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Oil & Gas Research & Exploration

Oil & Gas Research & Exploration

Oil and Gas Research and Exploration includes the search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface, such as oil and natural gas, as well as research into technologies for the identification and extraction of the oil and gas.

CMap

Artificial habitat includes structures such as oil rigs, debris, sunken ships, and even abandoned bombs that can provide substrate for coral and sponges, or habitat for fish and invertebrates, potentially creating an artificial coral reef ecosystem. Biological Addition refers to anthropogenic inputs of a biological nature into the reef ecosystem, including artificial habitat, domestic animal waste, supplemental feeding, and escape or release of non-native species. Contact Uses, such as biological additions, physical damage, and biological harvesting, are activities in which humans create pressures through direct contact with the ecosystem. Corporate responses are the general reaction of private corporations and businesses to different issues, such as environmental responsibility. Cultural services are the nonmaterial benefits people obtain from ecosystems through spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, recreational opportunities, aesthetic experiences, sense of place, and educational and research opportunities. Discharge limitations are responses to regulate and control the discharge of pollutants and the use of chemicals. Discharges are the intentional or unintentional distribution of chemicals, debris, or other pollution, into the environment as a consequence of human activities. Dredging is the process of excavating material from an area to maintain ship channels and harbors for safe navigation. Economic markets and policies can influence financing and insurance, as well as drive consumer demand for certain types of goods and services. Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems . Energy policy & development includes policies and regulations adopted to control the production, distribution, and consumption of energy. Food & energy policies are legislation, restrictions, and guidelines that pertain to sectors that harvest or extract natural resources. The Food and Raw Materials sector includes groups that harvest natural resources from the earth, including agriculture, aquaculture, fishing, forestry, mining, and the oil and gas industry. Infrastructural policies are responses, including zoning, codes, or regulations, that impact the distribution and functioning of socio-economic sectors that provide infrastructure. Mining policies are specific to where, when, what and how non-living natural resources can be extracted. The Oil and Gas Industry specializes in the finding of natural resources such as crude petroleum and natural gas, and the creation, maintenance, and operation of wells to extract the oil and gas from the earth and prepare it for sale. Oil and Gas Research and Exploration includes the search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface, such as oil and natural gas, as well as research into technologies for the identification and extraction of the oil and gas. Oil and Gas Rigs are the apparatus used to support  drilling for natural oil and gas (both on land and off-shore). Oil and Gas Tankers deal with the bulk transport of gas and oil by ships. Petroleum Spills are releases of oil or natural gas into the environment related to the development, transportation, and application of petroleum products. The Reef Ecosystem includes a suite of abiotic variables that form the physical and chemical environment. Physical Damage to reef habitat and wetlands can occur from vessel groundings, dredging, trampling, boat movement, anchor drops, trawling, and fishing gear. Pipelines are constructed and used to transport oil and gas from source wells to market. Waterborne point source discharges are pollution from a discernible, confined conveyance, such as a pipe, vehicle, ship, or animal feeding operation that directly enter the aquatic environment into streams or direct discharge into coastal waters. Pressures are human activities that create stress on the environment. Provisioning services are the products or ecosystem goods obtained from ecosystems, including seafood, genetic and biochemical resources, pharmaceuticals, ornamental resources, and water resources. The state of the Reef Ecosystem is the condition, in terms of quantity and quality, of the abiotic and biotic components including physical, chemical, and biological variables. Reef Life is the abundance, distribution, and condition of the biological components of the coral reef ecosystem. Regulating Services are benefits obtained from ecosystem processes that regulate the environment, including erosion regulation, natural hazard regulation, and climate regulation. Resource use management pertains to responses to regulate or limit contact activities that may directly impact coastal species through harvesting or physical damage. Responses are actions taken by groups or individuals in society and government to prevent, compensate, ameliorate or adapt to changes in Ecosystem Services or their perceived value. Socio-Economic Drivers include the sectors that fulfill human needs for Food & Raw Materials, Water, Shelter, Health, Culture, and Security, and the Infrastructure that supports the sectors. Supporting services are ecological processes that indirectly benefit humans by maintaining a functional ecosystem for the production of other ecosystem goods and services.

