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Discharges

Discharges

Discharges are the intentional or unintentional distribution of chemicals, debris, or other pollution, into the environment as a consequence of human activities. Discharges may be point-source or non-point source, and includes application of chemicals such as fertilizers or pesticides, atmospheric emissions, waterborne discharges, or littering.

CMap

Applied chemicals are chemicals applied to lands, vehicles, buildings, or during manufacturing for a variety of purposes, including maintaining pests, improving soil quality, or cleaning surfaces. Atmospheric Emissions include discharges of atmospheric pollutants, including mercury, greenhouse gases, nitrogen and sulfur dioxides, and volatile organic compounds from the operation of factories, vehicles, and other sources. Biological Addition refers to anthropogenic inputs of a biological nature into the reef ecosystem, including artificial habitat, domestic animal waste, supplemental feeding, and escape or release of non-native species. Biological Harvest is the collection of living things from the ecosystem for recreation, consumption, or sale of marine products. Coastal Development is the construction of infrastructure, buildings, homes, and roads in coastal communities. Contact Uses, such as biological additions, physical damage, and biological harvesting, are activities in which humans create pressures through direct contact with the ecosystem. Cultural services are the nonmaterial benefits people obtain from ecosystems through spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, recreational opportunities, aesthetic experiences, sense of place, and educational and research opportunities. Deforestation and Devegetation are the removal of trees and plants, including clear-cutting, to provide clear land for farms, roads, homes, buildings, and other infrastructure. Discharge limitations are responses to regulate and control the discharge of pollutants and the use of chemicals. Discharges are the intentional or unintentional distribution of chemicals, debris, or other pollution, into the environment as a consequence of human activities. Ditching & Soil Disturbance pertains to large-scale changes to the terrestrial landscape through channeling for irrigation, grading for roads & construction, and mining which disrupt and dislodge soil and can lead to sediment runoff into the watershed. Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems . Impervious surfaces are surfaces, such as asphalt roads and concrete sidewalks. Landscape Changes are alterations of the natural landscape through human activities, including coastal development, shoreline armoring, impervious surfaces, deforestation, or soil disturbance, which can alter water flow patterns and lead to pollutant runoff into coastal systems. Landuse management pertains to responses that determine the use of land for development and construction. Littering is a type of pollution that occurs when garbage, including plastics, paper, and metal, are not disposed of properly and can enter coastal waters. The Reef Ecosystem includes a suite of abiotic variables that form the physical and chemical environment. Physical Damage to reef habitat and wetlands can occur from vessel groundings, dredging, trampling, boat movement, anchor drops, trawling, and fishing gear. Pressures are human activities that create stress on the environment. Provisioning services are the products or ecosystem goods obtained from ecosystems, including seafood, genetic and biochemical resources, pharmaceuticals, ornamental resources, and water resources. The state of the Reef Ecosystem is the condition, in terms of quantity and quality, of the abiotic and biotic components including physical, chemical, and biological variables. Reef Life is the abundance, distribution, and condition of the biological components of the coral reef ecosystem. Regulating Services are benefits obtained from ecosystem processes that regulate the environment, including erosion regulation, natural hazard regulation, and climate regulation. Resource use management pertains to responses to regulate or limit contact activities that may directly impact coastal species through harvesting or physical damage. Responses are actions taken by groups or individuals in society and government to prevent, compensate, ameliorate or adapt to changes in Ecosystem Services or their perceived value. Shoreline armoring is the construction of bulkheads, seawalls, riprap or any other structure used to harden a shoreline against erosion. Socio-Economic Drivers include the sectors that fulfill human needs for Food & Raw Materials, Water, Shelter, Health, Culture, and Security, and the Infrastructure that supports the sectors. Supporting services are ecological processes that indirectly benefit humans by maintaining a functional ecosystem for the production of other ecosystem goods and services. Waterborne discharges include direct and indirect discharges of pollutants into the aquatic environment, including chemicals, nutrients, sediment, and pathogens.

CMap Description

Discharges originate from a number of sources, including agriculture, mining, sewage systems, factories, vehicles, and ships. Inputs of toxic chemicals, debris, sediment, or nutrients into the reef environment can affect the survival and growth of reef species, including fish, coral, and other invertebrates. Many of the same socio-economic sectors that create pollution benefit indirectly from goods and services provided by the reef that provides recreational opportunities and contributes to the cultural identity of the local community and drives coastal development. Point-source and non-point source regulations, can set limitations on the quantity and frequency of discharges. Implementing new technology or updating waste treatment practices can also reduce discharges. Agriculture practices, mining practices, and landuse management, such as zoning, can be used to reduce landscape changes and application of chemicals that contribute to runoff.

Citations

Citation Year Study Location Study Type Database Topics
Brodie, JE; Devlin, M; Haynes, D; Waterhouse, J. 2011. Assessment of the eutrophication status of the Great Barrier Reef lagoon (Australia). Biogeochemistry 106:281-302. 2011 Australia; Europe Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Chemical Use Regulations; Climate; Discharges; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Funding & Donations; Funding & Incentives; Nutrients; Octocoral; Plankton; Seagrasses; Seastars; Sediment; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Peng, SE; Chen, WNU; Chen, HK; Lu, CY; Mayfield, AB; Fang, LS; Chen, CS. 2011. Lipid bodies in coral-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis: Proteomic and ultrastructural studies. Proteomics 11:3540-3555. 2011 Cleaner & Solvent Use; Special Use Permitting; Stony Coral; Zooxanthellae
Witt, V; Wild, C; Uthicke, S. 2011. Effect of substrate type on bacterial community composition in biofilms from the Great Barrier Reef. FEMS Microbiology Letters 323:188-195. 2011 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Microorganisms; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Substrate
Corlett, H; Jones, B. 2011. Ecological controls on Devonian stromatoporoid-dominated and coral-dominated reef growth in the Mackenzie Basin, Northwest Territories, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 48:1543-1560. 2011 Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment
Isozaki, Y; Aljinovic, D; Kawahata, H. 2011. The Guadalupian (Permian) Kamura event in European Tethys. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 308:12-21. 2011 Global; Japan; China; Europe Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Kolasinski, J; Rogers, K; Cuet, P; Barry, B; Frouin, P. 2011. Sources of particulate organic matter at the ecosystem scale: a stable isotope and trace element study in a tropical coral reef. Marine Ecology Progress Series 443:77-93. 2011 Reunion; India Discharges; Nutrients; Plankton; Primary Production; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Nishihara, GN; Terada, R; Shimabukuro, H. 2011. Effects of wave energy on the residence times of a fluorescent tracer in the canopy of the intertidal marine macroalgae, Sargassum fusiforme (Phaeophyceae). Phycological Research 59:24-33. 2011 Model Algae; Discharges; Fleshy Macroalgae; Shoreline Protection
Sutherland, K. P., S. Shaban, J. L. Joyner, J. W. Porter, and E. K. Lipp. 2011. Human Pathogen Shown to Cause Disease in the Threatened Eklhorn Coral Acropora palmata. PLoS One 6:1-7. 2011 South & Central America; Caribbean Index or Indicator Pathogens; Snails & Conch; Stony Coral; Wastewater Discharge
Whitall, D. R., B. M. Costa, L. J. Bauer, A. Dieppa, and S. D. Hile, editors. 2011. A Baseline Assessment of the Ecological Resources of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 133, NOAA, Silver Spring, (MD, USA). 2011 Puerto Rico Field Study & Monitoring; Model; GIS & Maps Agriculture; Chemical Use Regulations; Collaboration & Partnering; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Marine Debris; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Toxics
Sweeney, AM; Boch, CA; Johnsen, S; Morse, DE. 2011. Twilight spectral dynamics and the coral reef invertebrate spawning response. Journal of Experimental Biology 214:770-777. 2011 Hydrocoral; Light; Sponges; Stony Coral
Mangelsdorf, K; Zink, KG; di Primio, R; Horsfield, B. 2011. Microbial lipid markers within and adjacent to Challenger Mound in the Belgica carbonate mound province, Porcupine Basin, offshore Ireland (IODP Expedition 307). Marine Geology 282:91-101. 2011 Sediment; Substrate
Jayaraju, N; Reddy, BCSR; Reddy, KR. 2011. Anthropogenic impact on Andaman coast monitoring with benthic foraminifera, Andaman Sea, India. Environmental Earth Sciences 62:821-829. 2011 India Field Study & Monitoring Aquaculture; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Sediment; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Tourism & Recreation; Waterborne Discharges
Liu, Y; Peng, ZC; Wei, GJ; Chen, TG; Sun, WD; He, JF; Liu, GJ; Chou, CL; Shen, CC. 2011. Interannual variation of rare earth element abundances in corals from northern coast of the South China Sea and its relation with sea-level change and human activities. Marine Environmental Research 71:62-69. 2011 US Pacific & Hawaii; China Discharges; Sediment; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Downs, CA; Woodley, CM; Fauth, JE; Knutson, S; Burtscher, MM; May, LA; Avadanei, AR; Higgins, JL; Ostrander, GK. 2011. A survey of environmental pollutants and cellular-stress markers of Porites astreoides at six sites in St. John, US Virgin Islands. Ecotoxicology 20:1914-1931. 2011 Global; Florida; US Virgin Islands Index or Indicator Nutrients; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Denis, V; Debreuil, J; De Palmas, S; Richard, J; Guillaume, MMM; Bruggemann, JH. 2011. Lesion regeneration capacities in populations of the massive coral Porites lutea at Reunion Island: environmental correlates. Marine Ecology Progress Series 428:105-117. 2011 Reunion; India Field Study & Monitoring; Model Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Light; Non-point Source Runoff; Stony Coral; Zooxanthellae
Drupp, P; De Carlo, EH; Mackenzie, FT; Bienfang, P; Sabine, CL. 2011. Nutrient Inputs, Phytoplankton Response, and CO(2) Variations in a Semi-Enclosed Subtropical Embayment, Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. Aquatic Geochemistry 17:473-498. 2011 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii CO2; Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Plankton; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Nisola, GM; Redillas, MCFR; Cho, E; Han, M; Yoo, N; Chung, WJ. 2011. Comparison of reactive porous media for sulfur-oxidizing denitrification of high nitrate strength wastewater. Biochemical Engineering Journal 79-86. 2011 Model Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Discharges; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Wastewater Discharge
Negri, AP; Hoogenboom, MO. 2011. Water Contamination Reduces the Tolerance of Coral Larvae to Thermal Stress. PLoS One 6. 2011 Global Model Climate; Mitigation; Stony Coral; Waterborne Discharges
Engle, V. D. 2011. Estimating the provision of ecosystem services by Gulf of Mexico coastal wetlands. Wetlands DOI10.1007/s13157-010-0132-9. 2011 South & Central America; Mexico Review Carbon Storage & Cycling; Commercial Fisheries; Fishing Sector; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Nutrients; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetlands
Elfman, L; Tooke, NE; Patring, JDM. 2011. Detection of pesticides used in rice cultivation in streams on the island of Leyte in the Philippines. Agricultural Water Management 101:81-87. 2011 Global; Southeast Asia; Philippines Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Chemical Use Regulations; Collaboration & Partnering; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Mangroves; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waterborne Discharges
Yang, SL; Gao, RS; Niu, PL; Zou, ZY; Yu, RH. 2011. Arc Discharge Synthesis and Photoluminescence of 3D Feather-like AlN Nanostructures. Nanoscale Research Letters 6. 2011 Field Study & Monitoring; Model Discharges; Fish; Nutrients
Kachhara, RP; Jodhawat, RL; Devi, KB. 2011. Molluscan Biostratigraphy Of The Palaeogene Sediments Around Lakhpat, Kachchh, Gujarat, India. Journal of the Paleontological Society of India 56:17-28. 2011 India Sediment
Hoeke, RK; Jokiel, PL; Buddemeier, RW; Brainard, RE. 2011. Projected Changes to Growth and Mortality of Hawaiian Corals over the Next 100 Years. PLoS One 6. 2011 US Pacific & Hawaii Review; Model Climate; CO2; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Ocean Acidity; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Yamashita, H; Suzuki, G; Hayashibara, T; Koike, K. 2011. Do corals select zooxanthellae by alternative discharge? Marine Biology 158:87-100. 2011 South & Central America; Caribbean Climate; Discharges; Stony Coral; Zooxanthellae
Williamson, EA; Strychar, KB; Withers, K; Sterba-Boatwright, B. 2011. Effects of salinity and sedimentation on the Gorgonian Coral, Leptogorgia virgulata (Lamarck 1815). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 409:331-338. 2011 South & Central America; Mexico Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Runoff; Octocoral; Salinity; Sediment; Substrate; Tourism & Recreation
Navalgund, RR; Singh, RP. 2011. Climate Change Studies Using Space Based Observation. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing 39:281-295. 2011 Global; India Review; Field Study & Monitoring; Model; Index or Indicator; GIS & Maps Climate; Deforestation & Devegetation; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Forestry; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Housing; Irrigation; Light; Salinity; Water Depth & Sea Level; Wetlands
Goodkin, NF; Switzer, AD; McCorry, D; DeVantier, L; True, JD; Hughen, KA; Angeline, N; Yang, TT. 2011. Coral communities of Hong Kong: long-lived corals in a marginal reef environment. Marine Ecology Progress Series 426:185-196. 2011 Australia; China Index or Indicator Non-point Source Runoff; Salinity; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Maignien, L; Depreiter, D; Foubert, A; Reveillaud, J; De Mol, L; Boeckx, P; Blamart, D; Henriet, JP; Boon, N. 2011. Anaerobic oxidation of methane in a cold-water coral carbonate mound from the Gulf of Cadiz. International Journal of Earth Sciences 100:1413-1422. 2011 Field Study & Monitoring Sediment
Russon, T; Elliot, M; Sadekov, A; Cabioch, G; Correge, T; De Deckker, P. 2011. The mid-Pleistocene transition in the subtropical southwest Pacific. Paleoceanography 26. 2011 US Pacific & Hawaii Climate; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Plankton; Sediment
Koehn, JD; Hobday, AJ; Pratchett, MS; Gillanders, BM. 2011. Climate change and Australian marine and freshwater environments, fishes and fisheries: synthesis and options for adaptation. Marine and Freshwater Research 62:1148-1164. 2011 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia Model Climate; Fishing Sector; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Ocean Acidity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2011 Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Aquaculture; Bivalves; Discharges; Fish; Irrigation; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Pipelines; Salinity; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation; Transportation Policies; Waste Management; Wetland & Reef Restoration; Wetlands
Moyer, RP; Grottoli, AG. 2011. Coral skeletal carbon isotopes (delta(13)C and Delta(14)C) record the delivery of terrestrial carbon to the coastal waters of Puerto Rico. Coral Reefs 30:791-802. 2011 Global; Puerto Rico Climate; Discharges; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Mallela, J; Hermann, J; Rapp, RP; Eggins, SM. 2011. Fine-scale phosphorus distribution in coral skeletons: combining X-ray mapping by electronprobe microanalysis and LA-ICP-MS. Coral Reefs 30:813-818. 2011 GIS & Maps Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients
Wilson, AW; Binder, M; Hibbett, DS. 2011. Effects Of Gasteroid Fruiting Body Morphology On Diversification Rates In Three Independent Clades Of Fungi Estimated Using Binary State Speciation And Extinction Analysis. Evolution 65:1305-1322. 2011 Model Discharges
Larsson, AI; Purser, A. 2011. Sedimentation on the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa: Cleaning efficiency from natural sediments and drill cuttings. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62:1159-1168. 2011 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Model Sediment; Stony Coral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Lapointe, BE; Bedford, BJ. 2011. Stormwater nutrient inputs favor growth of non-native macroalgae (Rhodophyta) on O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands. Harmful Algae 10:310-318. 2011 Florida; US Pacific & Hawaii Algae; Discharges; Invasive Species; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Wenger, AS; Johansen, JL; Jones, GP. 2011. Suspended sediment impairs habitat choice and chemosensory discrimination in two coral reef fishes. Coral Reefs 30:879-887. 2011 Fish; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Skeletal Coral; Small Herbivorous Fish; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Chauvin, A; Denis, V; Cuet, P. 2011. Is the response of coral calcification to seawater acidification related to nutrient loading? Coral Reefs 30:911-923. 2011 Indian Ocean; Cuba; India Calcium Carbonate Deposition; CO2; Discharges; Nutrients; Ocean Acidity; Primary Production; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Zooxanthellae
Tedetti, M; Cuet, P; Guigue, C; Goutx, M. 2011. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in a coral reef ecosystem subjected to anthropogenic pressures (La Reunion Island, Indian Ocean) using multi-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy. Science of the Total Environment 409:2198-2210. 2011 Indian Ocean; Reunion; India Index or Indicator; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Discharges; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Bouma, JA; Kuik, O; Dekker, AG. 2011. Assessing the value of Earth Observation for managing coral reefs: An example from the Great Barrier Reef. Science of the Total Environment 409:4497-4503. 2011 Global; Australia; Europe Climate; Monetary Valuation; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment
Jones, RJ. 2011. Spatial patterns of chemical contamination (metals, PAHs, PCBs, PCDDs/PCDFS) in sediments of a non-industrialized but densely populated coral atoll/small island state (Bermuda). Marine Pollution Bulletin 62:1362-1376. 2011 South & Central America; Bermuda; Caribbean Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Solid Waste Disposal; Toxics
Senal, MIS; Jacinto, GS; San Diego-McGlone, ML; Siringan, F; Zamora, P; Soria, L; Cardenas, MB; Villanoy, C; Cabrera, O. 2011. Nutrient inputs from submarine groundwater discharge on the Santiago reef flat, Bolinao, Northwestern Philippines. Marine Pollution Bulletin 63:195-200. 2011 Florida; Philippines GIS & Maps Discharges; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Kelly, R. P., M. M. Foley, W. S. Fisher, R. A. Feely, B. S. Halpern, G. G. Waldbusser, and M. R. Caldwell 1. 2011. Mitigating Local Causes of Ocean Acidification with Existing Laws. Science 332:1036-1037. 2011 Global Decision Support Frameworks & Tools CO2; Ocean Acidity
James, NP; Jones, B; Nelson, CS; Campbell, HJ; Titjen, J. 2011. Cenozoic temperate and sub-tropical carbonate sedimentation on an oceanic volcano - Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Sedimentology 58:1007-1029. 2011 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia Algae; Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Eghtesadi-Araghi, P; Haffner, PD; Drouillard, K; Maghsoudlou, W. 2011. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminants in Black-lip (Pearl) Oyster Pinctada margaritifera from Kish Island (Persian Gulf). Iranian Journal Of Fisheries Sciences 10:25-34. 2011 Lab Study Sediment
Herbeck, LS; Unger, D; Krumme, U; Liu, SM; Jennerjahn, TC. 2011. Typhoon-induced precipitation impact on nutrient and suspended matter dynamics of a tropical estuary affected by human activities in Hainan, China. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 93:375-388. 2011 China Agriculture; Aquaculture; Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Plankton; Salinity; Seagrasses; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Mao, SC; Gavagnin, M; Mollo, E; Guo, YW. 2011. A new rare asteriscane sesquiterpene and other related derivatives from the Hainan aeolid nudibranch Phyllodesmium magnum. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 39:408-411. 2011 Australia; Guam; China Octocoral
Thurber, AR; Jones, WJ; Schnabel, K. 2011. Dancing for Food in the Deep Sea: Bacterial Farming by a New Species of Yeti Crab. PLoS One 6. 2011 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp
Avellaneda, PM; Englehardt, JD; Olascoaga, J; Babcock, EA; Brand, L; Lirman, D; Rogge, WF; Solo-Gabriele, H; Tchobanoglous, G. 2011. Relative risk assessment of cruise ships biosolids disposal alternatives. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62:2157-2169. 2011 South & Central America; Caribbean Model Cruise Ships; Discharges
Futch, JC; Griffin, DW; Banks, K; Lipp, EK. 2011. Evaluation of sewage source and fate on southeast Florida coastal reefs. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62:2308-2316. 2011 Florida Index or Indicator Microorganisms; Non-point Source Runoff; Sponges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Lamb, JB; Willis, BL. 2011. Using Coral Disease Prevalence to Assess the Effects of Concentrating Tourism Activities on Offshore Reefs in a Tropical Marine Park. Conservation Biology 25:1044-1052. 2011 Australia Collaboration & Partnering; Marine Protected Areas; Nutrients; Pathogens; Sunscreen Use; Tourism & Recreation
Blanco, AC; Watanabe, A; Nadaoka, K; Motooka, S; Herrera, EC; Yamamoto, T. 2011. Estimation of nearshore groundwater discharge and its potential effects on a fringing coral reef. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62:770-785. 2011 Japan Cyanobacteria; Discharges; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Plankton; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Golbuu, Y; van Woesik, R; Richmond, RH; Harrison, P; Fabricius, KE. 2011. River discharge reduces reef coral diversity in Palau. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62:824-831. 2011 US Pacific & Hawaii; Palau; Micronesia Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Boehm, AB; Yamahara, KM; Walters, SP; Layton, BA; Keymer, DP; Thompson, RS; Knee, KL; Rosener, M. 2011. Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen, Soluble Reactive Phosphorous, and Microbial Pollutant Loading from Tropical Rural Watersheds in Hawai'i to the Coastal Ocean During Non-Storm Conditions. Estuaries and Coasts 34:925-936. 2011 Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Ruggeberg, A; Flogel, S; Dullo, WC; Hissmann, K; Freiwald, A. 2011. Water mass characteristics and sill dynamics in a subpolar cold-water coral reef setting at Stjernsund, northern Norway. Marine Geology 282:5-12. 2011 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Norway Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment
Van Rooij, D; Blamart, D; De Mol, L; Mienis, F; Pirlet, H; Wehrmann, LM; Barbieri, R; Maignien, L; Templer, SP; de Haas, H; Hebbeln, D; Frank, N; Larmagnat, S; Stadnitskaia, A; Stivaletta, N; van Weering, T; Zhang, Y; Hamoumi, N; Cnudde, V; Duyck, P; Henr. 2011. Cold-water coral mounds on the Pen Duick Escarpment, Gulf of Cadiz: The MICROSYSTEMS project approach. Marine Geology 282:102-117. 2011 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Model Sediment; Skeletal Coral; Substrate; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Wehrmann, LM; Templer, SP; Brunner, B; Bernasconi, SM; Maignien, L; Ferdelman, TG. 2011. The imprint of methane seepage on the geochemical record and early diagenetic processes in cold-water coral mounds on Pen Duick Escarpment, Gulf of Cadiz. Marine Geology 282:118-137. 2011 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Microorganisms; Sediment
Templer, SP; Wehrmann, LM; Zhang, Y; Vasconcelos, C; McKenzie, JA. 2011. Microbial community composition and biogeochemical processes in cold-water coral carbonate mounds in the Gulf of Cadiz, on the Moroccan margin. Marine Geology 282:138-148. 2011 Field Study & Monitoring Microorganisms; Sediment; Stony Coral; Water Depth & Sea Level
Prieto, C; Destouni, G. 2011. Is submarine groundwater discharge predictable? Geophysical Research Letters 38. 2011 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Field Study & Monitoring Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Sutherland, KP; Shaban, S; Joyner, JL; Porter, JW; Lipp, EK. 2011. Human Pathogen Shown to Cause Disease in the Threatened Eklhorn Coral Acropora palmata. PLoS One 6. 2011 South & Central America; Florida; Caribbean Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Pathogens; Snails & Conch; Stony Coral; Wastewater Discharge
