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Pima County, Arizona

Information provided for informational purposes only

Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.

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Pesticide Table for the Desert Pupfish
Pesticide Table for the Gila (Yaqui) Topminnow | Pesticide Table for the Masked Bobwhite Pesticide Table for the Nichol's Turk's Head Cactus
About the Desert Pupfish | About the Gila (Yaqui) Topminnow
About the Masked Bobwhite | About the Nichol's Turk's Head Cactus
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Desert Pupfish

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code
ALDICARB 2a
AZINPHOS-METHYL 2a
BENOMYL 2a
BENSULIDE 2a
CAPTAN 2a
CARBARYL 2a
CARBOFURAN 2a
CHLOROTHALONIL 2a
CHLORPYRIFOS 
Alfalfa
43a
All Other Uses Except
as a Termiticide
2a, 20a
COPPER SULFATE (all salts) 2a
DIAZINON 
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3a
DICOFOL 2a
DICROTOPHOS 2a
DISULFOTON 2a
ENDOSULFAN 2a
ETHION 2a
ETHOPROP 2a
FENAMIPHOS 2a
FONOFOS 2a
ISOFENPHOS 2a
MALATHION 2a, 20a
MANCOZEB 2a
METHIDATHION 2a
METHOMYL 2g
METHYL PARATHION 2a, 20a
NALED 2a
OXAMYL 2a
OXYDEMETON-METHYL 2a
OXYFLUORFEN 2a
PARATHION (ethyl) 2a
PENDIMETHALIN 2a
PHORATE 2a
PHOSMET 2a
PROFENOFOS 2a
PROPACHLOR (granular) 2a
PROPACHLOR (non-granular) 2a
PROPARGITE 2a
PYRETHRINS 2a, 20a
SULPROFOS 2a
TERBUFOS 2a
THIODICARB 2a
THIOPHANATE-METHYL 2a
TRIBUFOS (DEF) 2a
TRICHLORFON (granular) 2a
TRICHLORFON (non-granular) 2a
TRIFLURALIN 2a
Code Limitations
2a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
2g For applications that will not be soil-incorporated, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications, within the area described under the Shading Key.
20a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply directly to water.
43a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

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Gila (Yaqui) Topminnow

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code TAR*
CAPTAN 1x  
CARBARYL 3x  
CHLORPYRIFOS   
Alfalfa
43a  
All Other Uses Exceptz
as a Termiticide
3x, 10a  
DIAZINON  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3x  
MALATHION 3x, 5a, 10a  
METHOMYL 5a, 196 0.2
METHYL PARATHION 3x, 5a, 10a  
NALED 5a, 396 2.0
PROPACHLOR (granular) 296 1.3
PROPACHLOR (non-granular) 396 0.4
PYRETHRINS 1x, 5a, 10a  
TRICHLORFON (granular) 2a  
TRICHLORFON (non-granular) 396 3.5

* TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of active ingredient per acre per application)
Code Limitations
1x Within the area described under the Shading Key and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the area, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
2a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
3x Within the area described under the Shading Key and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the area, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
5a Do not apply ultra low volume (ULV) applications within 1 mile from the edge of water within the area described under the Shading Key.
10a Do not apply directly to water within the are described under the Shading Key, nor within 1 mile upstream from the area.
43a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for groiund applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
196 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
296 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
396 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

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Masked Bobwhite

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code
DIAZINON 
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
28
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
28
METHYL PARATHION 28
SODIUM CYANIDE 28
TRICHLORFON (granular) 28
TRICHLORFON (non-granular) 28
ZINC PHOSPHIDE 28
Code Limitations
28 Do not apply this pesticide within the shaded area shown on the map, within 20 yards of the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.

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Nichol's Turk's Head Cactus

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code
2, 4-D (all forms) 29
ATRAZINE 29
CLOPYRALID 29
DICAMBA 29
DICHLORPROP (2, 4-DP) 29
HEXAZINONE 29
MCPA (all forms) 29
METRIBUZIN 32a
OXYFLUOREN 17b
PARAQUAT 29
PICLORAM (all forms) 29
SULFOMETURON METHYL 32a
TEBUTHIURON 29
Code Limitations
17b Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 100 yards of the habitat, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
29 Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 20 yards of the habitat, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
32a Do not apply this pesticide on rights-of -way in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key).

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Desert pupfish [Cyprinodon macularius]

The Desert pupfish is a tiny, skinny fish with a smoothly rounded body. The male rarely grows larger than 7.5 centimeters (3 in). Like many other fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, males don bright breeding colors during the mating season to attract females. With the Desert pupfish, the males turn bright blue on the head and sides, and yellow on the tail. Females and juveniles usually have tan to olive backs and silvery sides. The narrow, vertical, dark bars on the sides of adults are often interrupted and give the curious impression of a disjunct, lateral band along the fish.

