Benton County, Missouri
Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.
Pesticide Table for the Niangua Darter | About the Niangua Darter
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Pesticide Table for the Niangua Darter
|Active Ingredient||Product or Trade Name|
|Chlorpyrifos on Alfalfa||Lorsban|
|Chlorpyrifos: all other uses except on Alfalfa, or as a Termiticide||Lorsban, Dursban, Pageant|
|Trifluralin||Treflan, Tri-4, Trific, Trilin, Tri-Scept, Commence, Freedom, Team, Passport, Salute, Snapshot 2.5TG|
Trade names provided by the University of Missouri Extension Service. For additional information, contact your local University Extension office.
Limitations on Pesticide Use
|Product or Trade Name||Limitations|
|Lorsban||Do not apply 100 yards from the water's edge (ground application) nor 1/4 mile from the water's edge (aerial application) within the shaded area(s) shown on the map.|
|Sonar||Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area(s) shown on the map.|
|All other products listed||Do not apply 20 yards from the water's edge (ground application) nor 100 yards from the water's edge (aerial application) within the shaded area(s) shown on the map and 1/2 mile up all streams joining the shaded areas.|
Niangua Darter [Etheostoma nianguae]
The slender Niangua darter is distinguished from all other darters by two small jet-black spots at the base of its tail fin. It has a long head which tapers into a pointed snout. It is a yellowish-olive fish with eight prominent cross-bars on its back, and orange spots scatter its upper sides. This threatened species can grow up to 10 centimeters (4 in) in length. It feeds on aquatic insects and spawns during spring in swift currents over gravel bottoms.
This darter makes its home in the margins of shallow pools with silt-free, gravel or rocky bottoms in clear, medium-sized streams. It is one of 107 different fish species which exist in the Osage Basin of Missouri. In the early 1970's, eight Niangua darter populations were reported along 205 kilometers (128 mi) of the river basin, throughout 12 Missouri counties. The current distribution of the darter has is unkown, but is thought to have decreased considerably from its historic range. However, it is clear that this is a rare species, highly localized in occurrence, and thus is vulnerable to extinction.
The decline of the Niangua darter is largely due to the alteration of its habitat. Reservoir construction along the Osage River has been a large detriment to the the darter, forming insurmountable barriers between tributary streams, limiting the range of the fish and its ability to survive. Highway and bridge construction along the rivers have also impaired the habitat by restricting stream channels and causing sedimentation and silt pollution. The deforestation of the river banks has increased erosion, eliminated shallow pools, and changed the character of the stream flows and floors. The introduction of non-native, predatory species like spotted bass and rock bass for recreational purposes has further threatened the fragile existence of the darter, and of the ecosystem as a whole.
The survival of the Niangua darter is directly linked to the survival of its habitat. Critical habitat has been declared for 145 kilometers (90 miles) of inhabitated stream, and for a 15-meter (50 ft) streambank buffer zone for areas deemed essential to the recovery of this species. Some towns within the range of the Niangua darter are even upgrading their sewage facilities in hopes of enhancing the water quality in the impacted streams.
Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 843-844.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1989. Niangua Darter Recovery Plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Twin Cities, Minnesota.