Jones, R; Parsons, R; Watkinson, E; Kendell, D. 2011. Sewage contamination of a densely populated coral 'atoll' (Bermuda). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 179:309-324. 2011 Florida; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Bermuda Discharges; Docks & Marinas; Housing; Microorganisms; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Munoz, PD; Murillo, FJ; Sayago-Gil, M; Serrano, A; Laporta, M; Otero, I; Gomez, C. 2011. Effects of deep-sea bottom longlining on the Hatton Bank fish communities and benthic ecosystem, north-east Atlantic. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 91:939-952. 2011 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Apex Fish Predators; Collaboration & Partnering; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Littering; Marine Birds; Sponges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Mackenzie, FT; Andersson, AJ; Arvidson, RS; Guidry, MW; Lerman, A. 2011. Land-sea carbon and nutrient fluxes and coastal ocean CO(2) exchange and acidification: Past, present, and future. Applied Geochemistry 26:S298-S302. 2011 Model CO2; Discharges; Nutrients; Ocean Acidity; Substrate; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Witt, V; Wild, C; Anthony, KRN; Diaz-Pulido, G; Uthicke, S. 2011. Effects of ocean acidification on microbial community composition of, and oxygen fluxes through, biofilms from the Great Barrier Reef. Environmental Microbiology 13:2976-2989. 2011 Australia; Cuba Climate; CO2; Ocean Acidity; Plankton; Stony Coral
Roche, H; Salvat, B; Ramade, F. 2011. Assessment Of The Pesticides Pollution Of Coral Reefs Communities From French Polynesia. Revue d'Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie) 66:3-10. 2011 Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Sediment
Salvat, B; Wilkinson, C. 2011. Cyclones And Climate Change In The South Pacific. Revue d'Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie) 66:105-115. 2011 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia Climate; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Ocean Acidity; Skeletal Coral; Storms & Hurricanes; Water Depth & Sea Level
Lapointe, BE; Thacker, K; Hanson, C; Getten, L. 2011. Sewage pollution in Negril, Jamaica: effects on nutrition and ecology of coral reef macroalgae. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology 29:775-789. 2011 Florida; Jamaica Algae; Discharges; Fleshy Macroalgae; Hotel & Food Services; Marine Protected Areas; Nutrients; Sewage Treatment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
Haapkyla, J; Unsworth, RKF; Flavell, M; Bourne, DG; Schaffelke, B; Willis, BL. 2011. Seasonal Rainfall and Runoff Promote Coral Disease on an Inshore Reef. PLoS One 6. 2011 Australia Climate; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Ocean Acidity; Pathogens; Salinity; Sediment
Annibaldi, A; Illuminati, S; Truzzi, C; Scarponi, G. 2011. SWASV speciation of Cd, Pb and Cu for the determination of seawater contamination in the area of the Nicole shipwreck (Ancona coast, Central Adriatic Sea). Marine Pollution Bulletin 62:2813-2821. 2011 Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waterborne Discharges; Wetland & Reef Restoration
Negri, AP; Harford, AJ; Parry, DL; van Dam, RA. 2011. Effects of alumina refinery wastewater and signature metal constituents at the upper thermal tolerance of: 2. The early life stages of the coral Acropora tenuis. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62:474-482. 2011 Field Study & Monitoring Climate; Discharges; Stony Coral; Wastewater Discharge
Rolfe, J; Windle, J. 2011. Assessing community values for reducing agricultural emissions to improve water quality and protect coral health in the Great Barrier Reef. Water Resources Research 47. 2011 Australia Model Agriculture; Monetary Valuation; Non-point Source Runoff
Sutherland, WJ; Bardsley, S; Bennun, L; Clout, M; Cote, IM; Depledge, MH; Dicks, LV; Dobson, AP; Fellman, L; Fleishman, E; Gibbons, DW; Impey, AJ; Lawton, JH; Lickorish, F; Lindenmayer, DB; Lovejoy, TE; Mac Nally, R; Madgwick, J; Peck, LS; Pretty, J; Prio. 2011. Horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2011. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26:10-16. 2011 Global Review Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Invasive Species; Pathogens; Schools & Colleges
Ramirez-Llodra, E; Tyler, PA; Baker, MC; Bergstad, OA; Clark, MR; Escobar, E; Levin, LA; Menot, L; Rowden, AA; Smith, CR; Van Dover, CL. 2011. Man and the Last Great Wilderness: Human Impact on the Deep Sea. PLoS One 6. 2011 Global; South & Central America; Mexico Review Climate; Fishing Sector; Ocean Acidity; Sediment
Okuku, EO; Ohowa, B; Mwangi, SN; Munga, D; Kiteresi, LI; Wanjeri, VO; Okumu, S; Kilonzo, J. 2011. Sewage pollution in the Coastal waters of Mombasa City, Kenya: A norm Rather than an Exception. International Journal Of Environmental Research 5:865-874. 2011 Kenya Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Nutrients; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Waterborne Discharges
Downs, C. A., C. M. Woodley, J. E. Fauth, S. Knutson, M. M. Burtscher, L. A. May, A. R. Avadanei, J. L. Higgins, and G. K. Ostrander. 2011. A survey of environmental pollutants and cellular-stress markers of Porites astreoides at six sites in St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Ecotoxicology 2011 Global; US Virgin Islands Nutrients; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Ramos, R; Bastidas, C; Debrot, D; Garcia, E. 2011. Phase I and II biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in the coral Siderastrea siderea act as biomarkers for reproductive condition and habitat quality. Marine Biology Research 7:398-406. 2011 Marine Protected Areas; Stony Coral; Waterborne Discharges
Lindley, ST; Erickson, DL; Moser, ML; Williams, G; Langness, OP; McCovey, BW; Belchik, M; Vogel, D; Pinnix, W; Kelly, JT; Heublein, JC; Klimley, AP. 2011. Electronic Tagging of Green Sturgeon Reveals Population Structure and Movement among Estuaries. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 140:108-122. 2011 US Pacific & Hawaii; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Columbia Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waterborne Discharges
Tian, SG; Zhang, YS; Wang, JT; Niu, SW. 2011. Late Paleozoic reefs and their significance for tectonics and oil-gas exploration in the Hinggan-Inner Mongolia area. Science China-earth Sciences 54:212-222. 2011 China Algae; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Sediment
Poresky, A., Clary, J., Strecker, E., and Earles, A. 2011. International Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Database. Technical Summary: Volume Reduction. Geosyntec Consultants. 2011 Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Starcevic, A., W. C. Dunlap, J. Cullum, J. M. Shick, D. Hranueli, and P. F. Long. 2010. Gene Expression in the Scleractinian Acropora microphthalma Exposed to High Solar Irradiance Reveals Elements of Photoprotection and Coral Bleaching. PLoS One 5:e13975. 2010 Algae; Light; Stony Coral; Sunscreen Use
Uthicke, S. and C. Altenrath. 2010. Water column nutrients control growth and C : N ratios of symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifera on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Limnology and Oceanography 55:1681-1696. 2010 Australia Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Special Use Permitting
Foster, M. S. and D. R. Schiel. 2010. Loss of predators and the collapse of southern California kelp forests (?): Alternatives, explanations and generalizations. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 393:59-70. 2010 Review Coastal Development; Discharges; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Planktivorous Fish; Sea Urchins; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Waste Management Policies
Jauer, C. D. and P. Budkewitsch. 2010. Old marine seismic and new satellite radar data: Petroleum exploration of north west Labrador Sea, Canada. Marine and Petroleum Geology 27:1379-1394. 2010 Global; Norway Review; Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Microorganisms
Pelejero, C., E. Calvo, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2010. Paleo-perspectives on ocean acidification. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25:332-344. 2010 Review CO2; Ocean Acidity
Maier, E. and J. Titschack. 2010. Spondylus gaederopus: A new Mediterranean climate archive - Based on high-resolution oxygen and carbon isotope analyses. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 291:228-238. 2010 Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Climate; Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Godiva, D., H. Evangelista, M. Kampel, M. V. Licinio, and C. Munita. 2010. Combined use of aerogammaspectrometry and geochemistry to access sediment sources in a shallow coral site at Armacao dos Buzios, Brazil. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 87:526-534. 2010 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Discharges; Nutrients; Sediment; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Burns, K. A., D. L. Brinkman, G. J. Brunskill, G. A. Logan, H. Volk, K. Wasmund, and I. Zagorskis. 2010. Fluxes and fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the Timor Sea ecosystem with special reference to active natural hydrocarbon seepage. Marine Chemistry 118:140-155. 2010 Australia Model Microorganisms; Oil & Gas Industry; Point Source Discharges; Sediment; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Water Depth & Sea Level
Crawley, A., D. I. Kline, S. Dunn, K. Anthony, and S. Dove. 2010. The effect of ocean acidification on symbiont photorespiration and productivity in Acropora formosa. Global Change Biology 16:851-863. 2010 CO2; Light; Ocean Acidity; Primary Production; Stony Coral
Yender, R. A. and J. Michel, editors. 2010. Oil Spills in Coral Reefs: Planning & Respoinse Considerations, Second Edition. U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C. 2010 Review; Field Study & Monitoring Coastal Development; Collaboration & Partnering; Finfish Harvest; Petroleum Spills
Bartley, R., J. P. Corfield, B. N. Abbott, A. A. Hawdon, S. N. Wilkinson, and B. Nelson. 2010. Impacts of improved grazing land management on sediment yields, Part 1: Hills lope processes. Journal of Hydrology 389:237-248. 2010 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Landuse Management; Littering; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Bartley, R., S. N. Wilkinson, A. A. Hawdon, B. N. Abbott, and D. A. Post. 2010. Impacts of improved grazing land management on sediment yields. Part 2: Catchment response. Journal of Hydrology 389:249-259. 2010 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Carriquiry, J. D. and G. Horta-Puga. 2010. The Ba/Ca record of corals from the Southern Gulf of Mexico: Contributions from land-use changes, fluvial discharge and oil-drilling muds. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60:1625-1630. 2010 South & Central America; Mexico Discharges; Oil & Gas Industry; Sediment; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Guerra-Garcia, J. M., T. Ganesh, M. Jaikumar, and A. V. Raman. 2010. Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from India. Helgoland Marine Research 64:297-310. 2010 India Algae; Discharges; Nutrients; Salinity; Seagrasses; Sediment; Skeletal Coral; Sponges; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Uthicke, S., A. Thompson, and B. Schaffelke. 2010. y Effectiveness of benthic foraminiferal and coral assemblages as water quality indicators on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Coral Reefs 29:209-225. 2010 Global; South & Central America; Australia; Caribbean Index or Indicator Finfish Harvest; Light; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Seastars; Sediment; Stony Coral
Thomas, Y., C. Courties, Y. El Helwe, A. Herbland, and H. Lemonnier. 2010. Spatial and temporal extension of eutrophication associated with shrimp farm wastewater discharges in the New Caledonia lagoon. Marine Pollution Bulletin 61:387-398. 2010 New Caledonia Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Agriculture; Discharges; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Nutrients; Plankton; Wastewater Discharge
Murdock, S., H. Johnson, N. Forget, and S. K. Juniper. 2010. Composition and diversity of microbial mats at shallow hydrothermal vents on Volcano 1, South Tonga Arc. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 51:407-412. 2010 Tonga Discharges
Suwa, R., M. Nakamura, M. Morita, K. Shimada, A. Iguchi, K. Sakai, and A. Suzuki. 2010. Effects of acidified seawater on early life stages of scleractinian corals (Genus Acropora). Fisheries Science 76:93-99. 2010 CO2; Ocean Acidity; Stony Coral
Huang, K. F., C. F. You, Y. H. Liu, R. M. Wang, P. Y. Lin, and C. H. Chung. 2010. Low-memory, small sample size, accurate and high-precision determinations of lithium isotopic ratios in natural materials by MC-ICP-MS. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 25:1019-1024. 2010 Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Turner, A. 2010. Marine pollution from antifouling paint particles. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60:159-171. 2010 Review Invertebrates; Salinity; Sediment; Tourism & Recreation; Waterborne Discharges
Paris, R., J. Fournier, E. Poizot, S. Etienne, J. Morin, F. Lavigne, and P. Wassmer. 2010. Boulder and fine sediment transport and deposition by the 2004 tsunami in Lhok Nga (western Banda Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia): A coupled offshore-onshore model. Marine Geology 268:43-54. 2010 Indonesia Model; GIS & Maps Discharges; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes
Chen, T. R., K. F. Yu, S. Li, G. J. Price, Q. Shi, and G. J. Wei. 2010. Heavy metal pollution recorded in Porites corals from Daya Bay, northern South China Sea. Marine Environmental Research 70:318-326. 2010 China Field Study & Monitoring Discharges; Stony Coral
Lenahan, M. J. and K. L. Bristow. 2010. Understanding sub-surface solute distributions and salinization mechanisms in a tropical coastal floodplain groundwater system. Journal of Hydrology 390:131-142. 2010 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Discharges; Irrigation; Nutrients; Salinity; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Bratton, J. F. 2010. The Three Scales of Submarine Groundwater Flow and Discharge across Passive Continental Margins. Journal of Geology 118:565-575. 2010 Discharges; Seawater Flow; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Littler, M. M., D. S. Littler, and B. L. Brooks. 2010. The effects of nitrogen and phosphorus enrichment on algal community development: Artificial mini-reefs on the Belize Barrier Reef sedimentary lagoon. Harmful Algae 9:255-263. 2010 South & Central America; Belize Algae; Calcareous Macroalgae; Coralline Algae; Cyanobacteria; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Sediment; Skeletal Coral; Stony Coral
Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. 2010. Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan: 2009 System Status Report. 2010 Florida Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Algae; Apex Fish Predators; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Chemical Use Regulations; Climate; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Infrastructure; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Pathogens; Salinity; Seawater Flow; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level; Wetlands
Hallegraeff, G. M. 2010. Ocean Climate Change, Phytoplankton Community Responses, And Harmful Algal Blooms: A Formidable Predictive Challenge. Journal of Phycology 46:220-235. 2010 Global; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Algae; Climate; CO2; Fish; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Ocean Acidity; Plankton; Primary Production; Small Herbivorous Fish; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Grove, C. A., R. Nagtegaal, J. Zinke, T. Scheufen, B. Koster, S. Kasper, M. T. McCulloch, G. van den Bergh, and G. J. A. Brummer. 2010. River runoff reconstructions from novel spectral luminescence scanning of massive coral skeletons. Coral Reefs 29:579-591. 2010 Madagascar Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Duarte, T. K., S. Pongkijvorasin, J. Roumasset, D. Amato, and K. Burnett. 2010. Optimal management of a Hawaiian Coastal aquifer with nearshore marine ecological interactions. Water Resources Research 46:W11545. 2010 US Pacific & Hawaii Model Algae; Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Wilson, B. 2010. Effect Of Hurricanes On Guilds Of Nearshore Epiphytal Foraminifera, Nevis, West Indies. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 40:327-343. 2010 South & Central America; Caribbean Field Study & Monitoring Calcareous Macroalgae; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Nutrients; Storms & Hurricanes; Substrate
Shank, G. C., R. G. Zepp, A. Vahatalo, R. Lee, and E. Bartels. 2010. Photobleaching kinetics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter derived from mangrove leaf litter and floating Sargassum colonies. Marine Chemistry 119:162-171. 2010 Florida CO2; Fleshy Macroalgae; Light; Littering; Mangroves; Seagrasses
Shank, G. C., R. Lee, A. Vahatalo, R. G. Zepp, and E. Bartels. 2010. Production of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from mangrove leaf litter and floating Sargassum colonies. Marine Chemistry 119:172-181. 2010 South & Central America; Florida; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Cuba; Mexico Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study; Remote Sensing Discharges; Fleshy Macroalgae; Light; Littering; Mangroves; Seagrasses
Rastogi, R. P., Richa, R. P. Sinha, S. P. Singh, and D. P. Hader. 2010. Photoprotective compounds from marine organisms. Journal Of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology 37:537-558. 2010 Algae; Cyanobacteria; Light; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics Sources; Plankton
Saleh, M. B. and R. G. Kerr. 2010. Identification of the Cyclase Product and its First Oxidation Product in the Biosynthesis of Fuscol and Fuscosides. Australian Journal of Chemistry 63:901-906. 2010 South & Central America; Cuba; Caribbean Model Octocoral; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics Sources
Al-Banna, N. Y., M. M. Al-Mutwali, and N. R. Ismail. 2010. Oligocene stratigraphy in the Sinjar Basin, northwestern Iraq. GeoArabia 15:17-44. 2010 Europe Sediment
Gavio, B., S. Palmer-Cantillo, and J. E. Mancera. 2010. Historical analysis (2000-2005) of the coastal water quality in San Andres Island, Sea Flower Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60:1018-1030. 2010 South & Central America; Caribbean Field Study & Monitoring; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Discharges; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Pathogens; Seagrasses
Lavoie, D., G. Chi, M. Urbatsch, and W. J. Davis. 2010. Massive dolomitization of a pinnacle reef in the Lower Devonian West Point Formation (Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec): An extreme case of hydrothermal dolomitization through fault-focused circulation of magmatic fluids. AAPG Bulletin 94:513-531. 2010
Todd, P. A., X. Y. Ong, and L. M. Chou. 2010. Impacts of pollution on marine life in Southeast Asia. Biodiversity and Conservation 19:1063-1082. 2010 Global; Southeast Asia; Philippines Review Apex Fish Predators; Aquaculture; Deforestation & Devegetation; Finfish Harvest; Mangroves; Nutrients; Seagrasses; Sediment; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Waterborne Discharges
Etiope, G., A. Savini, N. Lo Bue, P. Favali, and C. Corselli. 2010. Deep-sea survey for the detection of methane at the "Santa Maria di Leuca" cold-water coral mounds (Ionian Sea, South Italy). Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 57:431-440. 2010 Lab Study Microorganisms; Nutrients; Sediment
Jones, A. T., J. Greinert, D. A. Bowden, I. Klaucke, C. J. Petersen, G. L. Netzeband, and W. Weinrebe. 2010. Acoustic and visual characterisation of methane-rich seabed seeps at Omakere Ridge on the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand. Marine Geology 272:154-169. 2010 GIS & Maps; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Marine Worms; Microorganisms
Al-Zereini, W., C. B. F. F. Yao, H. Laatsch, and H. Anke. 2010. Aqabamycins A-G: novel nitro maleimides from a marine Vibrio species: I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological activities. Journal of Antibiotics 63:297-301. 2010 Octocoral
Lapointe, B. E. and B. J. Bedford. 2010. Ecology and nutrition of invasive Caulerpa brachypus f. parvifolia blooms on coral reefs off southeast Florida, USA. Harmful Algae 9:1-12. 2010 Florida; Bahamas Algae; Discharges; Fleshy Macroalgae; Invasive Species; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Jackson, J. B. C. 2010. The future of the oceans past. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365:3765-3778. 2010 Global; South & Central America; Panama; Caribbean Climate; Finfish Harvest; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Ocean Acidity
Magnusson, M., K. Heimann, P. Quayle, and A. P. Negri. 2010. Additive toxicity of herbicide mixtures and comparative sensitivity of tropical benthic microalgae. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60:1978-1987. 2010 Australia Algae; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Primary Production
Jones, R. 2010. Environmental contamination associated with a marine landfill ('seafill') beside a coral reef. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60:1993-2006. 2010 Bermuda Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Sediment; Solid Waste Disposal
Bauman, A. G., J. A. Burt, D. A. Feary, E. Marquis, and P. Usseglio. 2010. Tropical harmful algal blooms: An emerging threat to coral reef communities? Marine Pollution Bulletin 60:2117-2122. 2010 Global; Indian Ocean; India; Oman Ballast Discharge; Climate; Discharges; Fish; Nutrients; Stony Coral
Azzurro, E., M. Matiddi, E. Fanelli, P. Guidetti, G. La Mesa, A. Scarpato, and V. Axiak. 2010. Sewage pollution impact on Mediterranean rocky-reef fish assemblages. Marine Environmental Research 69:390-397. 2010 Index or Indicator Fish; Wastewater Discharge
Webster, I. T. and P. W. Ford. 2010. Delivery, deposition and redistribution of fine sediments within macrotidal Fitzroy Estuary/Keppel Bay: Southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Continental Shelf Research 30:793-805. 2010 Australia Remote Sensing Discharges; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Garren, M. and F. Azam. 2010. New Method for Counting Bacteria Associated with Coral Mucus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76:6128-6133. 2010 US Pacific & Hawaii Field Study & Monitoring Microorganisms; Stony Coral; Wastewater Discharge; Zooxanthellae
Zapata, F. A., A. Rodriguez-Ramirez, C. Caro-Zambrano, and J. Garzon-Ferreira. 2010. Mid-term coral-algal dynamics and conservation status of a Gorgona Island (Tropical Eastern Pacific) coral reef. Revista de Biologia Tropical 58:81-94. 2010 US Pacific & Hawaii Field Study & Monitoring Algae; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment
Guzman, J. R., G. Espinosa-Paredes, J. L. Francois, C. Martin-Del-Campo, and A. Nunez-Carrera. 2010. Radiotoxicity of transuranics recycling in heterogeneous fuel assemblies for boiling water reactors. Progress In Nuclear Energy 52:698-706. 2010 Discharges
Comeau, S., R. Jeffree, J. L. Teyssie, and J. P. Gattuso. 2010. Response of the Arctic Pteropod Limacina helicina to Projected Future Environmental Conditions. PLoS One 5:e11362. 2010 Lab Study Calcium Carbonate Deposition; CO2; Molluscs; Ocean Acidity; Plankton; Whales & Dolphins
Baird, A. H., M. C. Kospartov, and S. Purcell. 2010. Reproductive Synchrony in Acropora Assemblages on Reefs of New Caledonia. Pacific Science 64:405-412. 2010 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia; New Caledonia Discharges; Stony Coral
Olsen, Y. S., S. E. Fox, E. L. Kinney, M. Teichberg, and I. Valiela. 2010. Differences in urbanization and degree of marine influence are reflected in delta C-13 and delta N-15 of producers and consumers in seagrass habitats of Puerto Rico. Marine Environmental Research 69:198-206. 2010 Puerto Rico Seagrasses; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wastewater Discharge
Dailer, M. L., R. S. Knox, J. E. Smith, M. Napier, and C. M. Smith. 2010. Using delta N-15 values in algal tissue to map locations and potential sources of anthropogenic nutrient inputs on the island of Maui, Hawai'i, USA. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60:655-671. 2010 GIS & Maps Agriculture; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Nutrients; Wastewater Discharge
Fujikura, K., D. Lindsay, H. Kitazato, S. Nishida, and Y. Shirayama. 2010. Marine Biodiversity in Japanese Waters. PLoS One 5:e11836. 2010 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii; Japan
Pedder, A. E. H. 2010. Lower-Middle Devonian rugose coral faunas of Nevada: Contribution to an understanding of the "barren" E Zone and Chotec Event in the Great Basin. Bulletin of Geosciences 85:1-26. 2010 Oman; Europe Review; Index or Indicator
Sherwood, O. A., B. E. Lapointe, M. J. Risk, and R. E. Jamieson. 2010. Nitrogen Isotopic Records of Terrestrial Pollution Encoded in Floridian and Bahamian Gorgonian Corals. Environmental Science and Technology 44:874-880. 2010 Florida; Bahamas Algae; Discharges; Nutrients; Octocoral; Sea Turtles; Wastewater Discharge
Singh, S. P., A. Azua, A. Chaudhary, S. Khan, K. L. Willett, and P. R. Gardinali. 2010. Occurrence and distribution of steroids, hormones and selected pharmaceuticals in South Florida coastal environments. Ecotoxicology 19:338-350. 2010 Florida Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics Sources; Sewage Treatment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Wetlands
Wagner, D. E., P. Kramer, and R. van Woesik. 2010. Species composition, habitat, and water quality influence coral bleaching in southern Florida. Marine Ecology Progress Series 408:65-78. 2010 Florida Discharges; Hydrocoral; Nutrients; Stony Coral