CMap Description

The Oil & Gas Industry depends on a number of physical structures, including pipelines and oil rigs, which may create artificial habitat for fish and invertebrates. Dredging may be needed to construct pipelines, and can damage reef habitat as well as deposit large amounts of sediment in the physical & chemical environment. Activities within the Oil & Gas Industry, including pipelines, tankers, and rigs pose a risk for petroleum spills, which may contaminate the reef ecosystem, affecting growth and survival of reef life. The oil industry benefits indirectly from ecosystem services that improve the well-being of other sectors, such as tourism & recreation, which drive coastal development and the need for energy. Decision-makers can regulate the Oil & Gas Industry through energy policies, including limiting the locations and nature of activities or requiring high standard technology. Consumers may pressure the Oil & Gas Industry to respond to environmental concerns by adopting practices that minimize risk.

Citations

Citation Year Study Location Study Type Database Topics
Tian, SG; Zhang, YS; Wang, JT; Niu, SW. 2011. Late Paleozoic reefs and their significance for tectonics and oil-gas exploration in the Hinggan-Inner Mongolia area. Science China-earth Sciences 54:212-222. 2011 China Algae; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Sediment
Coleman, F. C. and C. C. Koenig. 2010. The Effects of Fishing, Climate Change, and Other Anthropogenic Disturbances on Red Grouper and Other Reef Fishes in the Gulf of Mexico. Integrative And Comparative Biology 50:201-212. 2010 South & Central America; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Mexico Climate; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Mangroves; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Piscivorous Fish
Tweedie, J. 2009. Always finding a \better way of doing things\"". Geodrilling International 151:20-21. 2009 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Collaboration & Partnering; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration
Alkendi, M. Y. and M. Chandler. 2008. A successful stakeholder partnership - The Dolphin Energy experience coral reef habitats of the Arabian Gulf. Pages 2039-2047 in Society of Petroleum Engineers - 9th International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production 2008 - \In Search of Sustainable Excellence\"". 2008 Global; Qatar GIS & Maps Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Collaboration & Partnering; Complex Habitat & Resources; Cultural Policies; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Resource Use Management; Whales & Dolphins
Cai, H.-P., Z.-H. He, and D.-J. Huang. 2008. Study on method for prediction of coral shoal facies oil/gas reservoir. Shiyou Diqiu Wuli Kantan/Oil Geophysical Prospecting 43. 2008 China Oil & Gas Research & Exploration
CHEN, Z.-q. 2008. Changxing Formation biohermal gas pools and natural gas exploration, Sichuan Basin, China. Petroleum Exploration and Development 35. 2008 China Natural Gas & Electric Power; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Sediment
D'Entremont, A., J. Kaariainen, and K. Baker. 2008. SERPENT of the Deep - Research, monitoring and partnerships for a deepwater well off atlantic canada. Pages 1493-1500 in Society of Petroleum Engineers - 9th International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production 2008 - \In Search of Sustainable Excellence\"". 2008 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Field Study & Monitoring; GIS & Maps Collaboration & Partnering; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fishing Sector; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Schools & Colleges; Substrate; Water Depth & Sea Level
Gala, W. R., R. W. Hill, and L. A. Hostetter. 2008. Use of Habitat Equivalency Analysis (HEA) to determine the environmentally superior project alternative. Pages 1393-1401 in Society of Petroleum Engineers - 9th International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production 2008 - \In Search of Sustainable Excellence\"". 2008 Artificial Habitat; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fish; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration
Hirst, R., C. Sutton, and C.-H. Chaineau. 2008. Coral transplantation, an innovative measure in the frame of environmental impact mitigation. Pages 165-181 in Society of Petroleum Engineers - 9th International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production 2008 - \In Search of Sustainable Excellence\"". 2008 Fish; Mitigation; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Physical Damage; Substrate
Hou, M.-C., L. Wan, and H. Fu. 2008. Study on the sedimentary environment of the Middle Ordovician Yijianfang Formation in the south of Tarim River area, Xinjiang, China. Journal of Chengdu University of Technology (Science and Technology Edition) 35:601-609. 2008 China GIS & Maps Algae; Echinoderms; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Salinity; Sediment; Sponges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Irion, J. B., D. Ball, and C. E. Horrell. 2008. The US government's role in deepwater archaeology: The deep gulf Wrecks project. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 12:75-81. 2008 South & Central America; Mexico Field Study & Monitoring; Remote Sensing Artificial Habitat; Collaboration & Partnering; Cultural Policies; Educational & Research Opportunities; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration
Lin, L.-B., H.-D. Chen, L.-D. Zhu, S.-L. Xu, Y. Hao, and Y.-J. Zhong. 2008. Sedimentary characteristics and sequence stratigraphy of the Middle-Upper Permian in Shizhu, Chongqing, China. Journal of Chengdu University of Technology (Science and Technology Edition) 35:648-654. 2008 China Field Study & Monitoring Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Sediment
