguard the Spikedace and its habitat.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 897-898.
US Department of Interior. 1994. Designation of Critical Habitat for the Threatened Spikedace (Meda fulgida). Federal Register, vol. 59, pp. 10906-10915. March 8, 1994.

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