Knee, K. L., J. H. Street, E. E. Grossman, A. B. Boehm, and A. Paytan. 2010. Nutrient inputs to the coastal ocean from submarine groundwater discharge in a groundwater-dominated system: Relation to land use (Kona coast, Hawaii, USA). Limnology and Oceanography 55:1105-1122. 2010 US Pacific & Hawaii Agriculture; Discharges; Golf Course Operations; Nutrients; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Osawa, Y., K. Fujita, Y. Umezawa, H. Kayanne, Y. Ide, T. Nagaoka, T. Miyajima, and H. Yamano. 2010. Human impacts on large benthic foraminifers near a densely populated area of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60:1279-1287. 2010 Marshall Islands Algae; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wastewater Discharge
Hardiman, N. and S. Burgin. 2010. Recreational impacts on the fauna of Australian coastal marine ecosystems. Journal of Environmental Management 91:2096-2108. 2010 Australia; Cuba Review; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Boating Activities; Finfish Harvest; Infrastructure; Recreational Fishing; Tourism & Recreation; Waterborne Discharges
Blanco, A. C., K. Nadaoka, T. Yamamoto, and K. Kinjo. 2010. Dynamic evolution of nutrient discharge under stormflow and baseflow conditions in a coastal agricultural watershed in Ishigaki Island, Okinawa, Japan. Hydrological Processes 24:2601-2616. 2010 Japan Field Study & Monitoring; GIS & Maps Agriculture; Algae; Discharges; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Nutrients; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Cardenas, M. B., P. B. Zamora, F. P. Siringan, M. R. Lapus, R. S. Rodolfo, G. S. Jacinto, M. L. San Diego-McGlone, C. L. Villanoy, O. Cabrera, and M. I. Senal. 2010. Linking regional sources and pathways for submarine groundwater discharge at a reef by electrical resistivity tomography, Rn-222, and salinity measurements. Geophysical Research Letters 37:L16401. 2010 Philippines Discharges; Salinity; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Scott, C., S. E. Lewis, R. Milla, M. C. Taylor, A. J. W. Rodgers, G. Dumsday, J. E. Brodie, J. G. Oakeshott, and R. J. Russell. 2010. A free-enzyme catalyst for the bioremediation of environmental atrazine contamination. Journal of Environmental Management 91:2075-2078. 2010 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Remediation
Santos, I. R., D. Erler, D. Tait, and B. D. Eyre. 2010. Breathing of a coral cay: Tracing tidally driven seawater recirculation in permeable coral reef sediments. Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans 115:C12010. 2010 Model Discharges; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Angel, B. M., L. T. Hales, S. L. Simpson, S. C. Apte, A. A. Chariton, D. A. Shearer, and D. F. Jolley. 2010. Spatial variability of cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel and zinc in the Port Curtis Estuary, Queensland, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 61:170-183. 2010 Australia Point Source Discharges; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Vietti, R. C., G. Albertelli, S. Aliani, S. Bava, G. Bavestrello, L. B. Cecchi, C. N. Bianchi, E. Bozzo, M. Capello, M. Castellano, C. Cerrano, M. Chiantore, N. Corradi, S. Cocito, L. Cutroneo, G. Diviacco, M. Fabiano, M. Faimali, M. Ferrari, G. P. Gasparini, and Locr. 2010. The Ligurian Sea: present status, problems and perspectives. Chemistry and Ecology 26:319-340. 2010 Review Beaches & Nature Parks; Climate; Discharges; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Marine Protected Areas; Monetary Valuation; Plankton; Sediment; Whales & Dolphins
Jiang, Z. X., H. J. Yang, Z. Li, X. Q. Pang, J. F. Han, D. X. Li, and Y. Y. Huang. 2010. Differences of Hydrocarbon Enrichment between the Upper and the Lower Structural Layers in the Tazhong Paleouplift. Acta Geologica Sinica-english Edition 84:1116-1127. 2010 Model
Li, Q. M., G. H. Wu, X. Q. Pang, W. Q. Pan, C. S. Luo, C. L. Wang, X. S. Li, and B. Zhou. 2010. Hydrocarbon Accumulation Conditions of Ordovician Carbonate in Tarim Basin. Acta Geologica Sinica-english Edition 84:1180-1194. 2010 Field Study & Monitoring Sediment
Tanaka, K., S. Ohde, A. Sakaguchi, C. W. McLeod, and A. G. Cox. 2010. Pb/Ca in Thailand Coral Determined by LA-ICP-MS: Anthropogenic Pb Input of River Run-off into a Coral Reef from Urbanised Areas. Water Air And Soil Pollution 211:211-218. 2010 Thailand Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Cheng, J. O., Y. M. Cheng, T. H. Chen, P. C. Hsieh, M. D. Fang, C. L. Lee, and F. C. Ko. 2010. A Preliminary Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Distribution in the Kenting Coral Reef Waters of Southern Taiwan. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 58:489-498. 2010 Taiwan Non-point Source Runoff
Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2010. Integrated Pest Management (IPM). CODE 595. U.S. Depatrment of Agriculture. 2010 Field Study & Monitoring Chemical Use Regulations; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Non-point Source Runoff
Tims, S. G., S. E. Everett, L. K. Fifield, G. J. Hancock, and R. Bartley. 2010. Plutonium as a tracer of soil and sediment movement in the Herbert River, Australia. Nuclear Instruments & Methods In Physics Research Section B-beam Interactions With Materials And Atoms 268:1150-1154. 2010 Australia Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Dulf, F. V., M. L. Unguresan, D. C. Vodnar, and C. Socaciu. 2010. Free and Esterified Sterol Distribution in Four Romanian Vegetable Oil. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-napoca 38:91-97. 2010 Oman
Shaw, M., M. J. Furnas, K. Fabricius, D. Haynes, S. Carter, G. Eaglesham, and J. F. Mueller. 2010. Monitoring pesticides in the Great Barrier Reef. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60:113-122. 2010 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Agriculture; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Abell, G. C. J., A. T. Revill, C. Smith, A. P. Bissett, J. K. Volkman, and S. S. Robert. 2010. Archaeal ammonia oxidizers and nirS-type denitrifiers dominate sediment nitrifying and denitrifying populations in a subtropical macrotidal estuary. ISME Journal 4:286-300. 2010 Australia Discharges; Microorganisms; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Salinity; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Williams, B. and A. G. Grottoli. 2010. Recent shoaling of the nutricline and thermocline in the western tropical Pacific. Geophysical Research Letters 37:L22601. 2010 US Pacific & Hawaii; Palau Climate; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Nutrients
Hofmann, M. and H. J. Schellnhuber. 2010. Ocean acidification: a millennial challenge. Energy & Environmental Science 3:1883-1896. 2010 Review Climate; CO2; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Ocean Acidity
Bau, M., S. Balan, K. Schmidt, and A. Koschinsky. 2010. Rare earth elements in mussel shells of the Mytilidae family as tracers for hidden and fossil high-temperature hydrothermal systems. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 299:310-316. 2010 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Germany Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Discharges
Frolicher, T. L. and F. Joos. 2010. Reversible and irreversible impacts of greenhouse gas emissions in multi-century projections with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Climate Dynamics 35:1439-1459. 2010 Global Model Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Climate; CO2; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Ocean Acidity; Water Depth & Sea Level
Richlen, M. L., S. L. Morton, E. A. Jamali, A. Rajan, and D. M. Anderson. 2010. The catastrophic 2008-2009 red tide in the Arabian gulf region, with observations on the identification and phylogeny of the fish-killing dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides. Harmful Algae 9:163-172. 2010 Global; South & Central America; Puerto Rico; Malaysia; United Arab Emirates; Oman; Mexico Aquaculture; Ballast Discharge; Discharges; Drinking Water Supply; Fish; Fishing Sector; Nutrients; Tourism & Recreation; Water
Leisenring, M., Clary, J., Stephenson, J., and Hobson, P. 2010. International Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Database Pollutant Category Summary: Nutrients. Geosyntec Consultants, Inc. 2010 Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Clary, J., Leisenring, M., and Jeray, J. 2010. International Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Database. Pollutant Category Summary: Fecal Indicator Bacteria. Wright Water Engineers. 2010 Index or Indicator Microorganisms; Non-point Source Runoff; Pathogens; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Cantin, N. E., M. J. H. Van Oppen, B. L. Willis, J. C. Mieog, and A. P. Negri. 2009. Juvenile corals can acquire more carbon from high-performance algal symbionts. Coral Reefs 28:405-414. 2009 Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Stony Coral
Mishima, M., H. Kawahata, A. Suzuki, M. Inoue, T. Okai, and A. Omura. 2009. Reconstruction of the East China Sea palaeoenvironment at 16 ka by comparison of fossil and modern Faviidae corals from the Ryukyus, southwestern Japan. Journal of Quaternary Science 24:928-936. 2009 Japan; China Discharges; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Maughan, M. and J. Brodie. 2009. Reef exposure to river-borne contaminants: a spatial model. Marine and Freshwater Research 60:1132-1140. 2009 Australia; Europe Model; GIS & Maps Chemical Use Regulations; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Landuse Management; Nutrients; Resource Use Management; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Radermacher, P., B. R. Schone, E. Gischler, W. Oschmann, J. Thebault, and J. Fiebig. 2009. Sclerochronology - a highly versatile tool for mariculture and reconstruction of life history traits of the queen conch, Strombus gigas (Gastropoda). Aquatic Living Resources 22:307-318. 2009 South & Central America; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Belize Field Study & Monitoring; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Aquaculture; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Non-point Source Runoff; Snails & Conch; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Stirling, C. H. and M. B. Andersen. 2009. Uranium-series dating of fossil coral reefs: Extending the sea-level record beyond the last glacial cycle. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 284:269-283. 2009 Lab Study; Model Climate; Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Eklof, J. S., S. Frocklin, A. Lindvall, N. Stadlinger, A. Kimathi, J. N. Uku, and T. R. McClanahan. 2009. How effective are MPAs? Predation control and 'spill-in effects' in seagrass-coral reef lagoons under contrasting fishery management. Marine Ecology Progress Series 384:83-96. 2009 Kenya Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sea Urchins; Seagrasses; Seastars
Zhang, L., B. Zhang, Z. C. Chen, L. F. Zheng, and Q. X. Tong. 2009. The application of hyperspectral remote sensing to coast environment investigation. Acta Oceanologica Sinica 28:1-13. 2009 Field Study & Monitoring; Remote Sensing Beaches & Nature Parks; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Mining Policies; Petroleum Spills
Tindall, J. C., P. J. Valdes, and L. C. Sime. 2009. Stable water isotopes in HadCM3: Isotopic signature of El Nino Southern Oscillation and the tropical amount effect. Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres 114:D04111. 2009 Model Climate; Non-point Source Runoff
Sarkar, A., S. Sengupta, J. M. McArthur, P. Ravenscroft, M. K. Bera, R. Bhushan, A. Samanta, and S. Agrawal. 2009. Evolution of Ganges-Brahmaputra western delta plain: clues from sedimentology and carbon isotopes. Quaternary Science Reviews 28:2564-2581. 2009 Global Climate; Discharges; Mangroves; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Wu, S., S. Yuan, G. Zhang, Y. Ma, L. Mi, and N. Xu. 2009. Seismic characteristics of a reef carbonate reservoir and implications for hydrocarbon exploration in deepwater of the Qiongdongnan Basin, northern South China Sea. Marine and Petroleum Geology 26:817-823. 2009 China; Indonesia Housing; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Buyukutku, A. G. 2009. Reservoir properties of Karaisali{dotless} formation in the Adana Basin, Southern Turkey. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 65:33-44. 2009 Algae; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Foubert, A. and J.-P. Henriet. 2009. Carbonate mounds in the gulf of Cadiz. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences 126:225-255. 2009 Field Study & Monitoring
Brodie, J., S. Lewis, Z. Bainbridge, A. Mitchell, J. Waterhouse, and F. Kroon. 2009. Target setting for pollutant discharge management of rivers in the Great Barrier Reef catchment area. Marine and Freshwater Research 60:1141-1149. 2009 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Model Agriculture; Chemical Use Regulations; Discharges; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Roebeling, P. C., M. E. van Grieken, A. J. Webster, J. Biggs, and P. Thorburn. 2009. Cost-effective water quality improvement in linked terrestrial and marine ecosystems: a spatial environmental-economic modelling approach. Marine and Freshwater Research 60:1150-1158. 2009 Australia Model Agriculture; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waterborne Discharges
Pait, A.S., C. F. G. Jeffrey, C. Caldow, D. R. Whitall, S. I. Hartwell, A. L. Mason, and J. D. Christensen. 2009. Chemical contaminants in the coral Porites astreoides from outhwest Puerto Rico. NOS NCCOS 91, Silver Spring, MD. 2009 Puerto Rico Stony Coral; Toxics
Takesue, R. K., M. H. Bothner, and R. L. Reynolds. 2009. Sources of land-derived runoff to a coral reef-fringed embayment identified using geochemical tracers in nearshore sediment traps. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 85:459-471. 2009 Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Non-point Source Runoff; Salinity; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Shaw, M., A. Negri, K. Fabricius, and J. F. Mueller. 2009. Predicting water toxicity: Pairing passive sampling with bioassays on the Great Barrier Reef. Aquatic Toxicology 95:108-116. 2009 Australia Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Agriculture; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Microorganisms; Primary Production; Sea Urchins; Stony Coral
Donner, S. D. 2009. Coping with commitment: Projected thermal stress on coral reefs under different future scenarios. PLoS One 4. 2009 Global Model Climate; CO2; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Mitigation; Sea Temperatures; Shoreline Protection
Zhou, X. Y., Z. M. Wang, H. J. Yang, L. J. Zhang, J. F. Han, and Z. Y. Wang. 2009. Large-scale Tazhong Ordovician Reef-flat Oil-Gas Field in the Tarim Basin of China. Acta Geologica Sinica-english Edition 83:179-188. 2009 China
Nelson, W. A. 2009. Calcified macroalgae - critical to coastal ecosystems and vulnerable to change: a review. Marine and Freshwater Research 60:787-801. 2009 Global Review Agriculture; Algae; Aquaculture; CO2; Coastal Development; Complex Habitat & Resources; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Ocean Acidity; Sediment
Baskett, M. L., S. D. Gaines, and R. M. Nisbet. 2009. Symbiont diversity may help coral reefs survive moderate climate change. Ecological Applications 19:17-Mar. 2009 Model Algae; Climate; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Zooxanthellae
Wei, G., M. T. McCulloch, G. Mortimer, W. Deng, and L. Xie. 2009. Evidence for ocean acidification in the Great Barrier Reef of Australia. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73:2332-2346. 2009 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia CO2; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Non-point Source Runoff; Ocean Acidity; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Wehrmann, L. M., S. P. Templer, L. Maignien, S. M. Bernasconi, B. Brunner, and T. G. Ferdelman. 2009. The imprint of methane seepage on geochemical processes in cold-water coral mounds on Pen Duick Escarpment, Gulf of Cadiz. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73:A1424-A1424. 2009
Hale, J. and E. F. Durkee. 2009. Smallest Philippine block has shallow gas, deep reef potential. Oil and Gas Journal 107:36-40. 2009 Philippines Petroleum Spills
Wolanski, E., J. A. Martinez, and R. H. Richmond. 2009. Quantifying the impact of watershed urbanization on a coral reef: Maunalua Bay, Hawaii. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 84:259-268. 2009 US Pacific & Hawaii Field Study & Monitoring; Model Algae; Coralline Algae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-Monetary Valuation; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Skeletal Coral; Small Herbivorous Fish; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Brierley, A. S. and M. J. Kingsford. 2009. Impacts of Climate Change on Marine Organisms and Ecosystems. Current Biology 19:R602-R614. 2009 Global Review Climate; CO2; Nutrients; Water Depth & Sea Level
Downs, C. A., E. Kramarsky-Winter, C. M. Woodley, A. Downs, G. Winters, Y. Loya, and G. K. Ostrander. 2009. Cellular pathology and histopathology of hypo-salinity exposure on the coral Stylophora pistillata. Science of the Total Environment 407:4838-4851. 2009 Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Non-point Source Runoff; Salinity; Storms & Hurricanes; Zooxanthellae
Dung, L. D. 2009. Nha Trang Bay marine protected area, Vietnam: Initial trends in coral structure and some preliminary linkages between these trends and human activities (2002-2005). Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management 12:249-257. 2009 Vietnam Aquaculture; Coastal Development; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Stony Coral; Tourism & Recreation
Du, C. G., F. Hao, H. Y. Zou, Y. M. Zhu, X. Y. Cai, and C. W. Wang. 2009. Process and mechanism for oil and gas accumulation, adjustment and reconstruction in Puguang Gas Field, Northeast Sichuan Basin, China. Science In China Series D-earth Sciences 52:1400-1411. 2009 China Index or Indicator
Makarow, M., R. Ceulemans, and L. Horn. 2009. Science Policy Briefing: Impacts of Ocean Acidification. 37, European Science Foundation, France. 2009 Global; Europe Review; Field Study & Monitoring Climate; CO2; Deforestation & Devegetation; Fishing Sector; Invasive Species; Ocean Acidity
Abu-Hilal, A. and T. Al-Najjar. 2009. Marine litter in coral reef areas along the Jordan Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Journal of Environmental Management 90:1043-1049. 2009 Finfish Harvest; Littering; Marine Debris; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Mertz-Kraus, R., T. C. Brachert, M. Reuter, S. J. G. Galer, C. Fassoulas, and G. Iliopoulos. 2009. Late Miocene sea surface salinity variability and paleoclimate conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean inferred from coral aragonite delta O-18. Chemical Geology 262:202-216. 2009 Global; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean; Iceland Field Study & Monitoring Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Climate; Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Negri, A. and P. Marshall. 2009. TBT contamination of remote marine environments: Ship groundings and ice-breakers as sources of organotins in the Great Barrier Reef and Antarctica. Journal of Environmental Management 90. 2009 Australia Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Point Source Discharges; Sediment; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing
Wooldridge, S. A. 2009. Water quality and coral bleaching thresholds: Formalising the linkage for the inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58:745-751. 2009 Global; Australia Model Climate; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow
King, J. N., A. J. Mehta, and R. G. Dean. 2009. Generalized analytical model for benthic water flux forced by surface gravity waves. Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans 114:C04004. 2009 Lab Study; Model Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Kroon, F. J. and J. Brodie. 2009. Catchment management and health of coastal ecosystems: synthesis and future research. Marine and Freshwater Research 60:1196-1200. 2009 Global; Australia Model Banks, Credit, & Securities; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients
Soto, I., S. Andrefouet, C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. C. Wall, J. Sheng, and B. G. Hatcher. 2009. Physical connectivity in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System inferred from 9 years of ocean color observations. Coral Reefs 28:415-425. 2009 South & Central America; Belize; Honduras; Nicaragua; Caribbean; Mexico Model; Remote Sensing Discharges; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Riegl, B., A. Bruckner, S. L. Coles, P. Renaud, and R. E. Dodge. 2009. Coral Reefs Threats and Conservation in an Era of Global Change. Pages 136-186 Year In Ecology And Conservation Biology 2009. 2009 Global; Florida Climate; CO2; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Invasive Species; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Ocean Acidity; Pathogens; Sediment; Tourism & Recreation
Haas, A., C. T. S. Little, H. Sahling, G. Bohrmann, T. Himmler, and J. Peckmann. 2009. Mineralization of vestimentiferan tubes at methane seeps on the Congo deep-sea fan. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 56:283-293. 2009 South & Central America; Mexico Field Study & Monitoring Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Marine Worms; Microorganisms; Sediment
Singh, S., W. G. L. Aalbersberg, and R. J. Morrison. 2009. Nutrient Pollution in Laucala Bay, Fiji Islands. Water Air And Soil Pollution 204:363-372. 2009 Fiji Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Nutrients; Point Source Discharges; Sewage Treatment; Waste Management Policies
Kamal, A. H. and M. A. A. Khan. 2009. Coastal and estuarine resources of Bangladesh: management conservation issues. Maejo International Journal Of Science And Technology 3:313-342. 2009 Discharges; Fish; Fishing Sector; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Marine Birds; Nutrients; Plankton; Salinity; Seagrasses; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Liu, J., Y. Saito, H. Wang, L. Y. Zhou, and Z. G. Yang. 2009. Stratigraphic development during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene offshore of the Yellow River delta, Bohai Sea. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 36:318-331. 2009 Discharges; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Zielinski, F. U., A. Pernthaler, S. Duperron, L. Raggi, O. Giere, C. Borowski, and N. Dubilier. 2009. Widespread occurrence of an intranuclear bacterial parasite in vent and seep bathymodiolin mussels. Environmental Microbiology 11:1150-1167. 2009 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Field Study & Monitoring Bivalves; Echinoderms; Sponges
Rathburn, A. E., L. A. Levin, M. Tryon, J. M. Gieskes, J. M. Martin, M. E. Perez, F. J. Fodrie, C. Neira, G. J. Fryer, G. Mendoza, P. A. McMillan, J. Kluesner, J. Adamic, and W. Ziebis. 2009. Geological and biological heterogeneity of the Aleutian margin (1965-4822 m). Progress in Oceanography 80:22-50. 2009 Field Study & Monitoring; GIS & Maps Microorganisms; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Risk, M. J., O. A. Sherwood, R. Nairn, and C. Gibbons. 2009. Tracking the record of sewage discharge off Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, since 1950, using stable isotope records from antipatharians. Marine Ecology Progress Series 397:219-226. 2009 Saudi Arabia Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Algae; Discharges; Nutrients; Wastewater Discharge
Brandano, M., V. Frezza, L. Tomassetti, and M. Cuffaro. 2009. Heterozoan carbonates in oligotrophic tropical waters: The Attard member of the lower coralline limestone formation (Upper Oligocene, Malta). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 274:54-63. 2009 Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Primary Production; Sediment
Ramos, R., R. Cipriani, H. M. Guzman, and E. Garcia. 2009. Chronology of mercury enrichment factors in reef corals from western Venezuela. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58:222-229. 2009 Venezuela Deforestation & Devegetation; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Non-point Source Runoff; Stony Coral; Toxics
Parks, N. 2009. Is regulation on ocean acidification on the horizon? Environmental Science and Technology 6118-6119. 2009 Global Field Study & Monitoring Climate; CO2; Funding & Donations; Funding & Incentives; Ocean Acidity; Special Use Permitting
Cooley, S. R. and S. C. Doney. 2009. Anticipating ocean acidification's economic consequences for commercial fisheries. Environmental Research Letters 4:24007. 2009 Review; Lab Study Calcium Carbonate Deposition; CO2; Commercial Fisheries; Complex Habitat & Resources; Fishing Sector; Molluscs; Ocean Acidity; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses
Coles, R., L. McKenzie, G. De'ath, A. Roelofs, and W. L. Long. 2009. Spatial distribution of deepwater seagrass in the inter-reef lagoon of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. Marine Ecology Progress Series 392:57-68. 2009 Australia Model; GIS & Maps Algae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Marine Protected Areas; Point Source Discharges; Seagrasses; Sediment; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Water Depth & Sea Level
Basti, D., I. Bricknell, D. Beane, and D. Bouchard. 2009. Recovery from a near-lethal exposure to ultraviolet-C radiation in a scleractinian coral. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 101:43-48. 2009 Light; Stony Coral; Zooxanthellae
Mooney, H., A. Larigauderie, M. Cesario, T. Elmquist, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, S. Lavorel, G. M. Mace, M. Palmer, R. Scholes, and T. Yahara. 2009. Biodiversity, climate change, and ecosystem services. Current Opinion In Environmental Sustainability 1:46-54. 2009 Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Agriculture; Climate; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Kundzewicz, Z. W. and P. Doll. 2009. Will groundwater ease freshwater stress under climate change? Hydrological Sciences Journal-journal Des Sciences Hydrologiques 54:665-675. 2009 Global Climate; Drinking Water Supply; Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water; Water Depth & Sea Level