Moltu, U. E. and L. Pinturier. 2008. Zero harmful impact from drilling discharges: Where are the limits? Pages 988-1002 in Society of Petroleum Engineers - 9th International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production 2008 - \In Search of Sustainable Excellence\"". 2008 Field Study & Monitoring; Model; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Corporate Responses; Discharges; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Sediment; Toxics
YAO, G.-s., S.-q. YUAN, S.-g. WU, and C. ZHONG. 2008. Double provenance depositional model and exploration prospect in the deep-water area of Qiongdongnan Basin. Petroleum Exploration and Development 35:685-691. 2008 China Model Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Sediment
Kankara, R. S. and B. R. Subramanian. 2007. Oil spill sensitivity analysis and risk assessment for Gulf of Kachchh, India, using integrated modeling. Journal of Coastal Research 23:1251-1258. 2007 India Model; GIS & Maps Beaches & Nature Parks; Mangroves; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Petroleum Spills; Transportation Policies
Kleshchev, K. A. 2007. Main trends of oil and gas exploration in Russia. Geologiya Nefti i Gaza 2:18-23. 2007 Oman; Europe Oil & Gas Research & Exploration
Hou, M.-C., L. Wan, H. Fu, L.-M. Zhou, L.-X. Qi, and R.-L. Yu. 2006. Study on the sedimentary environment of the Upper Ordovician Lianglitage Formation in the south of Tarim River, China. Journal of Chengdu University of Technology (Science and Technology Edition) 33:509-516. 2006 China GIS & Maps Echinoderms; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Sediment; Sponges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Zou, C., S. Tao, and Z. Gu. 2006. Formation conditions and distribution rules of large lithologic oil-gas fields with low abundance in China. Acta Geologica Sinica 80:1739-1751. 2006 China Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Cheng, J., H. Wang, S. Yang, and Z. Ma. 2004. Research on the application of DSR equation migration to narrow azimuth data. Tianranqi Gongye/Natural Gas Industry 24:50-52+7. 2004 Model Oil & Gas Research & Exploration
Hyams, M., R. Gorham, B. B. Gorham, L. Howitt, and K. Dixon. 2004. Best practice methods for offshore pipeline installation in sensitive shallow water marine environments. in SPE International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production. 2004 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Pipelines
Lee, T. W., M. Radzuan b Yusof, BO NI Rosli b, and S. A. Rahman. 2004. Protecting shallow water environment through re-injecting drilling wastes down hole: A proactive management decision. Pages 855-861 in International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production. 2004 Bahrain Discharges; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Seagrasses
Geutebruck, E., J. Herler, R. Kikinger, M. Stachowitsch, and M. Lorkin. 2002. Environmental Impact of Offshore Oil and Gas Company Operations in the Southern Arabian Gulf: A Marine Environmental Survey. Pages 1466-1474 in International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production. 2002 Cuba Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Artificial Habitat; Fish; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Oil & Gas Rigs; Sediment
Nesse, S., E. Lind, and B. Jarandsen. 2002. New handbook for guidance in assessing impacts of decommissioning and disposal of redundant offshore installations. Pages 1501-1507 in International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production. 2002 Europe; Norway Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Pipelines
Roberts, J. M. and R. M. Anderson. 2002. A new laboratory method for monitoring deep-water coral polyp behaviour. Hydrobiologia 471:143-148. 2002 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Sediment; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Brett, J. F., M. K. Gregoli, and B. C. Gahan. 2000. Successful drilling practices: An experiment in cooperation. SPE Drilling and Completion 15:143-151. 2000 South & Central America; Tonga; Mexico Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Chesney, E. J., D. M. Baltz, and R. G. Thomas. 2000. Louisiana estuarine and coastal fisheries and habitats: Perspectives from a fish's eye view. Ecological Applications 10:350-366. 2000 South & Central America; Mexico Review Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Artificial Habitat; Coastal Development; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Nutrients; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetlands
Gabriel, M., S. Marshall, and S. Jennings. 2000. The Seychelles. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 2 233-241. 2000 Indian Ocean; Seychelles; India Climate; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Shoreline Protection; Tourism & Recreation
Harborne, A. R., M. D. McField, and E. K. Delaney. 2000. Belize. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 1 501-516. 2000 South & Central America; Belize; Honduras; Caribbean; Mexico Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Aquaculture; Coastal Development; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Funding & Donations; Funding & Incentives; Light; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Sediment; Snails & Conch; Storms & Hurricanes; Tourism & Recreation
Freiwald, A., J. B. Wilson, and R. Henrich. 1999. Grounding pleistocene icebergs shape recent deep-water coral reefs. Sedimentary Geology 125:8-Jan. 1999 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Norway Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Finfish Harvest; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Water Depth & Sea Level