In its life of about one year, the Desert pupfish matures rapidly and propagates often, producing up to three generations during its short existence. Spawning occurs throughout the spring and summer months. Females lay their eggs on submerged plants in shallow water, and males will defend the eggs up to three days until they hatch. Within hours of birth, the young begin to feed themselves on small plants and insects.

The Desert pupfish is adapted to live in the extreme climate of a harsh desert environment. This species is capable of living in water with temperatures in excess of 43 degrees C (110 F). This fish was first described in 1853 when it was collected in the San Pedro River of Arizona. It has recently been divided into two named subspecies, with possibly a third, undescribed subpecies in Mexico. It was once common in many of the desert springs, marshes, and tributary streams of Arizona, California, and Mexico. Today, the Colorado River subspecies, C. macularius macularius, is found in several Salton Sea tributaries in California, as well as associated shoreline pools and irrigation drains. In Arizona, the subspecies C. macularius eremus lives in the Quitobaquito Spring within the Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument. The species is also thought to inhabit adjacent waters in Mexico.

The largest impacts on the Desert pupfish were the groundwater pumping and the construction of dams on the Gila, Colorado, and Salt Rivers. The dams block the water flow to the lower areas of the rivers, eliminating many of the marshy pools in which the pupfish breeds. As a result, the fish are forced into mainstream channels, where they are quickly preyed upon by larger predators, many of which are fish species introduced for recreational purposes. Although it is a resilient and hardy species in many respects, the tiny Desert pupfish is unable to adequately compete and defend itself in foreign waters populated by non-native fish.

Currently, with the irrevocable loss of so much suitable habitat, the Desert pupfish is being bred in captivity for the purpose of reintroduction into the environment. At the present time, it is unclear how successful the reintroduction programs have been. However, it is clear that there are many human obstacles which will continue to make the survival of the Desert pupfish difficult.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 825-826.

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Gila and Yaqui topminnow [Poeciliopsis occidentalis]

The Gila topminnow consists of two subspecies, the Gila (Poeciliopsis occidentalis occidentalis) and the Yaqui (P. occidentalis sonoriensis), both of which are federally listed as endangered. This topminow is included in the same family as the domesticated aquarium guppy, and is similar to the guppy in many aspects. This tiny fish averages 3 to 4 centimeters (1.2 to 1.6 in) in length. It is tan to olive on the upper portions of its body and white below. Similar to other fish, the body colors of breeding males will become more vibrant in order to entice the females. Breeding male topminnows darken to jet black and develop bright yellow fins and golden tints along their midsections.

Although the lifespan of the Gila topminnow is only about one year, the species is a prolific breeder. Gestation varies from 24 to 28 days for the Gila topminnow and 12 to 14 days for the Yaqui subspecies. Unlike most other fish, the topminnow gives birth to live young, as opposed to laying eggs. The onset of breeding is affected by water temperature, daylight, and food availability.

Topminnows are able to exist in a broad range of habitats. Though they prefer shallow, warm, and fairly quiet waters, these fish are also found in moderate currents and depths up to 1 meter (3.3 ft). They make their homes in permanent and intermittent streams, marshes, and river banks, where they seek dense mats of algae and debris with sandy substrates for their preferred living environment.

Historically, this topminnow was abundant throughout the Gila River system and Rio Yaqui drainage in Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Sonora and Chihuahua, Mexico. The current severe reductions of population and suitable habitat are reasons for grave concern for the survival of the this species. The Gila Topminnow still occurs in natural populations at only eight isolated locations in the Santa Cruz River System. It is believed that extensive groundwater pumping and diversion of water for the irrigation of agriculture in Mexico have annihilated the species from that country. The Yaqui topminnow is found only at eight US locations within the Yaqui River headwaters, but is more abundant in Mexico.

Water projects such as dam building and crop irrigation transformed all free-flowing southwestern rivers into intermittent, deeply cut streams or broad, sandy washes, reducing the topminnow populations to a fraction of their pre-1860's range. As with other species of fish found in Arizona, the topminnow is also threatened by aggressive and predatory, non-native fish which have been introduced for recreational purposes. Other introduced species like the related mosquitofish harass adult topminnows and feed on the young, and are a major obstacle to the continuing survival of these fish. Only when a habitat is sufficiently large can these two species coexist.

Some of the topminnow populations are found on National Wildlife Refuges and are well protected. The species is also successfully reared in captivity and has been reintroduced into the wild. However, even with the gifted fertility of this fish, it is clear that the Gila and Yaqui topminnows need large, stable habitats to ensure their survival.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 928-929.

