Nicholas County, Kentucky
Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.
Pesticide Table for Fanshell | Pesticide Table for Short's Goldenrod
About the Fanshell | About Short's Goldenrod
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Pesticide Table for the Fanshell
|Mosquito Larvicide Use||61|
|All Other Uses Except as a Termiticide||2c|
Limitations On Pesticide Use
|1||Do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.|
|1c||For ground applications, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.|
|2c||For ground applications, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications, do not apply this pesticide within 200 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.|
|20||Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area.|
|41||Do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.|
|43||Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.|
|61||Do not apply this pesticide as a mosquito larvicide within the shaded area.|
Pesticide Table for Short's Goldenrod
|2,4-D (all forms)||29|
|DICAMBA (all forms)||29|
|MCPA (all forms)||29|
|PICLORAM (all forms)||29|
Limitations On Pesticide Use
|29||Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key). In addition, for ground applications do not apply within 20 yards of the habitat, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.|
Fanshell [Cyprogenia stegaria(=irrorata)]
The fanshell is a medium-sized freshwater mussel up to 3.2 inches long. The color of its shell is light green or yellow, mottled with green with green rays on the outside and silvery white on the inside. It inhabits streams with gravely bottoms where it buries itself in the riffles and feeds by filtering food from the water.
Historically, the fanshell was widely distributed in the Ohio, Wabash, Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers as well as in larger tributaries in the states of Alabama, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. It no longer is found in Alabama and Pennsylvania. Currently, it is believed that the fanshell only reproduces in: the Clinch River, Hancock County, TN and Scott County, VA; the Green River in Edmundson and Hart counties, KY; and the Licking River, in Campbell, Kenton and Pendelton counties, KY. Non-reproducing populations still occur in a few other rivers.
The major factors in the fanshell's decline are: i) alteration of the stream habitat by impoundment; ii) destruction of habitat by sand and gravel mining; and iii) water pollution caused by, among other things, gas exploration and production and coal mining activities.
Mosely, C.J. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Vol III. Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. pp. 1443-4.
Short's Goldenrod [Solidago shortii]
Short's goldenrod is a perennial herb that stands 20-52 inches tall. Alternate leaves are crowded on the many ascending stems that branch from the main rhizome. Ten to fourteen yellow flowers develop between mid-August and early November and are followed by light brown fruits after the flowers have withered.
Habitat typically consists of shallow clay soils with much limestone cobble and shale intermixed and full or partial sunlight. Dry, mostly open areas such as limestone cedar glades, clearings in oak and hickory forests,old fields, pastures, and along highway rights-of-way are typical habitats for this species. This species is endemic to Kentucky and is presently found in small numbers within the Blue Licks Battlefield State Park vicinity, and on rocky slopes and pastures where Robertson, Nicholas, and Fleming counties converge.
Historically, open haitat was probally maintained through natural disturbances such as periodic fires, and trapling and grazing by large herbivores such as bison, elk, and deer. However, the primary reasons for the current endangered status of Short's goldenrod appears to be habitat destruction or alteration, and possibly other natural or man-made factors such as fire supression and the elimiation of bison. Survival of this species depends on surrounding landowners and the continued efforts by the state park, the Kentucky Nature Preserve Commission, and the Kentucky Chapter of the Nature Conservancy.
Lowe, D.L. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Vol. I, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. pp. 379-80.