Rogers, A. D. 1999. The biology of Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus 1758) and other deep-water reef-forming corals and impacts from human activities. International Review of Hydrobiology 84:315-406. 1999 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Review Finfish Harvest; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration
Brett, J. FO RD, K. Gregoli Mark, and C. Gahan Brian. 1998. Successful drilling practices - an experiment in cooperation. Pages 603-614 in Proceedings of the IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology Conference, APDT. 1998 South & Central America; US Pacific & Hawaii; Tonga; Mexico Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Pugliese, R. 1998. Final habitat plan for the South Atlantic Region. South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, Charleston, SC. 1998 Florida; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Field Study & Monitoring; Model Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Agriculture; Aquaculture; Commercial Fisheries; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Fleshy Macroalgae; Invertebrate Harvest; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Monetary Valuation; Nutrients; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Piscivorous Fish; Recreational Fishing; Seagrasses; Special Use Permitting; Tourism & Recreation; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Stejskal, I. V. 1998. Drilling in environmentally sensitive marine areas in Western Australia: The Wonnich appraisal drilling program setting an industry example. Pages 263-272 in Proceedings of the Annual Offshore Technology Conference. 1998 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Model Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Mangroves; Oil & Gas Industry; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration
Liu, Z., M. Yang, Y. Yang, and Z. Yang. 1997. Researchs on the devonian reef in Bailapu of Chengbu, Hunan. Xiangtan Kuangye Xueyuan Xuebao/Journal of Xiangtan Mining Institute 12. 1997 Field Study & Monitoring Oil & Gas Research & Exploration
Aabel, J. P., S. J. Cripps, and G. Kjeilen. 1996. Offshore petroleum installations in the North Sea used as fish aggregating devices - potential and suggestions for preparation, management and monitoring. Pages 295-303 in International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production. 1996 Review; Field Study & Monitoring Artificial Habitat; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fish; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration
Hamzah, AM IR, A. AD JI Z Saleh, and SA TY A Budhi Takdir. 1996. Marine management efforts for the Pagerungan gas development. Pages 891-898 in International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production. 1996 Indonesia Artificial Habitat; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Waterborne Discharges
Deslarzes, K. J. P., P. N. Boothe, B. J. Presley, and G. L. Steinmentz. 1995. Historical incorporation of barium in the reef building coral Montastrea annularis at the Flower Garden Banks, north-west Gulf of Mexico. Marine Pollution Bulletin 30:718-722. 1995 South & Central America; Mexico Index or Indicator Oil & Gas Research & Exploration
Rigo, F. 1995. Overlooked Tunisia reef play may have giant field potential. Oil and Gas Journal 93:56-60. 1995 Review; Field Study & Monitoring Oil & Gas Research & Exploration
Rillera, F. G. 1995. Independent focuses Philippines exploration on Visayan Basin. Oil and Gas Journal 93:68-73. 1995 Philippines Oil & Gas Research & Exploration
LeProvost, M. I. and D. M. Gordon. 1991. Oilfield development and protection of natural resources within the tropical marine environment of the Rowley Shelf, Northwest Australia. Pages 527-540 in SPE Asia Pacific Conference. 1991 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia Review; Field Study & Monitoring Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Mangroves; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Petroleum Spills
Grainge, A. M. and K. G. Davies. 1985. Reef exploration in the East Sengkang Basin, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Marine and Petroleum Geology 2:142-155. 1985 Indonesia Field Study & Monitoring Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Curry-Lindahl, K. 1982. A tale of mismanagement at sea. ORYX 16:415-420. 1982 Agriculture; Chemical Use Regulations; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fish; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Carozzi, A. V. 1981. Porosity models and oil exploration of Amapa carbonates, Paleogene, Foz do Amazonas Basin, offshore NW Brazil. Journal of Petroleum Geology 4:Mar-34. 1981 Global Model Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Water Depth & Sea Level
Sabitay, A. 1978. Status Of Hydrocarbon Exploration, Offshore Northeastern Australia And The Gulf Of Papua. APEA journal 18:77-82. 1978 Australia; Papua New Guinea Review Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Sediment
Baker, J. T. 1977. Management of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Pages 597-604 in Proc. 3rd international coral reef symposium, Miami, 1977, Volume 2, geology. 1977 Australia Finfish Harvest; Landuse Management; Marine Protected Areas; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Recreational Fishing; Scientific Research; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Tourism & Recreation
Novikov, A. A. and V. N. Mikhal'kova. 1976. Promising Direction Of Exploratory Work In Volgograd Region. [Perspektivnoe Napravlenie Poiskovykh Rabot V Volgogradskoi Oblasti.]. Geologia nefti i gaza 37-40. 1976 Oil & Gas Research & Exploration
Connell, D. W. 1970. Oil exploration on Great Barrier Reef. Marine Pollution Bulletin 1:188-189. 1970 Australia Oil & Gas Research & Exploration