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Masked bobwhite [Collinus virginianus ridgwayi]

The Masked bobwhite is a quail with a short tail and plump body, ranging from 22 to 27 centimeters (9 to 11 in) in length. The male is distinctive for his cinammon breast, black head and throat, and a varying amount of white above the eye. Females lack the black head and cinnamon breast, but instead are a mottled brown above with a buff head and white breast. The females are essentially indistinguishable from the Texas bobwhite (Colinus virginianus texanum) found in Texas and Mexico.

Masked bobwhites make their homes in open grasslands, semi-arid desert scrub, and in desert grasslands. This endangered bird is seasonally gregarious, gathering in social groups called "coveys." A cool weather covey rarely exceeds 20 birds, and Masked bobwhites usually remain in these groups until late June, when mating bonds form and pairs separate from the covey to nest. With the loud cry of "Bobwhoit!" by the male, the breeding season begins with the July rains. Bobwhites build their nests on the ground, and therefore require thick cover for concealment. If the rains are delayed or absent, the birds may not nest that season.

This subspecies of quail has always been restricted to the level plains and river valleys of Sonora, Mexico, and extreme south-central Arizona. By the turn of the century, the Masked bobwhite was eliminated from southern Arizona when native grasslands were depleted by cattle grazing. By the time the ranching reached Sonora in 1930, many birds had already disappeared from Mexico as well. Due to its secretive behavior, the current population distribution in Mexico is difficult to estimate.

Grazing by cattle and other livestock are the largest threats to the Masked bobwhite, because they remove grasses from the land, depriving the birds of nesting habitat, cover, and food. Depletion of ground cover also prevents brushfires, allowing woody plants to take over the grasslands, forcing out the Bobwhite.

Recovery of the Masked bobwhite has been an interesting challenge. From 1937 through 1950, unsuccessful attempts were made to reintroduce the birds to Arizona, New Mexico, and Mexico. It was not until 1966 that the program achieved its first goal, the successful captive breeding program established at Patuxent, Maryland. Throughout the 1970's, biologists struggled to find suitable habitat for reintroduction. Finally, the privately owned Buenos Aires Ranch of the Altar Valley was acquired by the Fish and Wildlife Service and became a national refuge.

Captive-reared chicks must be trained before being introduced into the wild. Chicks are grouped together under the tutelage of "foster parents," usually wild male Texas bobwhites that have been sterilized (to prevent interbreeding), which teach the released birds essential survival skills.

Despite the fact that the long-term success of the recovery efforts for the Masked bobwhite depend as much on weather cycles as on chick survival rates, biologists are optimistic for this species. As of 1997, there are several areas of the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge which support self-sustaining bobwhite populations, consisting of 700-1,000 birds.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 594-596.

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Nichol's turk's head cactus [Echinocactus horizonthalonius var nicholii]

Nichol's turk's head vactus is a barrel-shaped cactus with spines growing from vertical, spiraling ridges. This plant grows to a maximum height of 50 centimeters (20 in) and a diameter of 20 centimeters (8 in). From April to mid-May, large, bright pink or purplish flowers bloom. Although the cactus grows as a single, blue-green stem, it may appear to have multiple stems due to the seedlings which often grow around its base.

The Nichol's turk's head cactus is found within the Sonoran Desert of southern Arizona at sites in full sun on limestone slopes, often growing in soils rich in calcium carbonate. This semi-arid habitat receives less than 33 centimeters (13 in) of annual rainfall, and at 1,080 meters (3,500 ft), freezing temperatures occur only about five nights per winter. The cactus is endemic to the Sonoran Desert, and in the past thrived in this land and in adjacent Mexico. Currently, most of the exisitng cactus populations are grouped at only two locations in south-central Arizona, occuring at the Waterman and Vekol Mountains of Pima and Pinal Counties. Other smaller populations have been reported in Arizona and northwestern Mexico.

Human activites have detrimentally affected the Nichol's turk's head cactus in numerous ways. Limestone quarries have eliminated a small cacti population in the Waterman Mountains, and roads leading to this quarry cut through several other colonies. Recreational off-road vehicles have damaged habitat and destroyed plants. Hunters have even used cacti for target practice. However, the largest threat to the survival of this cactus is from collectors. Between 1982 and 1984, Nichol's turk's head cacti were advertised for sale in eleven different plant catalogs, despite the fact that it was listed as an endangered species in 1979.

Legislation has been the primary tool in preserving this species. The Nichol's turk's head cactus is protected by the Arizona Native Plant Law, and is included in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), which restricts the trading of this and other plants. However, more strict enforcement of the Lacey Act, which makes it illegal to buy or sell any plant which was acquired or possessed in violation of any law, will be necessary to deter collectors. Since many of the Nichol's turk's head cacti occur on lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management, proper regulations of quarrying activities will do much to preserve the remaining plants of this species.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol I, pp. 140-141.

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