Mertz-Kraus, R., T. C. Brachert, M. Reuter, S. J. G. Galer, C. Fassoulas, and G. Iliopoulos. 2009. Late Miocene sea surface salinity variability and paleoclimate conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean inferred from coral aragonite δ18O. Chemical Geology 262:202-216. 2009 Global; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean; Iceland Field Study & Monitoring Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Climate; Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Larsen, M. C. and R. M. T. Webb. 2009. Potential effects of runoff, fluvial sediment, and nutrient discharges on the coral reefs of Puerto Rico. Journal of Coastal Research 25:189-208. 2009 Puerto Rico Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
McClanahan, T. R., E. Weil, and J. Maina. 2009. Strong relationship between coral bleaching and growth anomalies in massive Porites. Global Change Biology 15:1804-1816. 2009 Kenya Model Algae; Climate; Finfish Harvest; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Pathogens; Stony Coral
Rushdi, A. I., T. A. T. A. Kassim, and B. R. T. Simoneit. 2009. Organic tracers in sediments from the coastal zone of Ras Abu el-Darag, Gulf of Suez. Environmental Geology 58:1675-1687. 2009 Index or Indicator Cleaner & Solvent Use; Sediment
Snelgrove, P. V. R., R. Petrecca, K. I. Stocks, C. Van Dover, and C. A. Zimmer. 2009. A mosaic of diverse ideas: The ecological legacy of J. Frederick Grassle. Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 56:1571-1576. 2009 Global Review; Index or Indicator; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Infrastructure; Petroleum Spills; Sediment
Kragt, M. E., P. C. Roebeling, and A. Ruijs. 2009. Effects of Great Barrier Reef degradation on recreational reef-trip demand: A contingent behaviour approach. Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 53:213-229. 2009 Australia Model Agriculture; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Fish; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation
Herrera-Silveira, J. A. and S. M. Morales-Ojeda. 2009. Evaluation of the health status of a coastal ecosystem in southeast Mexico: Assessment of water quality, phytoplankton and submerged aquatic vegetation. Marine Pollution Bulletin 59:72-86. 2009 South & Central America; Caribbean; Mexico Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Discharges; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Mangroves; Nutrients; Plankton; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Riegl, B., S. J. Purkis, J. Keck, and G. P. Rowlands. 2009. Monitored and modeled coral population dynamics and the refuge concept. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58:24-38. 2009 Global; South & Central America; Honduras; Caribbean Field Study & Monitoring; Model Non-point Source Runoff; Stony Coral; Storms & Hurricanes
Juan-Jorda, M. J., J. A. Barth, M. E. Clarke, and W. W. Wakefield. 2009. Groundfish species associations with distinct oceanographic habitats in the Northern California Current. Fisheries Oceanography 18:1-19. 2009 US Pacific & Hawaii; Pacific Ocean Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Discharges; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Walton, R. S. and H. M. Hunter. 2009. Isolating the water quality responses of multiple land uses from stream monitoring data through model calibration. Journal of Hydrology 378:29-45. 2009 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Model; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Discharges; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Downs, C. A., E. Kramarsky-Winter, C. M. Woodley, A. Downs, G. Winters, Y. Loya, and G. K. Ostrander. 2009. Cellular pathology and histopathology of hypo-salinity exposure on the coral Stylophora pistillata. Science of the Total Environment 407:4838-4851. 2009 Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Non-point Source Runoff; Salinity; Storms & Hurricanes; Zooxanthellae
Sheikh, M. A., H. Fujimura, T. Miyagi, Y. Uechi, T. Yokota, S. Yasumura, and T. Oomori. 2009. Detection and ecological threats of PSII herbicide diuron on coral reefs around the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58:1922-1926. 2009 Japan Fertilizer & Pesticide Use
Negri, A. P., R. M. Soo, F. Flores, and N. S. Webster. 2009. Bacillus Insecticides are not Acutely Harmful to Corals and Sponges. Marine Ecology Progress Series 381:157-165. 2009 Agriculture; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Microorganisms; Pathogens; Sponges; Stony Coral
Maher, B. A., S. J. Watkins, G. Brunskill, J. Alexander, and C. R. Fielding. 2009. Sediment provenance in a tropical fluvial and marine context by magnetic 'fingerprinting' of transportable sand fractions. Sedimentology 56:841-861. 2009 Australia Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Becker, E. L., E. E. Cordes, S. A. Macko, and C. R. Fisher. 2009. Importance of seep primary production to Lophelia pertusa and associated fauna in the Gulf of Mexico. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 56:786-800. 2009 South & Central America; Mexico Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Marine Worms; Nutrients; Primary Production; Snails & Conch
Wehrmann, L. M., N. J. Knab, H. Pirlet, V. Unnithan, C. Wild, and T. G. Ferdelman. 2009. Carbon mineralization and carbonate preservation in modern cold-water coral reef sediments on the Norwegian shelf. Biogeosciences 6:663-680. 2009 Model Sediment
Rockstrom, J., W. Steffen, K. Noone, A. Persson, F. S. Chapin, E. Lambin, T. M. Lenton, M. Scheffer, C. Folke, H. J. Schellnhuber, B. Nykvist, C. A. de Wit, T. Hughes, S. van der Leeuw, H. Rodhe, S. Sorlin, P. K. Snyder, R. Costanza, U. Svedin, M. Falkenmark, and Karlbe. 2009. Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity. Ecology and Society 14:32. 2009 Global Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Climate; CO2; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Ocean Acidity; Toxics
Lewis, S. E., J. E. Brodie, Z. T. Bainbridge, K. W. Rohde, A. M. Davis, B. L. Masters, M. Maughan, M. J. Devlin, J. F. Mueller, and B. Schaffelke. 2009. Herbicides: A new threat to the Great Barrier Reef. Environmental Pollution 157:2470-2484. 2009 Australia Agriculture; Climate; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Non-point Source Runoff; Seagrasses; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Zong, Y., W. W. S. Yim, F. Yu, and G. Huang. 2009. Late Quaternary environmental changes in the Pearl River mouth region, China. Quaternary International 206:35-45. 2009 China Discharges; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Tindall, J. C., P. J. Valdes, and L. C. Sime. 2009. Stable water isotopes in HadCM3: Isotopic signature of El Nino-Southern Oscillation and the tropical amount effect. Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres 114. 2009 Model Climate; Non-point Source Runoff
Packett, R., C. Dougall, K. Rohde, and R. Noble. 2009. Agricultural lands are hot-spots for annual runoff polluting the southern Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58:976-986. 2009 Australia Agriculture; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Reopanichkul, P., T. A. Schlacher, R. W. Carter, and S. Worachananant. 2009. Sewage impacts coral reefs at multiple levels of ecological organization. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58:1356-1362. 2009 Global; Thailand Algae; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Fish; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Ocean Acidity; Sea Temperatures; Stony Coral; Wastewater Discharge
Hale, R., S. E. Swearer, and B. J. Downes. 2009. Is settlement at small spatial scales by diadromous fishes from the Family Galaxiidae passive or active in a small coastal river? Marine and Freshwater Research 60:971-975. 2009 Discharges; Fish; Invertebrates; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Feng, D., D. F. Chen, and J. Peckmann. 2009. Rare earth elements in seep carbonates as tracers of variable redox conditions at ancient hydrocarbon seeps. Terra Nova 21:49-56. 2009 Surface & Groundwater Flow
Lee, J. N. and C. A. R. Mohamed. 2009. Trace Metal Contents in the Porites Corals of Peninsular Malaysia. International Journal Of Environmental Research 3:85-94. 2009 Malaysia; Oman Non-point Source Runoff; Stony Coral
Bonkosky, M., E. A. Hernandez-Delgado, B. Sandoz, I. E. Robledo, J. Norat-Ramirez, and H. Mattei. 2009. Detection of spatial fluctuations of non-point source fecal pollution in coral reef surrounding waters in southwestern Puerto Rico using PCR-based assays. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58:45-54. 2009 Puerto Rico Fishing Sector; Health Policies; Non-point Source Runoff; Point Source Discharges; Special Use Permitting; Tourism & Recreation
Fyhn, M. B. W., L. H. Nielsen, L. O. Boldreel, L. D. Thang, J. Bojesen-Koefoed, H. I. Petersen, N. T. Huyen, N. A. Duc, N. T. Dau, A. Mathiesen, I. Reid, D. T. Huong, H. A. Tuan, L. V. Hien, H. P. Nytoft, and I. Abatzis. 2009. Geological evolution, regional perspectives and hydrocarbon potential of the northwest Phu Khanh Basin, offshore Central Vietnam. Marine and Petroleum Geology 26:24-Jan. 2009 China; Vietnam Model; Index or Indicator Dam Construction & Maintenance; Sediment
Veron, J. E. N., O. Hoegh-Guldberg, T. M. Lenton, J. M. Lough, D. O. Obura, P. Pearce-Kelly, C. R. C. Sheppard, M. Spaldin, M. G. Stafford-Smith, and A. D. Rogers. 2009. The coral reef crisis: the critical importance of <350 ppm CO2. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58:1428-1436. 2009 Global Algae; Climate; CO2; Coralline Algae; Fish; Ocean Acidity; Sea Temperatures
Liu, Y., W. Liu, Z. Peng, Y. Xiao, G. Wei, W. Sun, J. He, G. Liu, and C.-L. Chou. 2009. Instability of seawater pH in the South China Sea during the mid-late Holocene: Evidence from boron isotopic composition of corals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73:1264-1272. 2009 China Climate; CO2; Ocean Acidity; Stony Coral
Riegl, B., S. J. Purkis, J. Keck, and G. P. Rowlands. 2009. Monitored and modeled coral population dynamics and the refuge concept. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58:24-38. 2009 Global; South & Central America; Honduras; Caribbean Field Study & Monitoring; Model Non-point Source Runoff; Stony Coral; Storms & Hurricanes
Omann, I., A. Stocker, and J. Jager. 2009. Climate change as a threat to biodiversity: an application of the DPSIR approach. Ecological Economics 69:24-31. 2009 Global Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Climate; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Mitigation; Primary Production; Water Depth & Sea Level
Kate, A. S., J. K. Pearson, B. Ramanathan, K. Richard, and R. G. Kerr. 2009. Isolation, Biomimetic Synthesis, and Cytotoxic Activity of Bis(pseudopterane) Amines. Journal of Natural Products 72:1331-1334. 2009 Octocoral
Wasmund, K., D. I. Kurtboke, K. A. Burns, and D. G. Bourne. 2009. Microbial diversity in sediments associated with a shallow methane seep in the tropical Timor Sea of Australia reveals a novel aerobic methanotroph diversity. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 68:142-151. 2009 Australia Microorganisms; Sediment
Mertz-Kraus, R., T. C. Brachert, K. P. Jochum, M. Reuter, and B. Stoll. 2009. LA-ICP-MS analyses on coral growth increments reveal heavy winter rain in the Eastern Mediterranean at 9 Ma. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 273:25-40. 2009 Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Climate; Discharges; Sediment; Stony Coral; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Draut, A. E., M. H. Bothner, M. E. Field, R. L. Reynolds, S. A. Cochran, J. B. Logan, C. D. Storlazzi, and C. J. Berg. 2009. Supply and dispersal of flood sediment from a steep, tropical watershed: Hanalei Bay, Kaua'i, Hawai'i, USA. Geological Society of America Bulletin 121:574-585. 2009 US Pacific & Hawaii Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Roeroe, K. A., M. Yap, and M. Okamoto. 2009. Development of a coastal environment assessment system using coral recruitment. Fisheries Science 75:215-224. 2009 Algae; Non-point Source Runoff; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Turf Algae
Crabbe, M. J. C. 2009. Modelling effects of geoengineering options in response to climate change and global warming: Implications for coral reefs. Computational Biology and Chemistry 33:415-420. 2009 Global; South & Central America; Australia; Caribbean Review; Model Climate; CO2; Light; Mitigation; Ocean Acidity; Stony Coral
Roebeling, P. C., E. M. T. Hendrix, and M. E. van Grieken. 2009. Exploring industry specific social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement in linked terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Journal of Coastal Research 1681-1685. 2009 Australia Agriculture; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waterborne Discharges
McClanahan, T. R., E. Weil, and J. Maina. 2009. Strong relationship between coral bleaching and growth anomalies in massive Porites. Global Change Biology 15:1804-1816. 2009 Kenya Model Algae; Climate; Finfish Harvest; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Pathogens; Stony Coral
Hanelt, D. and M. Y. Roleda. 2009. UVB radiation may ameliorate photoinhibition in specific shallow-water tropical marine macrophytes. Aquatic Botany 91:12-Jun. 2009 South & Central America; Belize; Caribbean Algae; Calcareous Macroalgae; Fleshy Macroalgae; Light; Primary Production; Seagrasses
Viehman, S., S. M. Thur, and G. A. Piniak. 2009. Coral reef metrics and habitat equivalency analysis. Ocean and Coastal Management 52:181-188. 2009 Index or Indicator Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Petroleum Spills
Riegl, B., A. Bruckner, S. L. Coles, P. Renaud, and R. E. Dodge. 2009. Coral reefs: threats and conservation in an era of global change. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1162:136-186. 2009 Global; Florida Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Invasive Species; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Ocean Acidity; Pathogens; Sediment; Tourism & Recreation
Roosmawati, N. and R. Harris. 2009. Surface uplift history of the incipient Banda arc-continent collision: Geology and synorogenic foraminifera of Rote and Savu Islands, Indonesia. Tectonophysics 479:95-110. 2009 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia; Indonesia Field Study & Monitoring; GIS & Maps Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Banaszak, A. T. and M. P. Lesser. 2009. Effects of solar ultraviolet radiation on coral reef organisms. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences 8:1276-1294. 2009 Global Review Climate; Light; Ocean Acidity
Kannan, R. and D. A. James. 2009. Effects of climate change on global biodiversity: A review of key literature. Tropical Ecology 50:31-39. 2009 Global; South & Central America Review Climate; CO2; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Pathogens
Prouty, N. G., S. D. Jupiter, M. E. Field, and M. T. McCulloch. 2009. Coral proxy record of decadal-scale reduction in base flow from Moloka'i, Hawaii. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 10:Q12018. 2009 US Pacific & Hawaii Model Agriculture; Climate; Discharges; Seawater Flow; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Bainbridge, Z. T., J. E. Brodie, J. W. Faithful, D. A. Sydes, and S. E. Lewis. 2009. Identifying the land-based sources of suspended sediments, nutrients and pesticides discharged to the Great Barrier Reef from the Tully-Murray Basin, Queensland, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 60:1081-1090. 2009 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Seagrasses; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetlands
Mitchell, A., J. Reghenzani, J. Faithful, M. Furnas, and J. Brodie. 2009. Relationships between land use and nutrient concentrations in streams draining a 'wet-tropics' catchment in northern Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 60:1097-1108. 2009 Australia Model Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Devlin, M. and B. Schaffelke. 2009. Spatial extent of riverine flood plumes and exposure of marine ecosystems in the Tully coastal region, Great Barrier Reef. Marine and Freshwater Research 60:1109-1122. 2009 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Discharges; Seagrasses; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Wallace, J., L. Stewart, A. Hawdon, R. Keen, F. Karim, and J. Kemei. 2009. Flood water quality and marine sediment and nutrient loads from the Tully and Murray catchments in north Queensland, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 60:1123-1131. 2009 Australia Discharges; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Nelson, M., W. F. Dempster, and J. P. Allen. 2009. The water cycle in closed ecological systems: Perspectives from the Biosphere 2 and Laboratory Biosphere systems. Advances in Space Research 44:1404-1412. 2009 Global Lab Study Agriculture; Drinking Water Supply; Irrigation; Mangroves; Nutrients; Salinity; Sewage Treatment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wastewater Discharge; Wetlands
Gonzalez-Sanson, G., C. Aguilar, I. Hernandez, and Y. Cabrera. 2009. Effects of depth and bottom communities on the distribution of highly territorial reef fish in the northwestern region of Cuba. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 25:652-660. 2009 Cuba Model Finfish Harvest; Fish; Octocoral; Petroleum Spills; Small Herbivorous Fish; Sponges; Tourism & Recreation
Miyajima, T., Y. Tsuboi, Y. Tanaka, and I. Koike. 2009. Export of inorganic carbon from two Southeast Asian mangrove forests to adjacent estuaries as estimated by the stable isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon. Journal Of Geophysical Research-biogeosciences 114:G01024. 2009 Southeast Asia Model; Index or Indicator CO2; Discharges; Mangroves; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetlands
Van Nguyen, L. and H. Kim Phan. 2008. Distribution and factors influencing on structure of reef fish communities in Nha Trang Bay Marine Protected Area, South-Central Vietnam. Environmental Biology of Fishes 82:309-324. 2008 US Pacific & Hawaii; Pacific Ocean; China; Vietnam Aquarium & Pet Trade; Aquarium Stock; Corallivorous Fish; Discharges; Fish; Hydrocoral; Invertivorous Fish; Large Herbivorous Fish; Marine Protected Areas; Physical Variables; Piscivorous Fish; Planktivorous Fish; Sediment; Small Herbivorous Fish; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Lee, T. N., N. Melo, E. Johns, C. Kelble, R. H. Smith, and P. Ortner. 2008. On water renewal and salinity variability in the northeast subregion of Florida Bay. Bulletin of Marine Science 82:83-105. 2008 Florida Discharges; Mangroves; Salinity; Seagrasses; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Grech, A. and H. Marsh. 2008. Rapid assessment of risks to a mobile marine mammal in an ecosystem-scale marine protected area. Conservation Biology 22:711-720. 2008 Australia Model; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Finfish Harvest; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Whales & Dolphins
Restrepo, J. D. 2008. Applicability of LOICZ catchment-coast continuum in a major Caribbean basin: The Magdalena River, Colombia. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 77:214-229. 2008 South & Central America; Caribbean Agriculture; Discharges; Seagrasses; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Selkoe, K. A., B. S. Halpern, and R. J. Toonen. 2008. Evaluating anthropogenic threats to the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18:1149-1165. 2008 US Pacific & Hawaii Finfish Harvest; Fish; Marine Protected Areas; Sea Temperatures
Han, X., E. Suess, Y. Huang, N. Wu, G. Bohrmann, X. Su, A. Eisenhauer, G. Rehder, and Y. Fang. 2008. Jiulong methane reef: Microbial mediation of seep carbonates in the South China Sea. Marine Geology 249:243-256. 2008 China Calcium Carbonate Deposition
Sunagawa, S., J. Cortes, C. Jimenez, and R. Lara. 2008. Variation in cell densities and pigment concentrations of symbiotic dinoflagellates in the coral Pavona clavus in the eastern Pacific (Costa Rica) [Variacion en la densidad de celulas y en las concentraciones de pigmentos de los dinosflagelados simbiot. Ciencias Marinas 34:113-123. 2008 US Pacific & Hawaii; Costa Rica Light; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Salinity; Zooxanthellae
Janairo, J. R. O., G. C. Janairo, C. Y. Ragasa, and B. F. Bowden. 2008. A marine verticillane diterpenoid from Cespitularia erecta. Natural Product Research 22:48-52. 2008
Alongi, D. M., L. A. Trott, Rachmansyah, F. Tirendi, A. D. McKinnon, and M. C. Undu. 2008. Growth and development of mangrove forests overlying smothered coral reefs, Sulawesi and Sumatra, Indonesia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 370:97-109. 2008 Indonesia Index or Indicator Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Mangroves; Nutrients
Guzman, H. M., R. Cipriani, and J. B. C. Jackson. 2008. Historical decline in coral reef growth after the Panama Canal. Ambio 37:342-346. 2008 South & Central America; Panama; Caribbean Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Stony Coral; Water
Center for Watershed Protection. 2008. Guanica Bay watershed management plan. 2008 Puerto Rico Review; Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Improved Technology; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Point Source Discharges; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Shoreline Protection; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
Eckes, M. J., U. E. Siebeck, S. Dove, and A. S. Grutter. 2008. Ultraviolet sunscreens in reef fish mucus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 353:203-211. 2008 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Corallivorous Fish; Fish; Large Herbivorous Fish; Light; Sunscreen Use
Prouty, N. G., K. A. Hughen, and J. Carilli. 2008. Geochemical signature of land-based activities in Caribbean coral surface samples. Coral Reefs 27:727-742. 2008 South & Central America; Belize; Honduras; Caribbean Index or Indicator Agriculture; Coastal Development; Deforestation & Devegetation; Finfish Harvest; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Tourism & Recreation
Wilson, M. E. J. 2008. Global and regional influences on equatorial shallow-marine carbonates during the Cenozoic. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 265:262-274. 2008 Global; South & Central America; US Pacific & Hawaii; Indian Ocean; India; Caribbean Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Climate; CO2; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients
Aguirre-Macedo, M. L., V. M. Vidal-Martinez, J. A.Herrera-Silveira, D. S. Valdes-Lozano, M. Herrera-Rodriguez, and M. A. Olvera-Novoa. 2008. Ballast water as a vector of coral pathogens in the Gulf of Mexico: The case of the Cayo Arcas coral reef. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56:1570-1577. 2008 South & Central America; Mexico Index or Indicator Ballast Discharge; Discharges; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Oil & Gas Tankers; Pathogens; Plankton; Surface & Groundwater Flow
2008. DRAFT PROPOSED REVISIONS TO: U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS. Chapter 7. Water Pollution Control, Subchapter 186. Water Quality Standards for Waters of the Virgin Islands, US Virgin Islands. 2008 US Virgin Islands Index or Indicator Biocriteria; Designated Uses; Discharges; Irrigation; Mangroves; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Seagrasses; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetlands
Wei, X., C. Z. Jia, W. G. Meng, and Y. J. Zhu. 2008. Characteristics, origin and geological significance of rhizolith in Shidao of Xisha Islands. Acta Petrologica Sinica 24:2415-2422. 2008 Algae; Climate; Coralline Algae; Echinoderms; Sediment
Thorpe, K.L., R. Benstead, P. Eccles, G. Maack, T. Williams, C.R. Tyler. 2008. A practicable laboratory flow-through exposure system for assessing the health effects of effluents in fish. Aquatic Toxicology 88:164-172. 2008 Lab Study; Model Fish; Sewage Treatment; Wastewater Discharge
Wei, X., C.-Z. Jia, W.-G. Meng, Y.-J. Zhu, and J.-F. Zhang. 2008. Discussion on biogenetic reef distribution and hydrocarbon exploration direction in Xisha sea area since Neogene. Shiyou Diqiu Wuli Kantan/Oil Geophysical Prospecting 43:308-312. 2008 Sediment
The Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre. 2008. Position analysis: CO2 emissions and climate change: ocean impacts and adaptation issues. 2008 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia; Indian Ocean; India Climate; CO2; Fishing Sector; Ocean Acidity
Baronio, M. D. A. and D. J. Bucher. 2008. Artificial crevice habitats to assess the biodiversity of vagile macro-cryptofauna of subtidal rocky reefs. Marine and Freshwater Research 59:661-670. 2008 Australia Artificial Habitat; Complex Habitat & Resources; Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Slattery, M. and V. J. Paul. 2008. Indirect effects of bleaching on predator deterrence in the tropical Pacific soft coral Sinularia maxima. Marine Ecology Progress Series 354:169-179. 2008 US Pacific & Hawaii Field Study & Monitoring Fish; Invertivorous Fish; Octocoral; Sunscreen Use; Zooxanthellae
Uthicke, S. and K. Nobes. 2008. Benthic Foraminifera as ecological indicators for water quality on the Great Barrier Reef. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 78:763-773. 2008 South & Central America; Florida; US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia; Caribbean Index or Indicator Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment
Waelbroeck, C., N. Frank, J. Jouzel, F. Parrenin, V. Masson-Delmotte, and D. Genty. 2008. Transferring radiometric dating of the last interglacial sea level high stand to marine and ice core records. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 265:183-194. 2008 Global; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Model Plankton; Water Depth & Sea Level