Management Options

Management Option Description Sources Database Topics
Dissemination of Findings: Support Journal Publication This management option involves sponsoring the publication of journals that contain peer-reviewed scientific research. For sanctuaries this can be an excellent place to publish reports and research that used sanctuary areas or resources. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Biotechnology Research & Development; Collaboration & Partnering; Cultural Policies; Culture; Educational & Research Opportunities; Environmental Education & Outreach; Funding & Donations; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Scientific Research
Energy Policy & Development: Oil and Gas Rig Construction Regulations The Minerals Management Service (MMS) has several requirements for leasing and permits for construction of new drilling rigs and platforms. Placement is very important so as to not interfere with other uses or the environment. These permits also cover exploratory structures for research and test sites. Minerals Management Service. 2006. Leasing Oil and Natural Gas Resources. U.S. Department of the Interior.

Civil Engineering & Construction; Construction Codes & Projects; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Economic Markets & Policies; Energy Policy & Development; Infrastructural Policies; Infrastructure; Manufacturing & Trade Policies; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Oil & Gas Industry; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Oil & Gas Rigs; Permitting & Zoning; Petroleum Spills; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Provisioning Services; Toxics; Utilities; Utility Policies

Laws

Legal Citation Purpose of Law Management Organization Database Topics
Administrative fines for damaging State Lands of products thereof, 18-14 Florida Administrative Code. 18-14.003 Violations. It shall be a violation of this rule for any person or the agent of any person to knowingly refuse to comply with any provision of Chapter 253, F.S., willfully violate any provision of Chapter 253, F.S., or to willfully damage state land (the ownership or boundaries of which have been established by the state) or products thereof, by doing any of the following: (1) Fill, excavate, or dredge, including prop dredging in a manner which produces a defined channel, on state land without the lease, license, easement or other form of consent required by the Board. (2) Remove, in violation of state or federal law, any product from state land without written approval or specific exemption from the Board or Department. (3) Discharge contaminants, wastes, effluents, sewage or any other pollutant as defined in Chapter 376 or Chapter 403, F.S., on, under or over state land; when such discharge is in violation of Chapter 403 or conditions of a permit issued pursuant to that chapter, or conditions of a lease or easement issued pursuant to Chapter 253, F.S. - 37 (4) Maintain, place or build permanent or temporary structures, including, but not limited to, additions to existing structures; all structures whose use is not water-dependent; sanitary septic systems; fences, docks and pilings; houses; oil rigs; and utility installations on or over state land without consent or authority from the Board or Department. (5) Place garbage, refuse, or debris on or over state land without approval by the Board or Department. (6) Any other willful act that causes damage to state land, or products thereof, when such activity occurs without the required approval by the Board or Department.

