Mississippi County, Arkansas
Fat Pocketbook Mussel
Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients
|1||Do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.|
|63||Do not apply this pesticide within the shaded area shown on the map, within 1000 feet of the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1 mile for aerial applications. When using in a rice field which drains into the shaded area, do not flood the field for 3 days after the application. Once flooded, allow 7 days to pass until the field is drained.|
Fat pocketbook pearly mussel [Potamilus capax]
The fat pocketbook pearly mussel is of the North American family Unionidae. A far larger percentage of this family are imperiled than any other species group. This mussel is about 4 inches long and has a smooth, shiny yellow to brown outer shell that is iridescent bluish white on the inside. It is found in sand, mud, or gravel in streams and rivers less than 8 feet deep, and feeds by siphoning phytoplankton and other plant matter from the water.
Historically, the fat pocketbook was found in portions of the Wabash, Mississippi, Ohio, and Illinois River. It now is believed to be found in a small, undredged portion of the St. Francis River in St. Francis County County, Arkansas. Few specimens were found in the mid-1970's in the Wabash River in Posey County, Indiana and a small tributary in Pike County, Indiana but is uncertain whether the fat pocketbook populations in these areas are still viable and reproducing.
Major factors affecting these mussel populations are alterations in temperature, waterflow, and siltation caused by stream damming, channeling, and dredging. Agricultural runoffs and industrial practices have also affected the mussel habitat by degrading water quality. Because mussels are filter feeders, the effects of pollution are intensified due to the large quantities of water drawn through their siphons in the feeding process.
Efforts to restore fat pocketbook populations include transplatation attempts by the Army Corps of Engineers, habitat reconstruction sites by the Fish and Wildlife Service, and concerted efforts by individuals and industries to ensure water quality.
Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 1009-1010.