Greenslade, P. 2008. Climate variability, biological control and an insect pest outbreak on Australia's Coral Sea islets: Lessons for invertebrate conservation. Journal of Insect Conservation 12:333-342. 2008 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia; Indian Ocean; Seychelles; India; Samoa; Palmyra Atoll Climate; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Marine Birds; Nutrients
Kroeger, K. D. and M. A. Charette. 2008. Nitrogen biogeochemistry of submarine groundwater discharge. Limnology and Oceanography 53:1025-1039. 2008 Discharges; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Przeslawski, R., S. Ahyong, M. Byrne, G. Worheide, and P. Hutchings. 2008. Beyond corals and fish: The effects of climate change on noncoral benthic invertebrates of tropical reefs. Global Change Biology 14:2773-2795. 2008 South & Central America; Australia; Caribbean Review Climate; Invasive Species; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Ocean Acidity; Salinity; Sediment; Special Use Permitting
Zoheir, B. A. 2008. Characteristics and genesis of shear zone-related gold mineralization in Egypt: A case study from the Um El Tuyor mine, south Eastern Desert. Ore Geology Reviews 34:445-470. 2008 Egypt; Sudan Field Study & Monitoring CO2; Salinity; Sediment
Street, J. H., K. L. Knee, E. E. Grossman, and A. Paytan. 2008. Submarine groundwater discharge and nutrient addition to the coastal zone and coral reefs of leeward Hawai'i. Marine Chemistry 109:355-376. 2008 Discharges; Nutrients; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Kilgour, M. J. and T. C. Shirley. 2008. Eumunida picta S. I. Smith, 1883, and Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus, 1758): A relationship or just good friends? Crustaceana 81:587-593. 2008 South & Central America; Mexico
[No author name available]. 2008. Coastal Environment 2008: Environmental Problems in Coastal Regions, CENV 08. in WIT Transactions on the Built Environment. 2008 Field Study & Monitoring; Model Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Artificial Habitat; Boating Activities; Climate; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Petroleum Spills; Plankton; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation
Jensen, S., J. D. Neufeld, N.-K. Birkeland, M. Hovland, and J. C. Murrell. 2008. Methane assimilation and trophic interactions with marine Methylomicrobium in deep-water coral reef sediment off the coast of Norway. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 66:320-330. 2008 Cuba; Europe; Norway Sediment
Cordes, E. E., M. P. McGinley, E. L. Podowski, E. L. Becker, S. Lessard-Pilon, S. T. Viada, and C. R. Fisher. 2008. Coral communities of the deep Gulf of Mexico. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 55:777-787. 2008 South & Central America; Mexico Complex Habitat & Resources; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Marine Worms; Snails & Conch; Stony Coral
Goldstone, J. V. 2008. Environmental sensing and response genes in cnidaria: The chemical defensome in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Cell Biology and Toxicology 24:483-502. 2008 Review; Model Anemones & Zooanthids; Sea Urchins; Toxics; Tunicates
Humphrey, C., M. Weber, C. Lott, T. Cooper, K. Fabricius. 2008. Effects of suspended sediments, dissolved inorganic nutrients and salinity on fertilisation and embryo development in the coral Acropora millepora (Ehrenberg, 1834). Coral Reefs 27:837-850. 2008 Australia Lab Study Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Salinity; Sediment; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Costa, O. S., Jr., M. Nimmo, and M. J. Attrill. 2008. Coastal nutrification in Brazil: A review of the role of nutrient excess on coral reef demise. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 25:257-270. 2008 South & Central America; US Pacific & Hawaii; Caribbean Review Discharges; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Danovaro, R., L. Bongiorni, C. Corinaldesi, D. Giovannelli, E. Damiani, P. Astolfi, L. Greci, and A. Pusceddu. 2008. Sunscreens cause coral bleaching by promoting viral infections. Environmental Health Perspectives 116:441-447. 2008 US Pacific & Hawaii; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); India; Pacific Ocean Lab Study Algae; Light; Microorganisms; Pathogens; Stony Coral; Sunscreen Use; Tourism & Recreation; Zooxanthellae
Roeroe, K. A., M. Yap, and M. Okamoto. 2008. Development of a coastal environment assessment system using coral recruitment. Fisheries Science 10-Jan. 2008 Japan Algae; Non-point Source Runoff; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Turf Algae
Casellato, S. and A. Stefanon. 2008. Coralligenous habitat in the northern Adriatic Sea: An overview. Marine Ecology 29:321-341. 2008 Algae; Sediment
Mertz-Kraus, R., T. C. Brachert, and M. Reuter. 2008. Tarbellastraea (Scleractinia): A new stable isotope archive for Late Miocene paleoenvironments in the Mediterranean. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 257:294-307. 2008 Global Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Climate; Discharges; Salinity; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Lepland, A. and P. B. Mortensen. 2008. Barite and barium in sediments and coral skeletons around the hydrocarbon exploration drilling site in the Træna Deep, Norwegian Sea. Environmental Geology 56:119-129. 2008 Norway Discharges; Sediment
Jackson, J. B. C. 2008. Ecological extinction and evolution in the brave new ocean. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105:11458-11465. 2008 Global Agriculture; Algae; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Pathogens
Mayor, D. 2008. Acid oceans. Planet Earth 22-23. 2008 Global Climate; CO2; Nutrients; Ocean Acidity
Nam, B. W., S. H. Shin, K. Y. Hong, and S. W. Hong. 2008. Numerical simulation of wave flow over the spiral-reef overtopping device. Pages 262-267 in Proceedings of the 8th 2008 ISOPE Pacific/Asia Offshore Mechanics Symposium. 2008 US Pacific & Hawaii Discharges
[No author name available]. 2008. Feature 5: Poland report: Baltic Design at the centre. Page 171 Naval Architect. 2008 Poland
Lough, J. M. 2008. 10th Anniversary Review: A changing climate for coral reefs. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 10:21-29. 2008 Global Review Climate; CO2; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Housing; Mitigation
Jensen, S., J. D. Neufeld, N.-K. Birkeland, M. Hovland, and J. C. Murrell. 2008. Insight into the microbial community structure of a Norwegian deep-water coral reef environment. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 55:1554-1563. 2008 Australia; Norway Plankton; Sediment; Sponges
Sofonia, J. J. and K. R. N. Anthony. 2008. High-sediment tolerance in the reef coral Turbinaria mesenterina from the inner Great Barrier Reef lagoon (Australia). Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 78:748-752. 2008 Australia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Stony Coral
Mossman, D. J., W. E. L. Minter, A. Dutkiewicz, D. K. Hallbauer, S. C. George, Q. Hennigh, T. O. Reimer, and F. D. Horscroft. 2008. The indigenous origin of Witwatersrand \carbon\"". Precambrian Research 164:173-186. 2008 Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Sediment
Paris, C. B. and L. M. Cherubin. 2008. River-reef connectivity in the Meso-American Region. Coral Reefs 27:773-781. 2008 South & Central America; Belize; Honduras Model Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Jupiter, S., G. Roff, G. Marion, M. Henderson, V. Schrameyer, M. McCulloch, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2008. Linkages between coral assemblages and coral proxies of terrestrial exposure along a cross-shelf gradient on the southern Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 27:887-903. 2008 Australia Agriculture; Discharges; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fleshy Macroalgae; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Octocoral; Sediment; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Andersson, A. J., F. T. Mackenzie, and N. R. Bates. 2008. Life on the margin: Implications of ocean acidification on Mg-calcite, high latitude and cold-water marine calcifiers. Marine Ecology Progress Series 373:265-273. 2008 Model Calcium Carbonate Deposition; CO2; Ocean Acidity; Sediment
Rushdi, A. I., T. A. T. A. Kassim, and B. R. T. Simoneit. 2008. Organic tracers in sediments from the coastal zone of Ras Abu el-Darag, Gulf of Suez. Environmental Geology 13-Jan. 2008 Index or Indicator Cleaner & Solvent Use; Sediment
Schroder, P., R. Herzig, B. Bojinov, A. Ruttens, E. Nehnevajova, S. Stamatiadis, A. Memon, A. Vassilev, M. Caviezel, and J. Vangronsveld. 2008. Bioenergy to save the world: Producing novel energy plants for growth on abandoned land. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 15:196-204. 2008 Global; Europe Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Climate; CO2; Domestic Animal Waste; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Nutrients; Water Depth & Sea Level
Puerto Rico and USVI Area Planning Committees. 2008. Hazardous Substances Pollution Area Contingency Plan. Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin islands. 2008 US Virgin Islands; Puerto Rico Discharges; Petroleum Spills
Water Environment Servicves. 2008. Three Creeks Restoration. 2008 Invasive Species; Littering; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation; Wetlands
Sandvik, H. 2008. Public concern over global warming correlates negatively with national wealth. Climatic change 90:333-341. 2008 Global Climate; CO2; Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Ogston, A. S., R. W. Sternberg, C. A. Nittrouer, D. P. Martin, M. A. Goni, and J. S. Crockett. 2008. Sediment delivery from the Fly River tidally dominated delta to the nearshore marine environment and the impact of El Nino. Journal of Geophysical Research F: Earth Surface 113. 2008 Papua New Guinea Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water; Water Depth & Sea Level
Da Silva, M., M. R. Z. Passarini, R. C. Bonugli, and L. D. Sette. 2008. Cnidarian-derived filamentous fungi from Brazil: Isolation, characterisation and RBBR decolourisation screening. Environmental Technology 29:1331-1339. 2008 Anemones & Zooanthids; Remediation; Stony Coral
NOAA; The Nature Conservancy. 2008. Creosote Assessment in Puget Sound Beaches. NOAA. 2008 Beaches & Nature Parks; Collaboration & Partnering; Docks & Marinas; Sediment
Kuffner, I. B., A. J. Andersson, P. L. Jokiel, K. S. Rodgers, and F. T. MacKenzie. 2008. Decreased abundance of crustose coralline algae due to ocean acidification. Nature Geoscience 1:114-117. 2008 Algae; CO2; Coralline Algae; Molluscs; Ocean Acidity
Stat, M. and R. D. Gates. 2008. Vectored introductions of marine endosymbiotic dinoflagellates into Hawaii. Biological Invasions 10:579-583. 2008 US Pacific & Hawaii Ballast Discharge; Invasive Species; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Stony Coral
Izuka, S. K. and J. M. Resig. 2008. Evidence of Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene marine environments in the deep subsurface of the Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii. Palaios 23:442-451. 2008 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Salinity; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Kurihara, H. 2008. Effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification on the early developmental stages of invertebrates. Marine Ecology Progress Series 373:275-284. 2008 Lab Study Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Climate; CO2; Echinoderms; Ocean Acidity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Amorocho, D. F. and R. D. Reina. 2008. Intake passage time, digesta composition and digestibility in East Pacific green turtles (Chelonia mydas agassizii) at Gorgona National Park, Colombian Pacific. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 360:117-124. 2008 US Pacific & Hawaii Cleaner & Solvent Use; Mangroves; Sea Turtles
Marynowski, L., P. Filipiak, and A. Pisarzowska. 2008. Organic geochemistry and palynofacies of the Early-Middle Frasnian transition (Late Devonian) of the Holy Cross Mountains, Southern Poland. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 269:152-165. 2008 Poland Nutrients; Primary Production; Sediment
Francois, J. L. and J. R. Guzman. 2008. BWR fuel design for actinide recycling. Pages 1486-1494 in Societe Francaise d'Energie Nucleaire - International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants - ICAPP 2007, \The Nuclear Renaissance at Work\"". 2008 Discharges
Atchley, S. C., D. M. Cleveland, and L. W. West. 2008. A case for renewed development of a mature gas field: The Devonian Swan Hills Formation at Kaybob South field, Alberta, Canada. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology 56:165-190. 2008 Natural Gas & Electric Power
Wendland, E. 2008. Friction loss correction in flowing well discharge tests. Water Resources Research 44. 2008 Discharges
Hawdon, A. A., R. J. Keen, D. A. Post, and S. N. Wilkinson. 2008. Hydrological recovery of rangeland following cattle exclusion. IAHS-AISH Publication 532-539. 2008 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Timmons, C. L. and D. W. Hess. 2008. Photoresist and Fluorocarbon Postplasma Etch Residue Removal Using Electrochemically Generated Radical Anions. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 155. 2008 Cleaner & Solvent Use; Manufacturing & Trade
Moltu, U. E. and L. Pinturier. 2008. Zero harmful impact from drilling discharges: Where are the limits? Pages 988-1002 in Society of Petroleum Engineers - 9th International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production 2008 - \In Search of Sustainable Excellence\"". 2008 Field Study & Monitoring; Model; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Corporate Responses; Discharges; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Sediment; Toxics
Salisbury, J., M. Green, C. Hunt, and J. Campbell. 2008. Coastal Acidification by Rivers: A Threat to Shellfish? EOS Transactions 89:513-514. 2008 Global Climate; CO2; Discharges; Ocean Acidity; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Environmental Protection Agency. 2008. Pipeline Maintenance Best Practices: Lessons Learned from the Natural Gas STAR Program. Charlotte (North Carolina). 2008 Natural Gas & Electric Power; Pipelines
Baker, A.C., P.W. Glynn, B. Riegl. 2008. Climate change and coral reef bleaching: an ecological assessment of long-term impacts, recovery trends and future outlook. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 80:435-471. 2008 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii; Indian Ocean; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); India Review; Model Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Climate; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Pathogens; Sea Temperatures; Stony Coral; Zooxanthellae
Chang, Y.C., F.W. Hong, and M.T. Lee. 2008. A system dynamic based DSS for sustainable coral reef management in Kenting coastal zone, Taiwan. Ecological Modelling 211:153-168. 2008 Taiwan Model; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Decision Support; Fish; Sewage Treatment; Stony Coral; Tourism & Recreation; Wastewater Discharge
Hunter, H. M. and R. S. Walton. 2008. Land-use effects on fluxes of suspended sediment, nitrogen and phosphorus from a river catchment of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Journal of Hydrology 356:131-146. 2008 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Model Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wastewater Discharge
Cherubin, L. M., C. P. Kuchinke, and C. B. Paris. 2008. Ocean circulation and terrestrial runoff dynamics in the Mesoamerican region from spectral optimization of SeaWiFS data and a high resolution simulation. Coral Reefs 27:503-519. 2008 Honduras Model; Remote Sensing Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Payros, A. and V. Pujalte. 2008. Calciclastic submarine fans: An integrated overview. Earth-Science Reviews 86:203-246. 2008 Review; Model Nutrients; Point Source Discharges; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Blanco, A. C., K. Nadaoka, and T. Yamamoto. 2008. Planktonic and benthic microalgal community composition as indicators of terrestrial influence on a fringing reef in Ishigaki Island, Southwest Japan. Marine Environmental Research 66:520-535. 2008 Japan Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Agriculture; Algae; Cyanobacteria; Discharges; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Plankton; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Mitsuguchi, T., P. X. Dang, H. Kitagawa, T. Uchida, and Y. Shibata. 2008. Coral Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca records in Con Dao Island off the Mekong Delta: Assessment of their potential for monitoring ENSO and East Asian monsoon. Global and Planetary Change 63:341-352. 2008 China Field Study & Monitoring Climate; Discharges; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Plankton; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Mikes, T., D. Christ, R. Petri, I. Dunkl, D. Frei, M. Baldi-Beke, J. Reitner, K. Wemmer, H. Hrvatovic, and H. Eynatten. 2008. Provenance of the Bosnian Flysch. in Swiss Journal of Geosciences. 2008 Sediment
YAO, G.-s., S.-q. YUAN, S.-g. WU, and C. ZHONG. 2008. Double provenance depositional model and exploration prospect in the deep-water area of Qiongdongnan Basin. Petroleum Exploration and Development 35:685-691. 2008 China Model Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Sediment
Yao, Y.-J., N.-Y. Wu, B. Xia, and R.-S. Wan. 2008. Petroleum geology of the Zengmu basin in the southern South China Sea. Geology in China 35:503-513. 2008 China Coal Mining; Sediment
Hautmann, M., M. J. Benton, and A. Tomasovych. 2008. Catastrophic ocean acidification at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie - Abhandlungen 249:119-127. 2008 Calcium Carbonate Deposition; CO2; Ocean Acidity; Sediment
Burns, K. A., G. Brunskill, D. Brinkman, and I. Zagorskis. 2008. Organic carbon and nutrient fluxes to the coastal zone from the Sepik River outflow. Continental Shelf Research 28:283-301. 2008 Papua New Guinea Carbon Storage & Cycling; Discharges; Nutrients; Primary Production; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Smit, M.G.D., K.I.E. Holthaus, H.C. Trannum, J.M. Neff, G. Kjeilen-Eilertsen, R.G. Jak, I. Singsaas, M.A.J. Huijbregts, A.J. Hendriks. 2008. Species Sensitivity Distributions for Suspended Clays, Sediment Burial, and Grain Size Change in the Marine Environment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 27:1006-1012. 2008 Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Discharges; Sediment
Bouchon, C., P. Portillo, M. Louis, F. Mazeas, and Y. Bouchon-Navaro. 2008. Recent evolution of the coral reefs of Guadeloupe and Saint- Barthelemy Islands [evolution recente des recifs coralliens des îles de la Guadeloupe et de Saint-Barthelemy]. Revue d'Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie) 63:45-65. 2008 Antilles Field Study & Monitoring Chemical Use Regulations; Deforestation & Devegetation; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fish; Landuse Management; Nutrients; Sea Temperatures; Sediment; Wastewater Discharge
Kitada, Y., H. Kawahata, A. Suzuki, and T. Oomori. 2008. Distribution of pesticides and bisphenol A in sediments collected from rivers adjacent to coral reefs. Chemosphere 71:2082-2090. 2008 Japan Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fishing Sector; Landscaping & Household Services; Non-point Source Runoff; Ports & Harbors; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Segal, B., H. Evangelista, M. Kampel, A. C. Goncalves, P. S. Polito, and E. A. dos Santos. 2008. Potential impacts of polar fronts on sedimentation processes at Abrolhos coral reef (South-West Atlantic Ocean/Brazil). Continental Shelf Research 28:533-544. 2008 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean Field Study & Monitoring; Model; Remote Sensing Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Alongi, D. M., L. A. Trott, and J. Pfitzner. 2008. Biogeochemistry of inter-reef sediments on the northern and central Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 27:407-420. 2008 Australia; Cuba Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Sediment
Tibbetts, J. 2008. Bleached, but not by the sun: sunscreen linked to coral damage. Environmental Health Perspectives 116. 2008 Sunscreen Use
Qin, J.-Z., Q.-Q. Meng, and X.-D. Fu. 2008. Three hydrocarbon generation and accumulation processes of marine carbonate rocks in northeastern Sichuan Basin, China. Shiyou Kantan Yu Kaifa/Petroleum Exploration and Development 35:548-556. 2008 China Natural Gas & Electric Power
Olsson, P., C. Folke, and T. P. Hughes. 2008. Navigating the transition to ecosystem-based management of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105:9489-9494. 2008 Global; Australia; Oman Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff
Magnusson, M., K. Heimann, and A. P. Negri. 2008. Comparative effects of herbicides on photosynthesis and growth of tropical estuarine microalgae. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56:1545-1552. 2008 Australia Algae; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Primary Production
Takada, Y., O. Abe, and T. Shibuno. 2008. Cryptic assemblages in coral-rubble interstices along a terrestrial-sediment gradient. Coral Reefs 27:665-675. 2008 Japan Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Echinoderms; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Molluscs; Non-point Source Runoff; Salinity; Sediment; Skeletal Coral
Guinotte, J. M. and V. J. Fabry. 2008. Ocean acidification and its potential effects on marine ecosystems. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1134:320-342. 2008 Review Algae; Calcareous Macroalgae; Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Climate; CO2; Coralline Algae; Echinoderms; Ocean Acidity; Seagrasses
Shaw, C. M., P. K. S. Lam, and J. F. Mueller. 2008. Photosystem II herbicide pollution in Hong Kong and its potential photosynthetic effects on corals. Marine Pollution Bulletin 57:473-478. 2008 Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Primary Production; Zooxanthellae
Campbell, K. A., D. A. Francis, M. Collins, M. R. Gregory, C. S. Nelson, J. Greinert, and P. Aharon. 2008. Hydrocarbon seep-carbonates of a Miocene forearc (East Coast Basin), North Island, New Zealand. Sedimentary Geology 204:83-105. 2008 Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Sediment
Wantiez, L. 2008. Coral reefs of New Caledonia in 2006: Status report and monitoring network [Les recifs coralliens de nouvelle-caledonie en 2006: etat des lieux et reseau de suivi]. Revue d'Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie) 63:117-132. 2008 US Pacific & Hawaii; New Caledonia; Europe Field Study & Monitoring Cruise Ships; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Funding & Donations; Funding & Incentives; Housing; Mining; Mining Policies; Seastars; Sewage Treatment; Small Boats; Tourism & Recreation; Wastewater Discharge
Foubert, A., D. Depreiter, T. Beck, L. Maignien, B. Pannemans, N. Frank, D. Blamart, and J.-P. Henriet. 2008. Carbonate mounds in a mud volcano province off north-west Morocco: Key to processes and controls. Marine Geology 248:74-96. 2008 Field Study & Monitoring; Model Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Plankton; Primary Production; Sediment; Stony Coral; Substrate; Water Depth & Sea Level
Water Environment Research Foundation, American Society of Civil Engineers, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Highway Administration, American Public Works Association, editor. 2008. Overview of Performance by BMP Category and Common Pollutant Type. International Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Database [1999-2008]. 2008 Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Richmond, R. H., T. Rongo, Y. Golbuu, S. Victor, N. Idechong, G. Davis, W. Kostka, L. Neth, M. Hamnett, and E. Wolanski. 2007. Watersheds and coral reefs: Conservation science, policy, and implementation. Bioscience 57:598-607. 2007 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia; Micronesia Cultural Policies; Cultural Protections; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment
Haynes, D., J. Brodie, J. Waterhouse, Z. Bainbridge, D. Bass, and B. Hart. 2007. Assessment of the water quality and ecosystem health of the Great Barrier Reef (Australia): Conceptual models. Environmental Management 40:993-1003. 2007 Global; Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Model; Index or Indicator Agriculture; Chemical Use Regulations; Climate; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Mangroves; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Seagrasses; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Chen, B.-Y. 2007. Revealing threshold criteria of biostimulation for dye-laden wastewater treatment using immobilized cell systems. Process Biochemistry 42:158-166. 2007 Nutrients; Sewage Treatment; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wastewater Discharge
Nisbet, E. G., N. V. Grassineau, C. J. Howe, P. I. Abell, M. Regelous, and R. E. R. Nisbet. 2007. The age of Rubisco: The evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Geobiology 5:311-335. 2007 CO2; Primary Production
Halpern, B. S., K. A. Selkoe, F. Micheli, and C. V. Kappel. 2007. Evaluating and ranking the vulnerability of global marine ecosystems to anthropogenic threats. Conservation Biology 21:1301-1315. 2007 Global Finfish Harvest; Funding & Donations; Funding & Incentives; Mangroves; Point Source Discharges; Sea Temperatures
Anthony, K. R. N. and A. P. Kerswell. 2007. Coral mortality following extreme low tides and high solar radiation. Marine Biology 151:1623-1631. 2007 Australia Light; Non-point Source Runoff; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Markey, K. L., A. H. Baird, C. Humphrey, and A. P. Negri. 2007. Insecticides and a fungicide affect multiple coral life stages. Marine Ecology Progress Series 330:127-137. 2007 Global Agriculture; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Stony Coral