Application to Coral Reefs:Controlling and limiting excavation and dredging, as well as discharge of contaminants, wastes, sewage, and other pollutants will assist in keeping sediment and pollutants from reaching the coral reefs and causing degradation of reef organisms..

Legislative Actions:

Comments:Administrative Fines for Damaging State Lands or Products Thereof
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
US State Waters
Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Ballast Discharge; Coastal Engineering; Commercial Fisheries; Construction Codes & Projects; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Educational & Research Opportunities; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Petroleum Spills; Recreational Opportunities; Resource Use Management; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Substrate; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
American Antiquities Act of 1906, 16 United States Code §§ 431-433. The Act provides penalties for unauthorized collection, excavation, or destruction of historic or prehistoric ruins, monuments, or objects of antiquity on lands owned or controlled by the United States. It authorized that areas of extrodinary geographical, historical , aesthetic value can be designated national monuments.

Application to Coral Reefs:Has been used by Presidential Proclamation in 2001 to expand or create two national monuments; the Virgin Islands Coral Reef Monument and the Buck Island Reef National Monument. The monuments include coral reefs.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:
National Park Service

Jurisdiction:
United States
City Planning; Coastal Development; Coastal Engineering; Construction Codes & Projects; Coral; Docks & Marinas; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Marine Protected Areas; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Ports & Harbors; Resource Use Management
Clean Air Act, 42 United States Code §§ 7400 et seq. To ensure Americans have clean air to breath, and to protect the environment from air pollution. Regulates air emmissions from area, stationary and mobile sources. Charges federal land managers with direct responsibility to protect the "air quality and related values" of land under their control. The "related values" include fish and widlife and their habitats. The Clean Air Act is the law that defines EPA's responsibility for protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer.

Application to Coral Reefs:The Act would decrease carbon dioxide emissions from sources in the United States, thereby making a contribution toward reducing ocean acidification, which is one of the problems contributing to coral reef decline.

Legislative Actions:Response will differ from State to State because many Sates have been delegated to administer the Clean Air Act. However, States cannot have air quality standards less stringent then the federal standards. State air pollution agencies hold permit hearings and fines industries that violate air quality limits. States must develop state implementation plans that require approval by EPA.

Comments:The 1990 amendments authorized the Acid Deposition Control Program, a program to control 189 toxic pollutants, established permit program requirements, expanded and modified the attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, and expanded and modified enforcement authority.
United States Environmntal Protection Agency

Jurisdiction:
United States
Carbon Storage & Cycling; Climate Regulation; CO2; Energy Policy & Development; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Improved Technology; Mineral, Rock, & Metal Mining; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Non-Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Oil & Gas Rigs; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Political Pressure; Transportation Policies; Wood, Plastics, & Chemical Products
Environmental resource permitting procedures, 62-343 Florida Administrative Code Annotated (2003). The rule provides the procedural requirements for processing environmental resource permits and obtaining formal determinations of the landward extent of wetlands and surface waters.

Application to Coral Reefs:Requiring permits for projects related to environmental resources will indirectly protect environmental habitats. The permits are related to stormwater managemnt systems including discharges to wetlands. The permit conditions can limit toxics, nutrients and sediment that would be discharged to the environment if the rule were not in place.

Legislative Actions:The rule is procedural and does not have fines or penalties.

Comments:
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters
Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Building & Home Construction; Construction Codes & Projects; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Landuse Management; Mangroves; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Permitting & Zoning; Point Source Discharges; Ports & Harbors; Road Construction & Maintenance; Seagrasses; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Wetlands
Identification of impaired surface waters, 62-303 Florida Administrative Code Annotated (2002). The Chapter established a methodology to identify surface waters of the state that will be included on the state's planning list of waters that will be assessed pursuant to subsections 403.067(2) and (3), Florida Statutes. It also establishes a methodology to identify impaired waters based on representative data that will be included on the state's verified list of impaired waters, for which the Department will calculate Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDLs), pursuant to subsection 403.067(4), F.S., and which will be submitted to the United States Environmental Protection Agency pursuant to paragraph 303(d)(1) of the Clean Water Act (CWA).