Zhang, G., L. Mi, S. Wu, W. Tao, S. He, and J. Lu. 2007. Deepwater area - The new prospecting targets of northern continental margin of South China Sea. Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica 28:15-21. 2007 China Coal Mining; Water Depth & Sea Level
Zdanaviciute, O. and J. Lazauskiene. 2007. The petroleum potential of the silurian succession in Lithuania. Journal of Petroleum Geology 30:325-337. 2007
Mallela, J., C. Roberts, C. Harrod, and C. R. Goldspink. 2007. Distributional patterns and community structure of Caribbean coral reef fishes within a river-impacted bay. Journal of Fish Biology 70:523-537. 2007 South & Central America; Jamaica; Caribbean Discharges; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Sediment; Small Herbivorous Fish; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Gershwin, L.-A. 2007. Malo kingi: A new species of Irukandji jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Carybdeida), possibly lethal to humans, from Queensland, Australia. Zootaxa 55-68. 2007 Australia Discharges; Tourism & Recreation
Bostock, H. C., B. P. Brooke, D. A. Ryan, G. Hancock, T. Pietsch, R. Packett, and K. Harle. 2007. Holocene and modern sediment storage in the subtropical macrotidal Fitzroy River estuary, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Sedimentary Geology 201:321-340. 2007 Australia Discharges; Mangroves; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Sheng, J., L. Wang, S. Andrefouet, C. Hu, B. G. Hatcher, F. E. Muller-Karger, B. Kjerfve, W. D. Heyman, and B. Yang. 2007. Upper ocean response of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System to Hurricane Mitch and coastal freshwater inputs: A study using Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color data and a nested-grid ocean circulation model. Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans 112. 2007 South & Central America; Belize; Honduras; Caribbean Model Discharges; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Huvenne, V. A. I., W. R. Bailey, P. M. Shannon, J. Naeth, R. di Primio, J. P. Henriet, B. Horsfield, H. de Haas, A. Wheeler, and K. Olu-Le Roy. 2007. The Magellan mound province in the Porcupine Basin. International Journal of Earth Sciences 96:85-101. 2007 Model Sediment
Derse, E., K. L. Knee, S. D. Wankel, C. Kendall, C. J. Berg Jr., and A. Paytan. 2007. Identifying sources of nitrogen to Hanalei Bay, Kauai, utilizing the nitrogen isotope signature of macroalgae. Environmental Science and Technology 41:5217-5223. 2007 Algae; Discharges; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Remediation; Surface & Groundwater Flow
House, K. Z., C. H. House, D. P. Schrag, and M. J. Aziz. 2007. Electrochemical acceleration of chemical weathering as an energetically feasible approach to mitigating anthropogenic climate change. Environmental Science and Technology 41:8464-8470. 2007 Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Climate; CO2; Ocean Acidity; Point Source Discharges
Donner, S. D., T. R. Knutson, and M. Oppenheimer. 2007. Model-based assessment of the role of human-induced climate change in the 2005 Caribbean coral bleaching event. 39453. 2007 Global; South & Central America; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Caribbean Model Climate; CO2; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Sea Temperatures; Storms & Hurricanes
Uthicke, S. and K. McGuire. 2007. Bacterial communities in Great Barrier Reef calcareous sediments: Contrasting 16S rDNA libraries from nearshore and outer shelf reefs. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 72:188-200. 2007 Australia Index or Indicator Cyanobacteria; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment
Zaker, N. H., J. Imberger, and C. Pattiaratchi. 2007. Dynamics of the coastal boundary layer off Perth, Western Australia. Journal of Coastal Research 23:1112-1130. 2007 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Discharges; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Cainey, J. M., M. Keywood, E. K. Bigg, M. R. Grose, R. W. Gillett, and M. Meyer. 2007. Flux chamber study of particle formation from Durvillaea potatorum. Environmental Chemistry 4:151-154. 2007 Light
Klaus, J. S., I. Janse, J. M. Heikoop, R. A. Sanford, and B. W. Fouke. 2007. Coral microbial communities, zooxanthellae and mucus along gradients of seawater depth and coastal pollution. Environmental Microbiology 9:1291-1305. 2007 Antilles Algae; Light; Microorganisms; Pathogens; Stony Coral; Water Depth & Sea Level; Waterborne Discharges; Zooxanthellae
Musat, N., O. Giere, A. Gieseke, F. Thiermann, R. Amann, and N. Dubilier. 2007. Molecular and morphological characterization of the association between bacterial endosymbionts and the marine nematode Astomonema sp. from the Bahamas: Brief report. Environmental Microbiology 9:1345-1353. 2007 Bahamas Marine Worms; Sediment
Roebeling, P. C., C. S. Fletcher, D. W. Hilbert, and J. Udo. 2007. Welfare gains from urbanizing landscapes in Great Barrier Reef catchments? A spatial environmental-economic modelling approach. Pages 737-749 in WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment. 2007 Australia Model Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waterborne Discharges
[No author name available]. 2007. Alien invaders - Nowhere to hide. Pages 31-33 MER - Marine Engineers Review. 2007 Review Ballast Discharge; Collaboration & Partnering; Cruise Ships
Poty, E. and E. Chevalier. 2007. Late Frasnian phillipsastreid biostromes in Belgium. Geological Society Special Publication 143-161. 2007 Sediment; Skeletal Coral; Stony Coral; Storms & Hurricanes; Substrate; Water Depth & Sea Level
Shakeri, A., J. Douraghinejad, and M. Moradpour. 2007. Microfacies and sedimentary environments of the late Oligocene-early Miocene Qom Formation of the Gooreh Berenji region (Jandaq area, central Iran). GeoArabia 12:41-60. 2007 Iran Field Study & Monitoring Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Webster, N. S. 2007. Sponge disease: A global threat? Environmental Microbiology 9:1363-1375. 2007 Global; South & Central America; Australia; Papua New Guinea; Caribbean; Mexico Review Agriculture; Climate; Cyanobacteria; Non-point Source Runoff; Pathogens; Sponges
Lein, A. YU ., O. YU . Bogdanova, YU .A . Bogdanov, and L. I. Magazina. 2007. Mineralogical and geochemical features of authigenic carbonates on seepings and hydrothermal fields (By the examples of the Black Sea reefs and the mounds of the lost city field). Oceanology 47:537-553. 2007 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Field Study & Monitoring Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Microorganisms
Treude, T., V. Orphan, K. Knittel, A. Gieseke, C. H. House, and A. Boetius. 2007. Consumption of methane and CO2 by methanotrophic microbial mats from gas seeps of the anoxic Black Sea. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73:2271-2283. 2007 Cuba CO2; Microorganisms
Henriksen, H. J., P. Rasmussen, G. Brandt, D. von Bulow, and F. V. Jensen. 2007. Public participation modelling using Bayesian Networks in management of groundwater contamination. Environmental Modelling & Software 22:1101-1113. 2007 Model; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Chemical Use Regulations; Decision Support; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Salah, H. and A. Adjrad. 2007. Carbon whisker formation under fast particle irradiation. Surface and Coatings Technology 201:8560-8563. 2007 Discharges; Substrate
McKinnon, A. D., J. H. Carleton, and S. Duggan. 2007. Pelagic production and respiration in the Gulf of Papua during May 2004. Continental Shelf Research 27:1643-1655. 2007 Cuba Discharges; Plankton; Primary Production; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Wright, D. A., R. Dawson, C. E. Orano-Dawson, and S. M. Moesel. 2007. A test of the efficacy of a ballast water treatment system aboard the vessel Coral Princess. Marine Technology 44:57-67. 2007 Florida; Panama; Columbia Ballast Discharge; Cruise Ships; Light
Kankara, R. S. and B. R. Subramanian. 2007. Oil spill sensitivity analysis and risk assessment for Gulf of Kachchh, India, using integrated modeling. Journal of Coastal Research 23:1251-1258. 2007 India Model; GIS & Maps Beaches & Nature Parks; Mangroves; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Petroleum Spills; Transportation Policies
Thiel, M., E. C. Macaya, E. Acuna, W. E. Arntz, H. Bastias, K. Brokordt, P. A. Camus, J. C. Castilla, L. R. Castro, M. Cortes, C. P. Dumont, R. Escribano, M. Fernandez, J. A. Gajardo, C. F. Gaymer, I. Gomez, A. E. Gonzalez, H. E. Gonzalez, P. A. Haye, and J.-E. Illanes. 2007. The Humboldt Current System of northern and central Chile - Oceanographic processes, ecological interactions and socioeconomic feedback. Oceanography and Marine Biology 45:195-344. 2007 South & Central America Review; Field Study & Monitoring; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Algae; Decision Support; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fishing Sector; Invertebrates; Marine Birds; Marine Protected Areas; Microorganisms; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Plankton; Primary Production; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Whales & Dolphins
Turner, P. and H. Sherif. 2007. A giant Late Triassic-Early Jurassic evaporitic basin on the Saharan Platform, North Africa. Geological Society Special Publication 87-105. 2007 Global; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA)
Simpson, B. W. 2007. Lessons for achieving effective management from field research on agrochemicals. Pages 338-359 in ACS Symposium Series. 2007 Australia; Mauritius Field Study & Monitoring Chemical Use Regulations; Collaboration & Partnering; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
USCG. 2007. Hazardous Substances Pollution Area Contingency Plan. Florida Keys. 2007 Florida Coastal Defense; Petroleum Spills
Martinez, M. D. C. G., P. R. Romero, and A. T. Banaszak. 2007. Photoinduced toxicity of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene, on the coral, Porites divaricata. Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering 42:1495-1502. 2007 Cuba Light; Stony Coral
Guitart, C., A. Sheppard, T. Frickers, A. R. G. Price, and J. W. Readman. 2007. Negligible risks to corals from antifouling booster biocides and triazine herbicides in coastal waters of the Chagos Archipelago. Marine Pollution Bulletin 54:226-232. 2007 Chagos Archipelago Fertilizer & Pesticide Use
Sabdono, A., S. Kang, H.-G. Hur, H.-P. Grossart, M. Simon, and O. K. Radjasa. 2007. Organophosphate pesticide concentrations in coral tissues of Indonesian coastal waters. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 10:1926-1929. 2007 Java; Indonesia Field Study & Monitoring Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Skeletal Coral
Donner, S. D. and D. Potere. 2007. The inequity of the global threat to coral reefs. Bioscience 57:214-215. 2007 Global Climate; CO2; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Pathogens; Sea Temperatures; Waterborne Discharges
Hardy, R., S. M. Jones, and R. W. Hobbs. 2007. Imaging the water column using seismic reflection data. Pages 1731-1735 in Society of Petroleum Engineers - 69th European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers Conference and Exhibition 2007 - \Securing the Future\"". 2007 Global; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Europe Review; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Climate; Fish; Salinity; Shoreline Protection
Reimer, J. D., F. Sinniger, Y. Fujiwara, S. Hirano, and T. Maruyama. 2007. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Abyssoanthus nankaiensis, a new family, new genus and new species of deep-sea zoanthid (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia:Zoantharia) from a north-west Pacific methane cold seep. Invertebrate Systematics 21:255-262. 2007 US Pacific & Hawaii; Japan Anemones & Zooanthids; Sediment
Lapointe, B. E. and B. J. Bedford. 2007. Drift rhodophyte blooms emerge in Lee County, Florida, USA: Evidence of escalating coastal eutrophication. Harmful Algae 6:421-437. 2007 Global; Florida Agriculture; Algae; Artificial Habitat; Beaches & Nature Parks; Chemical Use Regulations; Discharges; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fleshy Macroalgae; Nutrients; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation
Leon, R., L. Somoza, T. Medialdea, F. J. Gonzalez, V. Diaz-del-Rio, M. C. Fernandez-Puga, A. Maestro, and M. P. Mata. 2007. Sea-floor features related to hydrocarbon seeps in deepwater carbonate-mud mounds of the Gulf of Cadiz: From mud flows to carbonate precipitates. Geo-Marine Letters 27:237-247. 2007 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Climate; Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Eapaea, M. P., D. Parry, and B. Noller. 2007. Dynamics of arsenic in the mining sites of Pine Creek Geosyncline, Northern Australia. Science of the Total Environment 379:201-215. 2007 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Discharges; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetlands
Zamzow, J. P. 2007. Ultraviolet-absorbing compounds in the mucus of shallow-dwelling tropical reef fishes correlate with environmental water clarity. Marine Ecology Progress Series 343:263-271. 2007 South & Central America; Panama; Iran; Caribbean Fish; Light; Sunscreen Use; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Smajgl, A. and P. C. Gehrke. 2007. Integrating economic and ecological modelling in the great barrier reef catchments. IAHS-AISH Publication 107-115. 2007 Australia Model Agriculture; Climate; Funding & Incentives; Non-point Source Runoff
Tsai, C.-C., J.-H. Liao, H.-H. Wang, and Z.-Y. Hseu. 2007. Effects of typhoon disturbances on soil microbial activities in an uplifted coral reef tropical forest, Southern Taiwan. Taiwan Journal of Forest Science 22:265-279. 2007 Taiwan Field Study & Monitoring CO2; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Storms & Hurricanes
Lu, Y.-Q. and Y.-M. Gong. 2007. On reefs in association with marine oilfields: Actuality, problems and prospects. Diqiu Kexue - Zhongguo Dizhi Daxue Xuebao/Earth Science - Journal of China University of Geosciences 32:871-878. 2007 China Sediment
Alongi, D. M., L. A. Trott, and J. Pfitzner. 2007. Deposition, mineralization, and storage of carbon and nitrogen in sediments of the far northern and northern Great Barrier Reef shelf. Continental Shelf Research 27:2595-2622. 2007 Australia; Cuba; Europe CO2; Discharges; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Plankton; Primary Production; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Water Depth & Sea Level
Judd, A., P. Croker, L. Tizzard, and C. Voisey. 2007. Extensive methane-derived authigenic carbonates in the Irish Sea. Geo-Marine Letters 27:259-267. 2007 Europe GIS & Maps Sediment
Hwang, S. 2007. Page 111 in SEVENTH CARIBBEAN ISLANDS WATER RESOURCES CONGRESS. St. Croix, USVI. 2007 Global; South & Central America; Caribbean Review; Field Study & Monitoring Drinking Water Supply; Infrastructural Policies; Infrastructure; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Schools & Colleges; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
Mallela, J. and C. T. Perry. 2007. Calcium carbonate budgets for two coral reefs affected by different terrestrial runoff regimes, Rio Bueno, Jamaica. Coral Reefs 26:129-145. 2007 Jamaica Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Fish; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Small Herbivorous Fish; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Jia, C., B. Li, X. Zhang, and C. Li. 2007. Formation and evolution of the Chinese marine basins. Chinese Science Bulletin 52:11-Jan. 2007 US Pacific & Hawaii; India; China Coal Mining; Sediment
Zhao, M. J., S. C. Zhang, L. Zhao, and J. Da. 2007. Geochemical features and genesis of the natural gas and bitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs of Nanpanjiang Basin, China. Science in China, Series D: Earth Sciences 50:689-701. 2007 China Natural Gas & Electric Power
Zhang, Z., G. Li, L. Yang, and X. Ning. 2007. Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil by novel bioactive mineral carriers. Pages 394-399 in Battelle Press - 9th International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium 2007. 2007 Lab Study Microorganisms; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics Sources; Remediation
Environmental Protection Agency. 2007. National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Hydromodification. EPA 841-B-07-002, Office of Water, Washington, DC. 2007 Aquaculture; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Infrastructure; Irrigation; Microorganisms; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Point Source Discharges; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation; Water
Lin, H.-J., C.-Y. Wu, S.-J. Kao, W.-Y. Kao, and P.-J. Meng. 2007. Mapping anthropogenic nitrogen through point sources in coral reefs using δ15N in macroalgae. Marine Ecology Progress Series 335:95-109. 2007 Taiwan Index or Indicator; GIS & Maps Algae; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Nutrients; Point Source Discharges; Tourism & Recreation
Fagan, K. E. and F. T. Mackenzie. 2007. Air-sea CO2 exchange in a subtropical estuarine-coral reef system, Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Marine Chemistry 106:174-191. 2007 US Pacific & Hawaii CO2; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Plankton; Primary Production; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Haapkyla, J., F. Ramade, and B. Salvat. 2007. Oil pollution on coral reefs: A review of the state of knowledge and management needs. Vie et Milieu 57:95-111. 2007 Review; Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Petroleum Spills; Stony Coral
Downs, C. and A. Downs. 2007. Preliminary examination of short-term cellular toxicological responses of the coral Madracis mirabilis to acute Irgarol 1051 exposure. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 52:47-57. 2007 Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Primary Production; Stony Coral
Harvey, L. D. D. 2007. Dangerous anthropogenic interference, dangerous climatic change, and harmful climatic change: Non-trivial distinctions with significant policy implications. Climatic change 82:25-Jan. 2007 Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Climate; CO2; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Plankton
McClanahan, T. R., M. Carreiro-Silva, and M. DiLorenzo. 2007. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorous, and their interaction on coral reef algal succession in Glover's Reef, Belize. Marine Pollution Bulletin 54:1947-1957. 2007 South & Central America; Belize; Caribbean Algae; Coralline Algae; Cyanobacteria; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fleshy Macroalgae; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Turf Algae
Holliday, D., T. C. Stieglitz, P. V. Ridd, and W. W. Read. 2007. Geological controls and tidal forcing of submarine groundwater discharge from a confined aquifer in a coastal sand dune system. Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans 112. 2007 Australia Model Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Cantin, N. E., A. P. Negri, and B. L. Willis. 2007. Photoinhibition from chronic herbicide exposure reduces reproductive output of reef-building corals. Marine Ecology Progress Series 344:81-93. 2007 Australia Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Primary Production; Stony Coral
Seymour, C. 2007. Transferring patients with a urinary catheter. Nursing times 103:52-54. 2007 Discharges; Medical Centers
Pait, A. S., D. R. Whitall, C. F. G. Jeffrey, C. Caldow, A. L. Mason, J. D. Christensen, M. E. Monaco, and J. Ramirez. 2007. An Assessment of Chemical Contaminants in the Marine Sediments of Southwest Puerto Rico. NOAA/NOS/Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment, Silver Spring, MD. 2007 Puerto Rico Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Nutrients; Sediment; Toxics
Ramos-Scharron, C. E. 2007. Sediment Production From Natural And Disturbed Surfaces In Dry Tropical Areas Of La Parguera-Pr, 2003-2005. Pages 1-5 in SEVENTH CARIBBEAN ISLANDS WATER RESOURCES CONGRESS. 2007 South & Central America; Puerto Rico; Caribbean Model; GIS & Maps Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Transportation Policies
Whalan, S., C. Battershill, and R. De Nys. 2007. Variability in reproductive output across a water quality gradient for a tropical marine sponge. Marine Biology 153:163-169. 2007 Australia Index or Indicator Discharges; Sponges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Huvaz, O., H. Sarikaya, and T. Isik. 2007. Petroleum systems and hydrocarbon potential analysis of the northwestern Uralsk basin, NW Kazakhstan, by utilizing 3D basin modeling methods. Marine and Petroleum Geology 24:247-275. 2007 Field Study & Monitoring; Model
Sasal, P., D. Mouillot, R. Fichez, S. Chifflet, and M. Kulbicki. 2007. The use of fish parasites as biological indicators of anthropogenic influences in coral-reef lagoons: A case study of Apogonidae parasites in New-Caledonia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 54:1697-1706. 2007 Index or Indicator Fish; Wastewater Discharge
Wielgus, J., D. Glassom, and N. E. Chadwick. 2006. Patterns of polychaete worm infestation of stony corals in the Northern Red Sea and relationships to water chemistry. Bulletin of Marine Science 78:377-388. 2006 Discharges; Marine Worms; Nutrients; Stony Coral; Storms & Hurricanes
Arvedlund, M., K. Iwao, T. M. Brolund, and A. Takemura. 2006. Juvenile Thalassoma amblycephalum Bleeker (Labridae, Teleostei) dwelling among the tentacles of sea anemones: A cleanerfish with an unusual client? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 329:161-173. 2006 Japan; Indonesia Anemones & Zooanthids; Discharges; Fish; Planktivorous Fish
Downs, C. A., R. H. Richmond, W. J. Mendiola, L. Rougee, and G. K. Ostrander. 2006. Cellular physiological effects of the MV Kyowa Violet fuel-oil spill on the hard coral, Porites lobata. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25:3171-3180. 2006 Micronesia Model Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Mangroves; Petroleum Spills; Stony Coral
Voss, J. D. and L. L. Richardson. 2006. Nutrient enrichment enhances black band disease progression in corals. Coral Reefs 25:569-576. 2006 Lab Study Chemical Use Regulations; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Pathogens; Stony Coral; Wastewater Discharge
Dikou, A. and R. Van Woesik. 2006. Partial colony mortality reflects coral community dynamics: A fringing reef study near a small river in Okinawa, Japan. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52:269-280. 2006 Japan Index or Indicator Discharges; Sediment; Skeletal Coral; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Yamamoto, K., Y. Iryu, T. Sato, S. Chiyonobu, K. Sagae, and E. Abe. 2006. Responses of coral reefs to increased amplitude of sea-level changes at the Mid-Pleistocene Climate Transition. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 241:160-175. 2006 Climate; Sediment
Day-Lewis, F. D., E. A. White, C. D. Johnson, J. W. Lane, and M. Belaval. 2006. Continuous resistivity profiling to delineate submarine groundwater discharge - Examples and limitations. Leading Edge (Tulsa, OK) 25:724-728. 2006 Discharges; Nutrients; Resource Use Management; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Bigot, L., C. Conand, J. M. Amouroux, P. Frouin, H. Bruggemann, and A. Gremare. 2006. Effects of industrial outfalls on tropical macrobenthic sediment communities in Reunion Island (Southwest Indian Ocean). Marine Pollution Bulletin 52:865-880. 2006 Indian Ocean; Reunion; India Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Discharges; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Marine Worms; Molluscs; Sediment; Wastewater Discharge
Noe, S., J. Titschack, A. Freiwald, and W.-C. Dullo. 2006. From sediment to rock: Diagenetic processes of hardground formation in deep-water carbonate mounds of the NE Atlantic. Facies 52:183-208. 2006 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Europe Microorganisms; Plankton; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Huang, X., D. Jiao, L. Lu, J. Huang, and S. Xie. 2006. Distribution and geochemical implication of aromatic hydrocarbons across the Meishan Permian-Triassic boundary. Journal of China University of Geosciences 17:49-54. 2006 China Index or Indicator Cyanobacteria; Microorganisms; Sediment
Roberts, D. E., A. R. Davis, and S. P. Cummins. 2006. Experimental manipulation of shade, silt, nutrients and salinity on the temperate reef sponge Cymbastela concentrica. Marine Ecology Progress Series 307:143-154. 2006 Field Study & Monitoring; Model Algae; Discharges; Nutrients; Salinity; Sponges
Carbery, K., R. Owen, T. Frickers, E. Otero, and J. Readman. 2006. Contamination of Caribbean coastal waters by the antifouling herbicide Irgarol 1051. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52:635-644. 2006 South & Central America; US Virgin Islands; Puerto Rico; Caribbean Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Mangroves; Primary Production
Baisre, J. A. and Z. Arboleya. 2006. Going against the flow: Effects of river damming in Cuban fisheries. Fisheries Research 81:283-292. 2006 Cuba Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fishing Sector; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Nutrients; Seagrasses; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Imbs, A. B., O. A. Demina, and D. A. Demidkova. 2006. Lipid class and fatty acid composition of the boreal soft coral Gersemia rubiformis. Lipids 41:721-725. 2006 Octocoral
Garrison, V. H., W. T. Foreman, S. Genualdi, D. W. Griffin, C. A. Kellogg, M. S. Majewski, A. Mohammed, A. Ramsubhag, E. A. Shinn, S. L. Simonich, and G. W. Smith. 2006. Saharan dust - A carrier of persistent organic pollutants, metals and microbes to the Caribbean? Revista de Biologia Tropical 54:21-Sep. 2006 South & Central America; US Virgin Islands; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Trinidad; Tobago; Caribbean Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Microorganisms; Pathogens; Schools & Colleges
Rougee, L., C. A. Downs, R. H. Richmond, and G. K. Ostrander. 2006. Alteration of normal cellular profiles in the scleractinian coral (Pocillopora damicornis) following laboratory exposure to fuel oil. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25:3181-3187. 2006 Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Petroleum Spills; Stony Coral
Paytan, A., G. G. Shellenbarger, J. H. Street, M. E. Gonneea, K. Davis, M. B. Young, and W. S. Moore. 2006. Submarine groundwater discharge: An important source of new inorganic nitrogen to coral reef ecosystems. Limnology and Oceanography 51:343-348. 2006 Discharges; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Shellenbarger, G. G., S. G. Monismith, A. Genin, and A. Paytan. 2006. The importance of submarine groundwater discharge to the nearshore nutrient supply in the Gulf of Aqaba (Israel). Limnology and Oceanography 51:1876-1886. 2006 Discharges; Nutrients; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Reuter, M., T. C. Brachert, and K. F. Kroeger. 2006. Shallow-marine carbonates of the tropical-temperate transition zone: Effects of hinterland climate and basin physiography (late Miocene, Crete, Greece). Geological Society Special Publication 157-178. 2006 Climate; Discharges; Nutrients; Sediment
Cervino, J. M., K. Winiarski-Cervino, S. W. Polson, T. Goreau, and G. W. Smith. 2006. Identification of bacteria associated with a disease affecting the marine sponge Ianthella basta in New Britian, Papua New Guinea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 324:139-150. 2006 Papua New Guinea; Britain Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Chemical Use Regulations; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Microorganisms; Pathogens; Sponges
Ahmed, A. F., Y.-T. Hsieh, Z.-H. Wen, Y.-C. Wu, and J.-H. Sheu. 2006. Polyoxygenated sterols from the formosan soft coral Sinularia gibberosa. Journal of Natural Products 69:1275-1279. 2006 Octocoral; Special Use Permitting
Olson, J. M. 2006. Photosynthesis in the Archean era. Photosynthesis Research 88:109-117. 2006 Australia; South Africa Cyanobacteria; Primary Production
Raghukumar, C., M. S. Shailaja, P. S. Parameswaran, and S. K. Singh. 2006. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous media by the marine fungus NIOCC # 312: Involvement of lignin-degrading enzymes and exopolysaccharides. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 35:373-379. 2006 Seagrasses
Sommaruga, R., K. Whitehead, J. M. Shick, and C. S. Lobban. 2006. Mycosporine-like Amino Acids in the Zooxanthella-Ciliate Symbiosis Maristentor dinoferus. Protist 157:185-191. 2006 Light; Sunscreen Use
Gass, S. E. and J. M. Roberts. 2006. The occurrence of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia) on oil and gas platforms in the North Sea: Colony growth, recruitment and environmental controls on distribution. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52:549-559. 2006 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Discharges; Oil & Gas Industry; Oil & Gas Rigs; Plankton; Stony Coral
Bjorn, L. O. and N. G. A. Ekelund. 2006. Corals and zooxanthellae - A marine partnership [Koraller och zooxantheller - Ett marint partnerskap]. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 100:263-270. 2006 Algae; Climate; CO2; Petroleum Spills; Primary Production; Stony Coral; Zooxanthellae
Burke, L. and Z. Sugg. 2006. Hydrologic Modeling of Watersheds Discharging Adjacent to the Mesoamerican Reef. World Resource Institute. 2006 Model; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Agriculture; Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Collaboration & Partnering; Discharges; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Vandeginste, V., R. Swennen, S. A. Gleeson, R. M. Ellam, K. Osadetz, and F. Roure. 2006. Development of secondary porosity in the Fairholme carbonate complex (southwest Alberta, Canada). Journal of Geochemical Exploration 89:394-397. 2006 CO2
Underwood, J. N., P. B. Souter, E. R. Ballment, A. H. Lutz, and M. J. H. Van Oppen. 2006. Development of 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers from herbicide-bleached tissues of the brooding pocilloporid coral Seriatopora hystrix. Molecular Ecology Notes 6:176-178. 2006 Australia Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Stony Coral
Lewis, J. B. 2006. Biology and Ecology of the Hydrocoral Millepora on Coral Reefs. Advances in Marine Biology 50:Jan-55. 2006 Algae; Cleaner & Solvent Use; Corallivorous Fish; Fish; Hydrocoral; Invasive Species; Marine Worms; Microorganisms; Molluscs; Pathogens; Petroleum Spills; Plankton; Stony Coral; Storms & Hurricanes; Zooxanthellae
Atkinson, C., M. Renolds, and O. Hutapea. 2006. Stratigraphic traps in the Tertiary rift basins of Indonesia: Case studies and future potential. Geological Society Special Publication 105-126. 2006 Java; Indonesia Field Study & Monitoring
Costa Jr., O. S., M. J. Attrill, and M. Nimmo. 2006. Seasonal and spatial controls on the delivery of excess nutrients to nearshore and offshore coral reefs of Brazil. Journal of Marine Systems 60:63-74. 2006 Discharges; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Yasumoto-Hirose, M., M. Nishijima, M. K. Ngirchechol, K. Kanoh, Y. Shizuri, and W. Miki. 2006. Isolation of marine bacteria by in situ culture on media-supplemented polyurethane foam. Marine Biotechnology 8:227-237. 2006 Microorganisms; Substrate
Palinkas, C. M., C. A. Nittrouer, and J. P. Walsh. 2006. Inner-shelf sedimentation in the Gulf of Papua, New Guinea: A mud-rich shallow shelf setting. Journal of Coastal Research 22:760-772. 2006 Discharges; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Hyland, J., C. Cooksey, W. L. Balthis, M. Fulton, D. Bearden, G. McFall, and M. Kendall. 2006. The soft-bottom macrobenthos of Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary and nearby shelf waters off the coast of Georgia, USA. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 330:307-326. 2006 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Chemical Use Regulations; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Marine Protected Areas; Sediment; Toxics
Wang, S.-W., S.-Y. Gong, H.-S. Mii, and C.-F. Dai. 2006. Cold-seep carbonate hardgrounds as the initial substrata of coral reef development in a siliciclastic paleoenvironment of southwestern Taiwan. Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 17:405-427. 2006 Taiwan Model Algae; Coralline Algae; Substrate
Gaston, T. F., T. A. Schlacher, and R. M. Connolly. 2006. Flood discharges of a small river into open coastal waters: Plume traits and material fate. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 69:9-Apr. 2006 Australia Model Algae; Discharges; Nutrients; Plankton; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Goni, M. A., N. Monacci, R. Gisewhite, A. Ogston, J. Crockett, and C. Nittrouer. 2006. Distribution and sources of particulate organic matter in the water column and sediments of the Fly River Delta, Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea). Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 69:225-245. 2006 Papua New Guinea Discharges; Nutrients; Plankton; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Restrepo, J. D., P. Zapata, J. M. Diaz, J. Garzon-Ferreira, and C. B. Garcia. 2006. Fluvial fluxes into the Caribbean Sea and their impact on coastal ecosystems: The Magdalena River, Colombia. Global and Planetary Change 50:33-49. 2006 Global; South & Central America; Caribbean Algae; Discharges; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Seagrasses; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Kline, D. I., J. Bryant, E. Kisflaudy, G. Rohwer, F. Nostropaur, J. Grayson, N. Knowlton, and F. Rohwer. 2006. The aquatic automated dosing and maintenance system (AADAMS). Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 4:184-192. 2006 South & Central America; Caribbean Index or Indicator Molluscs; Non-point Source Runoff
Raina, S., W. P. Kang, J. L. Davidson, A. B. Bonds, D. E. Cliffel, and M. Howell. 2006. A novel \coral\" carbon microprobe with and without N2 incorporation". Diamond and Related Materials 15:1844-1848. 2006 Nutrients
Nellemann, C. and E. Corcoran. 2006. Our precious coasts Marine pollution, climate change and the resilience of coastal ecosystems. United Nations Environment Programme, GRID, Arendal, Norway. 2006 US Pacific & Hawaii Climate; CO2; Coastal Development; Discharges; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Infrastructure; Marine Protected Areas; Monetary Valuation; Pathogens; Petroleum Spills; Sediment; Stony Coral; Tourism & Recreation; Waterborne Discharges
Yum, S. 2006. Ubiquitin expression in soft coral (Scleronephthya gracillimum) exposed to environmental stresses. Korean Journal of Genetics 28:149-156. 2006 Field Study & Monitoring Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Octocoral; Special Use Permitting; Stony Coral
Littler, M. M., D. S. Littler, B. L. Brooks, and B. E. Lapointe. 2006. Nutrient manipulation methods for coral reef studies: A critical review and experimental field data. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 336:242-253. 2006 Review; Field Study & Monitoring Algae; Coralline Algae; Cyanobacteria; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fleshy Macroalgae; Microorganisms; Nutrients
Ramade, F. and H. Roche. 2006. Pollutant effects on coral reefs ecosystems [Effets des polluants sur les ecosystemes recifaux]. Revue d'Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie) 61:Mar-33. 2006 Global Algae; Complex Habitat & Resources; Discharges; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish Harvest; Mangroves; Primary Production; Sediment; Stony Coral; Zooxanthellae
Poulsen, A., K. Burns, J. Lough, D. Brinkman, and S. Delean. 2006. Trace analysis of hydrocarbons in coral cores from Saudi Arabia. Organic Geochemistry 37:1913-1930. 2006 Australia; Saudi Arabia; Iran Petroleum Spills; Stony Coral
Ravlic, N. 2006. Influence of a shallow undersea reef on water mixing in coastal channels [Utjecaj plitkoga podmorskoga grebena na miješanje u priobalnim kanalima]. Gradjevinar 58:199-207. 2006 Model Wastewater Discharge
Chavez-Comparan, J. C. and R. Macias-Zamora. 2006. Structure of reef fish communities in the littoral of Colima, Mexico. Journal of Biological Sciences 6:65-75. 2006 South & Central America; Mexico Index or Indicator Coastal Development; Fish; Small Herbivorous Fish; Waterborne Discharges
2006. Caltrans Statewide Sand Filter Study Stormwater Monitoring Report (CTSW-RT-06-128.01-1). 2006 Field Study & Monitoring Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Yang, N., X. Lu, X. Zhou, and D. Zheng. 2006. Hydrocarbon accumulation zones of carbonate in the Tarim basin. Acta Geologica Sinica 80:398-405. 2006 Sediment
Zou, C., S. Tao, and Z. Gu. 2006. Formation conditions and distribution rules of large lithologic oil-gas fields with low abundance in China. Acta Geologica Sinica 80:1739-1751. 2006 China Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Schleyer, M. H., J. M. Heikoop, and M. J. Risk. 2006. A benthic survey of Aliwal Shoal and assessment of the effects of a wood pulp effluent on the reef. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52:503-514. 2006 South Africa Field Study & Monitoring Algae; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Discharges; Encrusting Sponges; Sponges
Kaczmarsky, L. T., M. Draud, and E.H. Williams. 2005. Is there a Relationship between Proximity to Sewage Effluent and Prevalence of Coral Diseases? Coral Reefs 41:124-137. 2005 US Virgin Islands Discharges; Pathogens; Stony Coral
Bozec, Y.-M., M. Kulbicki, E. Chassot, and D. Gascuel. 2005. Trophic signature of coral reef fish assemblages: Towards a potential indicator of ecosystem disturbance. Aquatic Living Resource 18:103-109. 2005 New Caledonia Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Discharges; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fish
Delgado, G. A., R. A. Glazer and D. Wetzel. 2005. The Effects of Water Quality on Embryogenesis and Larval Development of Queen Conch: Implications for Recruitment to and Coastal Development of the Florida Keys. South Florida Water Management District #OT050676. 2005 Florida Coastal Development; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Snails & Conch
Baruch, R., N. Avishai, and C. Rabinowitz. 2005. UV incites diverse levels of DNA breaks in different cellular compartments of a branching coral species. Journal of Experimental Biology 208:843-848. 2005 Cleaner & Solvent Use; Stony Coral
Donner, S. D., W. J. Skirving, C. M. Little, M. Oppenheimer, and O. Hoegh-Gulberg. 2005. Global assessment of coral bleaching and required rates of adaptation under climate change. Global Change Biology 11:2251-2265. 2005 Global; Micronesia Field Study & Monitoring; Model Climate; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Sea Temperatures; Stony Coral
Stieglitz, T. 2005. Submarine groundwater discharge into the near-shore zone of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:51-59. 2005 Australia Beaches & Nature Parks; Discharges; Mangroves; Seawater Flow; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Chan, G. L. 2005. A study of the effects of the San Francisco oil spill on marine organisms. Page 8142 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 Lab Study Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Petroleum Spills; Snails & Conch
Oemcke, D. J. and J. Van Leeuwen. 2005. Ozonation of the marine dinoflagellate alga Amphidinium sp. - Implications for ballast water disinfection. Water Research 39:5119-5125. 2005 Australia Index or Indicator Algae; Ballast Discharge; Sediment
Chan, G. L. 2005. The five-year recruitment of marine life after the 1971 San Francisco oil spill. Page 3151 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 Invertebrates; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Oil & Gas Tankers; Petroleum Spills; Seastars; Snails & Conch
Ciancaglini, D. E. 2005. The federal on-scene coordinator's role in the EXXON valdez oil spill. Page 3031 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 Discharges; Petroleum Spills
Craik, W. 2005. Oil spills in the great barrier reef region. Page 5801 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 Australia Review Marine Protected Areas; Petroleum Spills
Craik, W. 2005. Protecting the Great Barrier Reef from an oil spill. Pages 6586-6598 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 Australia Marine Protected Areas; Petroleum Spills
Cubit, J. D. and J. L. Connor. 2005. Effects of the 1986 Bahia Las Minas oil spill on reef flat communities. Page 2359 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 South & Central America; Panama; Caribbean Field Study & Monitoring Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Petroleum Spills; Plankton
Cubit, J. D., C. D. Getter, J. B. C. Jackson, S. D. Garrity, H. M. Caffey, R. C. Thompson, E. Weil, and M. J. Marshall. 2005. An oil spill affecting coral reefs and mangroves on the caribbean coast of Panama. Page 5432 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 South & Central America; Panama; Caribbean Algae; Anemones & Zooanthids; Mangroves; Petroleum Spills; Seagrasses; Sediment
Dhalin, J. and J. Michel. 2005. Resource response guides. Page 7035 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 GIS & Maps Bivalves; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Marine Birds; Octopus & Squid; Petroleum Spills; Whales & Dolphins
Hutchings, P. 2005. Marine Pollution Bulletin: Editorial. Marine Pollution Bulletin 50:4-Jan. 2005 Waterborne Discharges
Hernando, M.P., G.A. Ferreyra. 2005. The effects of UV radiation on photosynthesis in an Antarctic diatom (Thalassiosira sp.): Does vertical mixing matter? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 325:35-45. 2005 Cuba Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Algae; Light; Plankton; Primary Production
Rasiah, V, J. D. Armour, and A. L. Cogle. 2005. Assessment of variables controlling nitrate dynamics in groundwater: Is it a threat to surface aquatic ecosystems? Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:60-69. 2005 Australia Discharges; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Jinn, T.-R., S.-S. Kao, J. T. C. Tzen, and T.-Y. Wu. 2005. Coral red fluorescence protein as genetic modified baculovirus tracer. Journal of Biotechnology 119:255-259. 2005 Field Study & Monitoring Fertilizer & Pesticide Use
Friedlander, A., G. Aeby, E. Brown, A. Clark, S. Coles, S. Dollar, C. Hunter, P. Jokiel, J. Smith, B. Walsh, I. Williams, and W. Wiltse. 2005. The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the Main Hawaiian Islands. NOAA. 2005 US Pacific & Hawaii Coastal Development; Non-point Source Runoff
Gerhard, L. C. and T. A. Cross. 2005. Measurements of the generation and distribution of carbonate sediments of Buck Island channel, St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, with observations about sediments in fringing lagoons. Atoll Research Bulletin 157-176. 2005 US Virgin Islands Lab Study Calcareous Macroalgae; Molluscs; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Water Depth & Sea Level
Dimitrov, R. S. 2005. Precaution in global environmental politics. International Journal of Global Environmental Issues 5:96-113. 2005 Global Deforestation & Devegetation
Stohr, S. and M. Segonzac. 2005. Deep-sea ophiuroids (Echinodermata) from reducing and non-reducing environments in the North Atlantic Ocean. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 85:383-402. 2005 South & Central America; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean; Mexico Echinoderms; Molluscs
Smith, J. E., J. W. Runcie, and C. M. Smith. 2005. Characterization of a large-scale ephemeral bloom of the green alga Cladophora sericea on the coral reefs of West Maui, Hawai'i. Marine Ecology Progress Series 302:77-91. 2005 Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Algae; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Salinity; Sediment; Substrate; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Bocquene, G. and A. Franco. 2005. Pesticide contamination of the coastline of Martinique. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:612-619. 2005 South & Central America; Martinique; Caribbean; France Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Climate; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fish; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Negri, A., C. Vollhardt, C. Humphrey, A. Heyward, R. Jones, G. Eaglesham, and K. Fabricius. 2005. Effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of coral. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:370-383. 2005 Lab Study Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Primary Production; Stony Coral
Brodie, J., K. Fabricus, G. De'ath, and K. Okaji. 2005. Are increased nutrient inputs responsible for more outbreaks of crown-of-thorn starfish? An appraisal of the evidence. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:266-278. 2005 Australia Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Plankton; Seastars; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Borges, A. V. 2005. Do we have enough pieces of the jigsaw to integrate CO2 fluxes in the coastal ocean? Estuaries 28:27-Mar. 2005 Global CO2; Mangroves
Kenter, J. A. M., P. M. Harris, and G. Della Porta. 2005. Steep microbial boundstone-dominated platform margins - Examples and implications. Sedimentary Geology 178:30-May. 2005 Spain Model Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
O'Reagain, P. J., J. Brodie, G. Fraser, J. J. Bushell, C. H. Holloway, J. W. Faithful, and D. Haynes. 2005. Nutrient loss and water quality under extensive grazing in the upper Burdekin river catchment, North Queensland. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:37-50. 2005 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Lathuiliere, B., C. Gaillard, N. Habrant, Y. Bodeur, A. Boullier, R. Enay, M. Hanzo, D. Marchand, J. Thierry, and W. Werner. 2005. Coral zonation of an Oxfordian reef tract in the northern French Jura. Facies 50:545-559. 2005 Global; France Model Sediment
Faithful, J., W. Finlayson. 2005. Water quality assessment for sustainable agriculture in the Wet Tropics - A community-assisted approach. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:99-112. 2005 Agriculture; Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Treude, T., K. Knittel, M. Blumenberg, R. Seifert, and A. Boetius. 2005. Subsurface microbial methanotrophic mats in the Black Sea. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71:6375-6378. 2005 Sediment
Watanabe, K. and A. Nakamura. 2005. A design of tiny basin test-bed for AUV multi agent. in Proceedings of MTS/IEEE OCEANS, 2005. 2005 Field Study & Monitoring Aquaculture; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Waterborne Discharges
Clavier, J., G. Boucher, L. Chauvaud, R. Fichez, and S. Chifflet. 2005. Benthic response to ammonium pulses in a tropical lagoon: Implications for coastal environmental processes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 316:231-241. 2005 New Caledonia Light; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Primary Production; Sediment; Wastewater Discharge
Powell, B. and M. Martens. 2005. A review of acid sulfate soil impacts, actions and policies that impact on water quality in Great Barrier Reef catchments, including a case study on remediation at East Trinity. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:149-164. 2005 Australia Review; GIS & Maps Agriculture; Aquaculture; Cyanobacteria; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Docks & Marinas; Fish; Microorganisms; Remediation; Wetlands
Marion, G. S., R. B. Dunbar, D. A. Mucciarone, J. N. Kremer, J. S. Lansing, and A. Arthawiguna. 2005. Coral skeletal δ15N reveals isotopic traces of an agricultural revolution. Marine Pollution Bulletin 50:931-944. 2005 Indonesia Agriculture; Discharges; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Stony Coral; Wastewater Discharge
Yu, K.-F., J.-X. Zhao, G.-J. Wei, X.-R. Cheng, and P.-X. Wang. 2005. Mid-late Holocene monsoon climate retrieved from seasonal Sr/Ca and δ18O records of Porites lutea corals at Leizhou Peninsula, northern coast of South China Sea. Global and Planetary Change 47:301-316. 2005 Global; China Climate; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Light; Stony Coral
Costanzo, S.D., J. Murby, J. Bates. 2005. Ecosystem response to antibiotics entering the aquatic environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:218-223. 2005 Discharges; Microorganisms; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Sewage Treatment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
Grottoli, A. G., L. J. Rodrigues, K. A. Matthews, J. E. Palardy, and O. T. Gibb. 2005. Pre-treatment effects on coral skeletal θ13C and θ18O. Chemical Geology 221:225-242. 2005 Model Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Cleaner & Solvent Use
Warne, A. G., R. M. T. Webb, and M. C. Larsen. 2005. Water, sediment, and nutrient discharge characteristics of rivers in Puerto Rico, and their potential influence on coral reefs. Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5206, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia. 2005 Puerto Rico Agriculture; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Pathogens; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Jordan-Dahlgren, E., M. A. Maldonado, and R. E. Rodriguez-Martinez. 2005. Diseases and partial mortality in Montastraea annularis species complex in reefs with differing environmental conditions (NW Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 63:12-Mar. 2005 Global; South & Central America; Caribbean; Mexico Finfish Harvest; Pathogens; Point Source Discharges; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Ismail, M., T. Kimura, Y. Suzuki, and M. Tsuchiya. 2005. Seasonal and spatial variations of total mass flux around coral reefs in the Southern Ryukyus, Japan. Journal of Oceanography 61:631-644. 2005 Japan Field Study & Monitoring Calcium Carbonate Deposition; CO2; Discharges; Marine Protected Areas; Mitigation; Nutrients; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Crosby, M. P. and E. S. Reese. 2005. Relationship of habitat stability and intra-specific population dynamics of an obligate corallivore butterflyfish. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 15. 2005 US Pacific & Hawaii Index or Indicator Corallivorous Fish; Fish; Non-point Source Runoff; Point Source Discharges; Sediment
Hutchings, P. and D. Haynes. 2005. Marine pollution bulletin special edition editorial. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:2-Jan. 2005 Waterborne Discharges
Knittel, K., T. Losekann, A. Boetius, R. Kort, and R. Amann. 2005. Diversity and distribution of methanotrophic archaea at cold seeps. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71:467-479. 2005 Fish; Sediment
Golabi, M. H., C. Iyekar, and D. Minton. 2005. Effect of vetiver technology on sediment loss and water quality in southern Guam. Pages 348-355 in Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Watershed Management to Meet Water Quality Standards and Emerging TMDL. 2005 US Pacific & Hawaii; Guam Agriculture; Non-point Source Runoff; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Ben Kilani, H., F. Mejri, S. Jeddi, and A. Jlailia. 2005. Tertiary structuring and hydrocarbon potential in the Gulf of Hammamet. Pages 3085-3086 in 67th European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers, EAGE Conference and Exhibition, incorporating SPE EUROPE2005 - Extended Abstracts. 2005 Oman; Europe Field Study & Monitoring
Burns, C., K. A. Campbell, and R. Mooi. 2005. Exceptional crinoid occurrences and associated carbonates of the Keasey Formation (Early Oligocene) at Mist, Oregon, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 227:210-231. 2005 GIS & Maps Echinoderms; Microorganisms; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Sediment; Substrate
[No author name available]. 2005. Integrated ocean drilling program expedition 307 preliminary report: Modern carbonate mounds: Porcupine drilling. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program 307:Jan-58. 2005 Global Model Calcium Carbonate Deposition; CO2; Sediment; Skeletal Coral