Application to Coral Reefs:By regulating the amount of pollutants that will be allowed to be discharged into major waterbodies of the state, the amount of pollutants reaching estuarine and then marine environments, and eventually coral reefs, will assist in protecting the reefs and other habitats.

Legislative Actions:The planning list of impaired water bodies has been completed. Data on each water bodies has been collected. DEP is in the process of calculating TMDLs for each water body.

Comments:
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters
Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Construction Codes & Projects; Corporate Responses; Designated Uses; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Forestry; Irrigation; Landscaping & Household Services; Landuse Management; Metals, Electronics, & Machinery Products; Microorganisms; Mining; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Point Source Discharges; Sewage Treatment; Solid Waste Disposal; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Wood, Plastics, & Chemical Products
Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, 33 United States Code § 1401. To regulate the dumping of all types of materials into ocean waters and to prevent or strictly limit the dumping into ocean waters of any material which would adversely affect human health, welfare, or amenities, or the marine environment, ecological systems, or economic potentialities. To regulate (1) the transportation by any person of material from the United States and, in the case of United States vessels, aircraft, or agencies, the transportation of material from a location outside the United States, when in either case the transportation is for the purpose of dumping the material into ocean waters, and (2) the dumping of material transported by any person from a location outside the United States, if the dumping occurs in the territorial sea or the contiguous zone of the United States.

Application to Coral Reefs:The Act has been historically used to regulate dumping of dredged materials and sewage sludge into the marine environment. The law intends to improve the conservation, understanding, management, and wise and sustainable use of marine resources, enhance public awareness, understanding, and appreciation of the marine environment, and to maintain for future generations the habitat, and ecologigal services, of the natural assemblage of living resources that inhabit those areas. Because permits are required, it can be assumed that dumping would not be allowed if the material would be dispersed into a sensitive habitat such as coral reefs.

Legislative Actions:EPA may assess an administrative civil penalty up to $50,000 per person. Higher penalties can be assessed for dumping medical waste (up to $125,000). Each day in violation constitutes a separate offense. Continuing violations can suffer criminal penalties with fines and up to five years imprisionment possible.

Comments:The Act has played a major role in regulating the disposal of dredged material into the ocean environment. However, medical and radioactive wastes, industrial wastes, as well as sewage sludge, are also regulated in the law.
United States Environmntal Protection Agency

Jurisdiction:
US Territorial Waters; US Federal Waters; Designated Marine Areas
Ballast Discharge; Biocriteria; Boating Regulations; Complex Habitat & Resources; Designate Protected Species; Designated Uses; Environmental Education & Outreach; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Mangroves; Marine Debris; Marine Protected Areas; Microorganisms; Non-point Source Controls; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Political Pressure; Remediation; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Solid Waste Disposal; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Transportation Policies; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
National Marine Sanctuaries Act of 1972, 16 United States Code §§ 1431-1445. Authorizes the Secretary of Commerce to designate and manage areas of the marine environment with special national significance due to their conservation, recreational, ecological, historical, scientific, cultural, archeological, educational, or esthetic qualities as National Marine Sanctuaries.

Application to Coral Reefs:Protects marine resources, such as coral reefs, sunken historical vessels, or unique habitats.

Legislative Actions:NOAA may impose civil penalties up tp $130,000 per day per violation. Criminal penalties were added in the 2000 amendments for interfering or resisting with any enforcement of the NMSA, or providing false information to the Secretary or any officer authorized to enforce NMSA. The 2000 amendments made it illegal to offer for sale, purchase, import, or export, any sanctuary resource and increased enforcement authority.

Comments:There are 13 marine sanctuaries in the National Marine Sactuary System, six of which were created after 1990. Each sanctuary has a separarte staff and program in its local region.
National Oceanic Aatmospheric Administration

Jurisdiction:
Designated Marine Areas
Apex Fish Predators; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Boating Regulations; CO2; Coastal Development; Commercial Fishing Boats; Coral; Corporate Responses; Designate Protected Species; Designated Uses; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Educational & Research Opportunities; Environmental Education & Outreach; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Large Ships; Marine Birds; Marine Protected Areas; Nutrients; Ocean Acidity; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Political Pressure; Recreational Opportunities; Remediation; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Sediment; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Wetlands
Renewable Energy Technologies and Energy Efficiency, 62-016 Florida Administrative Code. This chapter implements the Florida Renewable Energy Technologies and Energy Efficiency Act, providing for grants for renewable energy technologies and rebates for solar energy systems. This chapter also implements applications for corporate tax credits for renewable energy technologies provided for in Section 220.192, F.S. Specific Authority 377.804(3), 377.806(7), 220.192(3) FS. Law Implemented 377.801, 377.802, 377.803, 377.804, 377.806, 220.192 FS. History New 10-22-07.

Application to Coral Reefs:The regulation could reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal fired electric generating plants and thus reduce ocean acidification.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:This chapter implements the Florida Renewable Energy Technologies and Energy Efficiency Act, providing for grants for renewable energy technologies and rebates for solar energy systems. This chapter also implements applications for corporate tax credits for renewable energy technologies
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
CO2; Energy Policy & Development; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Nutrients; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration
Revised Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Management Plan §§ Public Law 101-605 (HR 5909, Public Law (2007). The document is a report on the results of NOAA's five year review of strategies and activities detailed in the 1996 Final Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary.

Application to Coral Reefs:The plan specifically addresses preserving and enhancing Sanctuary resources including four national wildlife refuges, six state parks, three state aquatic preserves, Key Largo Marine Sanctuary, Looe Key Marine Sanctuary and a total of 2,900 square nautical miles of coastal waters and numerous coral reefs. The sanctuary ecosystems are facing specific threats including direct human impacts such as vessel groundidngs, pollution and overfishing.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission as Co-trustees

Jurisdiction:
US Federal Waters; Designated Marine Areas
Anemones & Zooanthids; Apex Fish Predators; Ballast Discharge; Coastal Development; Commercial Fishing Boats; Complex Habitat & Resources; Coral; Cruise Ships; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Economic Markets & Policies; Educational & Research Opportunities; Environmental Education & Outreach; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Littering; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Marine Debris; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Ocean Acidity; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Oil & Gas Rigs; Recreational Opportunities; Reef Habitat; Reef Inhabitants; Seastars; Sediment; Sponges; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Waterborne Discharges
Sovereign submerged lands management, 18-21 Florida Administrative Code Annotated (2006). To manage, protect, and enhance sovereignty lands so that the public may continue to enjoy traditional uses, including, but not limited to, navigation, fishing and swimming, public drinking water supply, shellfish harvesting, public recreation, and fish and wildlife propagation and management.

Application to Coral Reefs:Permitting activities on submerged lands owned by Florida will improve water quality which will indirectly protect reef systems.

Legislative Actions:These rules are to implement the administration and management responsibilities of the board and department regarding sovereign submerged lands. Responsibility for environmental permitting of activities and water quality protection on sovereign lands is vested with the Department of Environmental Protection. These rules are considered cumulative.

Comments:
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters
Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Aquaculture; Beach & Land Formation; Coastal Defense; Commercial Fisheries; Construction Codes & Projects; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Energy Policy & Development; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Pipelines; Point Source Discharges; Ports & Harbors; Recreational Fishing; Recreational Opportunities; Resource Use Management; Seawater Flow; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Uniform Mitigation Assessment Method, Florida Administrative Code Annotated §§ Chapter 62-345 (2005). Establishes a methodology that provides a standard procedure for assessing the functions provided by wetlands and other surface waters, the amount that those functions are reduced by a proposed impact, and the amount of mitigation necessary to offset that loss.

Application to Coral Reefs:Protecting wetlands provides wetland areas that can act as buffers against nutrients, pollutants and contaminants from reaching habitats including coral reefs.

Legislative Actions:The Chapter is administrative and provides methods to assess wetland value and appropriate mitigation to offset impact.

Comments:
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters
Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Building & Home Construction; Civil Engineering & Construction; Coastal Development; Coastal Engineering; Complex Habitat & Resources; Construction Codes & Projects; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Forestry; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Landuse Management; Mangroves; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Pipelines; Ports & Harbors; Recreational Opportunities; Resource Use Management; Road Construction & Maintenance; Seagrasses; Sediment; Shoreline Armoring; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Utility Line Construction & Maintenance; Wetlands

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