Getter, C. D., B. J. Baca, T. G. Ballou, M. S. Brown, A. H. Knap, R. E. Dodge, and T. D. Sleeter. 2005. Tropical oil pollution investigations in coastal systems (TROPICS). Page 8631 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 Bermuda Field Study & Monitoring Fish; Mangroves; Petroleum Spills; Sediment
Quinn, B., F. Gagne, J.-P. Weber, and C. Blaise. 2005. Ecotoxicological effects of a semi-submerged municipal dump (Castle harbour, Bermuda) on the Calico scallop Argopecten gibbus. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:534-544. 2005 Bermuda Index or Indicator Point Source Discharges
Kontorovich, A. E., T. M. Parfenova, and E. N. Ivanova. 2005. Aromatic biomarker-hydrocarbons and dibenzothiophenes in bitumens of the Kuonamka Formation Northeastern Siberian Platform. Doklady Earth Sciences 403:754-756. 2005 Sediment
Albert, S., J.M. O'Neil, J.W. Udy, K.S. Ahern, C.M. O'Sullivan, W.C. Dennison. 2005. Blooms of the cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula in coastal Queensland, Australia: disparate sites, common factors. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:428-437. 2005 Australia Index or Indicator Cyanobacteria; Marine Birds; Microorganisms; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients
Scheibner, C., R. P. Speijer, and A. M. Marzouk. 2005. Turnover of larger foraminifera during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and paleoclimatic control on the evolution of platform ecosystems. Geology 33:493-496. 2005 Global; Egypt Climate; Nutrients
Hutchings, P., M. Peyrot-Clausade, and A. Osnorno. 2005. Influence of land runoff on rates and agents of bioerosion of coral substrates. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:438-447. 2005 Australia Algae; Bivalves; Finfish Harvest; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Sponges; Stony Coral; Substrate; Surface & Groundwater Flow
[No author name available]. 2005. Expansion project grows with citizen support. Public Works 136:30-34. 2005 Wastewater Discharge
McMahon, K., S. B. Nash, G. Eaglesham, J. F. Muller, N. C. Duke, and S. Winderlich. 2005. Herbicide contamination and the potential impact to seagrass meadows in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:325-334. 2005 Australia Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Primary Production; Seagrasses; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Warrlich, G., D. Bosence, and D. Waltham. 2005. 3D and 4D controls on carbonate depositional systems: Sedimentological and sequence stratigraphic analysis of an attached carbonate platform and atoll (Miocene, Nijar Basin, SE Spain). Sedimentology 52:363-389. 2005 Spain GIS & Maps Algae; Coralline Algae; Point Source Discharges; Sediment
Chapman, D. J. and B. E. Julius. 2005. The use of preventative projects as compensatory restoration. Journal of Coastal Research 21:120-131. 2005 Florida Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Activities; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Petroleum Spills
Greiner, R., A. Herr, J. Brodie, and D. Haynes. 2005. A multi-criteria approach to Great Barrier Reef catchment (Queensland, Australia) diffuse-source pollution problem. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:128-137. 2005 Australia Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Carruthers, T. J. B., B. I. Van Tussenbroek, and W. C. Dennison. 2005. Influence of submarine springs and wastewater on nutrient dynamics of Caribbean seagrass meadows. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 64:191-199. 2005 South & Central America; Caribbean; Mexico Hotel & Food Services; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Seagrasses; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wastewater Discharge
Vandamme, N. S. and L. D. T. Topoleski. 2005. Control of surface morphology of carbide coating on Co-Cr-Mo implant alloy. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 16:647-654. 2005
Price, R. E. and T. Pichler. 2005. Distribution, speciation and bioavailability of arsenic in a shallow-water submarine hydrothermal system, Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, PNG. Chemical Geology 224:122-135. 2005 Papua New Guinea Discharges; Plankton; Sediment
Lapointe, B. E., P. J. Barile, M. M. Littler, and D. S. Littler. 2005. Macroalgal blooms on southeast Florida coral reefs: II. Cross-shelf discrimination of nitrogen sources indicates widespread assimilation of sewage nitrogen. Harmful Algae 4:1106-1122. 2005 Florida; US Pacific & Hawaii Field Study & Monitoring Algae; Discharges; Fleshy Macroalgae; Invasive Species; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wastewater Discharge
McClanahan, T. R., R. S. Steneck, D. Pietri, B. Cokos, and S. Jones. 2005. Interaction between inorganic nutrients and organic matter in controlling coral reef communities in Glovers Reef Belize. Marine Pollution Bulletin 50:566-575. 2005 South & Central America; Belize Algae; Coralline Algae; Corallivorous Fish; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fish; Fleshy Macroalgae; Large Herbivorous Fish; Nutrients; Small Herbivorous Fish; Stony Coral; Turf Algae
Nguyen, R. T. D. and G. L. Beardmore. 2005. Blastomycosis-like pyoderma: Successful treatment with low-dose acitretin. Australasian Journal of Dermatology 46:97-100. 2005 Oman Discharges; Microorganisms
Neill, C. F. and M. A. Allison. 2005. Subaqueous deltaic formation on the Atchafalaya Shelf, Louisiana. Marine Geology 214:411-430. 2005 Discharges; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Webster, I. T., P. W. Ford, and P. Tillman. 2005. Estimating nutrient budgets in tropical estuaries subject to episodic flows. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:165-173. 2005 Australia Model Discharges; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Davies, S. L., J. M. Virgona, M. H. McCallum, A. D. Swan, and M. B. Peoples. 2005. Effectiveness of grazing and herbicide treatments for lucerne removal before cropping in southern New South Wales. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 45:1147-1155. 2005 Australia Chemical Use Regulations; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use
Carboni, M. G., L. Bergamin, L. Di Bella, B. Landini, L. Manfra, and P. Vesica. 2005. Late Quaternary paleoclimatic and paleoenviromental changes in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Quaternary Science Reviews 24:2069-2082. 2005 Salinity; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Dill, H. G., R. Botz, F. W. Luppold, and F. Henjes-Kunst. 2005. Hypogene and supergene alteration of the Late Palaeozoic Ratburi Limestone during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic (Thailand, Surat Thani Province). Implications for the concentration of mineral commodities and hydrocarbons. International Journal of Earth Sciences 94:24-46. 2005 Thailand Sediment
D'Croz, L., J. B. del Rosario, and P. Gondola. 2005. The effect of fresh water runoff on the distribution of dissolved inorganic nutrients and plankton in the Bocas del Toro Archipelago, Caribbean Panama. Caribbean Journal of Science 41:414-429. 2005 South & Central America; Panama; Iran; Caribbean Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Plankton; Salinity
Williams, M., M. Stephenson, I. P. Wilkinson, M. J. Leng, and C. G. Miller. 2005. Early Carboniferous (Late Tournaisian-Early Visean) ostracods from the Ballagan Formation, central Scotland, UK. Journal of Micropalaeontology 24:77-94. 2005 Index or Indicator Sediment
Jones, R. 2005. The ecotoxicological effects of Photosystem II herbicides on corals. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:495-506. 2005 Review Agriculture; Algae; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Primary Production
King, S. C., J. E. Johnson, M. L. Haasch, D. A. J. Ryan, J. T. Ahokas, and K. A. Burns. 2005. Summary results from a pilot study conducted around an oil production platform on the Northwest Shelf of Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 50:1163-1172. 2005 Australia Index or Indicator Fish; Microorganisms
Auble, G. T., M. L. Scott, and J. M. Friedman. 2005. Use of individualistic streamflow-vegetation relations along the Fremont River, Utah, USA to assess impacts of flow alteration on Wetland and riparian areas. Wetlands 25:143-154. 2005 Model; Index or Indicator Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetlands
Crigger, D. K., G. A. Graves, and D. L. Fike. 2005. Lake Worth Lagoon conceptual ecological model. Wetlands 25:943-954. 2005 Florida Model Boating Activities; Discharges; Finfish Harvest; Invertebrates; Mangroves; Nutrients; Salinity; Seagrasses; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetlands
Hallock, P. 2005. Global change and modern coral reefs: New opportunities to understand shallow-water carbonate depositional processes. Sedimentary Geology 175:19-33. 2005 Global Calcium Carbonate Deposition; CO2; Cyanobacteria; Finfish Harvest; Light; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Pathogens; Sediment; Sunscreen Use; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Toxics
Zhang, S.-H. and D.-S. Xiong. 2005. Preparation and characterization of β-tricalcium phosphate porous bioceramic. Nanjing Li Gong Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Nanjing University of Science and Technology 29:231-235. 2005 CO2
Shick, J. M., C. Ferrier-Pages, R. Grover, and D. Allemand. 2005. Effects of starvation, ammonium concentration, and photosynthesis on the UV-dependent accumulation of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in the coral Stylophora pistillata. Marine Ecology Progress Series 295:135-156. 2005 Light; Primary Production; Special Use Permitting; Stony Coral; Sunscreen Use; Zooxanthellae
Sinclair, D. J. 2005. Non-river flood barium signals in the skeletons of corals from coastal Queensland, Australia. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 237:354-369. 2005 Australia; South Africa Algae; Discharges; Plankton; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Tomasko, D. A., C. A. Corbett, H. S. Greening, and G. E. Raulerson. 2005. Spatial and temporal variation in seagrass coverage in Southwest Florida: assessing the relative effects of anthropogenic nutrient load reductions and rainfall in four contiguous estuaries. Marine Pollution Bulletin 50:797-805. 2005 Florida Nutrients; Plankton; Ports & Harbors; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Sewage Treatment; Wastewater Discharge
Leao, Z. M. A. N. and R. K. P. Kikuchi. 2005. A relic coral fauna threatened by global changes and human activities, Eastern Brazil. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:599-611. 2005 Global Finfish Harvest; Light; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Stony Coral; Tourism & Recreation; Water Depth & Sea Level
Rinkevich, B., Y. Loya, M. Rosenfeld, and E. Kramarsky-Winter. 2005. Nutrient enrichment and coral reproduction: Between truth and repose (a critique of Loya et al.) [2] (multiple letters). Marine Pollution Bulletin 50:111-118. 2005 Nutrients; Waterborne Discharges
Pimenov, N. V. and A. E. Ivanova. 2005. Anaerobic methane oxidation and sulfate reduction in bacterial mats on coral-like carbonate structures in the Black Sea. Microbiology 74:362-370. 2005 Cuba CO2; Microorganisms; Substrate
Boulon, R., M. Chiappone, R. Halley, W. Jaap, B. Keller, B. Kruczynski, M. Miller, and C. Rogers. 2005. Atlantic Acropora Status Review. 2005 Global; South & Central America; Florida; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Jamaica; Belize; Caribbean; Mexico Review Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Climate; Coastal Development; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Pathogens; Physical Damage; Sediment; Special Use Permitting; Stony Coral; Storms & Hurricanes; Zooxanthellae
Badran, M. I. and M. K. Al Zibdah. 2005. Environmental quality of Jordanian coastal surface sediment, Gulf of Aqaba, red sea. Ambio 34:615-620. 2005 Beaches & Nature Parks; Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Complex Habitat & Resources; Discharges; Hotel & Food Services; Nutrients; Plankton; Sediment; Stony Coral; Tourism & Recreation
Broeg, K., H.v. Westernhagen, S. Zander, W. Korting, A. Koehler. 2005. The bioeffect assessment index (BAI) A concept for the quantification of effects of marine pollution by an integrated biomarker approach. Marine Pollution Bulletin 2005 Europe Index or Indicator Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Waterborne Discharges
Finkl, C. W., R. H. Charlier, and S. L. Krupa. 2005. Vulnerability of coastal environments to land use and abuse: The example of southeast Florida. International Journal of Environmental Studies 62:535-554. 2005 Florida; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Jimenez-Rodriguez, L. O., A. Umana-Diaz, J. Diaz-Santos, G. Neira-Carolina, J. Morales-Morales, and E. Rodriguez. 2005. Subsurface object recognition by means of regularization techniques for mappimg coastal waters floor. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 5977. 2005 Model; GIS & Maps; Remote Sensing; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Yahel, G., D. Marie, and A. Genin. 2005. InEx - A direct in situ method to measure filtration rates, nutrition, and metabolism of active suspension feeders. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 3:46-58. 2005 Bivalves; Discharges; Sponges; Tunicates
Bender, K. and R. Taylor. 2005. Oil spill contingency planning in Thailand. Page 5512 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 Thailand Aquaculture; Beaches & Nature Parks; Finfish Harvest; Mangroves; Marine Birds; Marine Protected Areas; Petroleum Spills; Sediment; Tourism & Recreation
Bennett, V. and D. Noviello. 2005. Response to the grounding of the F/V Ei Jyu Maru No. 21. Page 7183 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 US Pacific & Hawaii; Japan; Palau; Guam Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Coastal Defense; Finfish Harvest; Infrastructure; Petroleum Spills
Bodnar, J. L. 2005. The information technology of SHIELDS - NOAA'S Sanctuaries Hazardous Incident Emergency Logistics Database System. Pages 11312-11316 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 Model; GIS & Maps; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Internet & Telecommunications; Petroleum Spills
Brodie, D. 2005. Preparation of marine pollution contingency plans for small Island nations. Page 6374 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia Fishing Sector; Petroleum Spills; Waterborne Discharges
Sordelli, C. and N. Garcia. 2005. Venezuelan national oil spill training program. Page 8972 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 Venezuela Review; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Decision Support; Mangroves; Military; Oil & Gas Industry; Petroleum Spills
Symons, L. C., M. Hodges, and M. S. Devany. 2005. Flexibility for NOAA in development and application of multi-hazard contingency plans and response tools: The Sanctuaries Hazardous Incident Logistics Database System (SHIELDS). Pages 11158-11160 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 US Pacific & Hawaii Review; GIS & Maps; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Regulations; Cultural Policies; Cultural Protections; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Marine Protected Areas; Petroleum Spills; Small Boats; Special Use Permitting; Storms & Hurricanes
Keller, K., M. Hall, S.-R. Kim, D. F. Bradford, and M. Oppenheimer. 2005. Avoiding dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Climatic change 73:227-238. 2005 Global Model Climate; Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Symons, L. C. and J. Morris. 2005. Development of multi-hazard contingency plans and tools for the National Marine Sanctuary System. Pages 9628-9631 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 Florida; US Pacific & Hawaii; Samoa; American Samoa Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Cultural Protections; Marine Protected Areas; Petroleum Spills; Special Use Permitting; Storms & Hurricanes; Whales & Dolphins
Chiappone, M., H. Dienes, D. W. Swanson, and S. L. Miller. 2005. Impacts of lost fishing gear on coral reef sessile invertebrates in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Biological Conservation 121:221-230. 2005 Florida Commercial Fisheries; Complex Habitat & Resources; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Hydrocoral; Octocoral; Recreational Fishing; Sponges; Stony Coral; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Waterborne Discharges
Houk, P., G. Didonato, J. Iguel, and R. Van Woesik. 2005. Assessing the effects of non-point source pollution on American Samoa's coral reef communities. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 107:27-Nov. 2005 Samoa; American Samoa Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Algae; Coralline Algae; Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Point Source Discharges; Stony Coral
Keating, J., K. MacIntyre, C. M. Mbogo, J. I. Githure, and J. C. Beier. 2005. Self-reported malaria and mosquito avoidance in relation to household risk factors in a Kenyan coastal city. Journal of Biosocial Science 37:761-771. 2005 Kenya Model Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Housing
Diaz-Pulido, G. and L. J. McCook. 2005. Effects of nutrient enhancement on the fecundity of a coral reef macroalga. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 317:13-24. 2005 Australia Algae; Fleshy Macroalgae; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment
Benito, M. I., K. C. Lohmann, and R. Mas. 2005. Late Jurassic paleogeography and paleoclimate in the northern Iberian Basin of Spain: Constraints from diagenetic records in reefal and continental carbonates. Journal of Sedimentary Research 75:82-96. 2005 Spain Climate; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Shaw, M. and J. F. Muller. 2005. Preliminary evaluation of the occurrence of herbicides and PAHs in the Wet Tropics region of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, using passive samplers. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:876-881. 2005 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Agriculture; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Marine Protected Areas; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Cox, M.E., A. Moss, and G.K. Smyth. 2005. Water quality condition and trend in North Queensland waterways. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:89-98. 2005 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Agriculture; Discharges; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Point Source Discharges
Devlin, M.J., J. Brodie. 2005. Terrestrial discharge into the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon: nutrient behavior in coastal waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:9-22. 2005 Australia; Europe GIS & Maps Agriculture; Chemical Use Regulations; Discharges; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Thompson, J. H. and T. J. Bright. 2005. Effects of drill mud on sediment clearing rates of certain hermatypic corals. Page 2315 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Petroleum Spills; Sediment; Stony Coral
Thorhaug, A., F. McDonald, J. McFarlane, B. Carby, M. Anderson, B. Miller, V. Gordon, and P. Gayle. 2005. Dispersed oil effects on tropical habitats: Preliminary laboratory results of dispersed oil testing on Jamaica coralsand seagrass. Page 1988 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 Jamaica Lab Study; Index or Indicator; GIS & Maps Beaches & Nature Parks; Fish; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Petroleum Spills; Seagrasses; Tourism & Recreation
Thorhaug, A., G. Sidrak, K. Aiken, W. Walker, H. J. Teas, F. McDonald, B. Carby, R. Reese, M. Anderson, M. Rodriquez, B. Miller, V. Gordon, and J. McFarlane. 2005. Dispersant use for tropical nearshore waters: Jamaica. Page 1968 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 South & Central America; Jamaica; Caribbean; Europe Beaches & Nature Parks; Coastal Defense; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Mangroves; Petroleum Spills; Seagrasses; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Tourism & Recreation
Trudel, B. K., R. C. Belore, B. J. Jessiman, and S. L. Ross. 2005. A microcomputer-based spill impact assessment system for untreated and chemically dispersed oil spills in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. Page 4770 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 South & Central America; Florida; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Mexico Model Coastal Defense; Petroleum Spills; Resource Use Management; Special Use Permitting
Ward, G. A., B. Baca, W. Cyriacks, R. E. Dodge, and A. Knap. 2005. Continuing long-term studies of the tropics Panama oil and dispersed oil spill sites. Pages 9644-9652 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 South & Central America; Panama; Caribbean Mangroves; Petroleum Spills; Seagrasses; Sediment
Schaffelke, B., J. Mellors, and N. C. Duke. 2005. Water quality in the Great Barrier Reef region: Responses of mangrove, seagrass and macroalgal communities. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:279-296. 2005 Australia Algae; Chemical Use Regulations; Coastal Development; Docks & Marinas; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Infrastructure; Mangroves; Nutrients; Seagrasses; Substrate; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetlands
[No author name available]. 2005. News: Mock ship grounding and oil spill in Florida keys National Marine Sanctuary. Marine Pollution Bulletin 50. 2005 Florida Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Complex Habitat & Resources; Petroleum Spills; Security Policies
Fabricius, K. E. and G. De'ath. 2004. Identifying ecological change and its causes: A case study on coral reefs. Ecological Applications 14:1448-1465. 2004 Australia Model Agriculture; Chemical Use Regulations; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Octocoral; Sediment; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Inoue, M., A. Suzuki, M. Nohara, H. Kan, A. Edward, and H. Kawahata. 2004. Coral skeletal tin and copper concentrations at Pohnpei, Micronesia: Possible index for marine pollution by toxic anti-biofouling paints. Environmental Pollution 129:399-407. 2004 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia; Japan; Micronesia Index or Indicator Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Special Use Permitting; Stony Coral; Waterborne Discharges
Timmons, C. L. and D. W. Hess. 2004. Electrochemical cleaning of post-plasma etch fluorocarbon residues using reductive radical anion chemistry. Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 7. 2004 Model
Tibbetts, J. 2004. The state of the oceans, part 2: delving deeper into the sea's bounty. Environmental Health Perspectives 112:A472-481. 2004 Global Index or Indicator Agriculture; Biomedical Research Policies; Climate; Finfish Harvest; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics Sources
Yakovleva, I. and M. Hidaka. 2004. Diel fluctuations of mycosporine-like amino acids in shallow-water scleractinian corals. Marine Biology 145:863-873. 2004 Japan Algae; Light; Stony Coral; Sunscreen Use
Hoegh-Guldberg, O., L. Muscatine, C. Goiran, D. Siggaard, and G. Marion. 2004. Nutrient-induced perturbations to δ13C and δ15N in symbiotic dinoflagellates and their coral hosts. Marine Ecology Progress Series 280:105-114. 2004 Australia Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Nutrients; Stony Coral
Salgado-Barragan, J., N. Mendez, and A. Toledano-Granados. 2004. Ficopomatus miamiensis (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) and Styela canopus (Ascidiacea: Styelidae), non-native species in Urias estuary, SE Gulf of California, Mexico. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 45:167-173. 2004 South & Central America; Florida; US Pacific & Hawaii; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Panama; Mexico Ballast Discharge; Invasive Species; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Marine Worms
Enachescu, M. E. 2004. Conspicuous deepwater submarine mounds in the northeastern Orphan Basin and on the Orphan Knoll, offshore Newfoundland. Leading Edge (Tulsa, OK) 23:1290-1294. 2004 Water Depth & Sea Level
Hoegh-Guldberg, O. 2004. Coral reefs in a century of rapid environmental change. Symbiosis 37:31-Jan. 2004 Global; South & Central America; US Pacific & Hawaii; Caribbean Model Climate; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Nutrients; Pathogens; Sea Temperatures; Stony Coral
Walsh, J. P., C. A. Nittrouer, C. M. Palinkas, A. S. Ogston, R. W. Sternberg, and G. J. Brunskill. 2004. Clinoform mechanics in the Gulf of Papua, New Guinea. Continental Shelf Research 24:2487-2510. 2004 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii Field Study & Monitoring Discharges; Mangroves; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Dalyell, T. 2004. Westminster diary. New Scientist 181:49. 2004 Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fish
Avasthi, A. 2004. Releasing Nemo proves a disaster for native fish. New Scientist 183:13. 2004 Aquarium & Pet Trade; Aquarium Stock; Ballast Discharge; Fish; Fishing Sector; Invasive Species
Boorova, D., P. Skupien, and Z. Vasicek. 2004. Biostratigraphy of the Lower Cretaceous limestones of the Godula facies of the Silesian Unit, Outer Western Carpathians. Bulletin of Geosciences 79:121-131. 2004 Sediment
Davara, F. and A. De La Cruz. 2004. Dust storm monitoring: Effects on the environment, human health and potential security conflicts. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 5574:361-371. 2004 Global; South & Central America; US Pacific & Hawaii; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Pacific Ocean; Japan; Caribbean; Europe Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Storms & Hurricanes
Latypov, YU .Y A. 2004. Reef-building corals and reefs of Vietnam: 2. The Gulf of Tonkin. Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29. 2004 Vietnam Climate; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Pereira, M. A. M. and P. M. B. Goncalves. 2004. Effects of the 2000 southern Mozambique floods on a marginal coral community: The case at Xai-Xai. African Journal of Aquatic Science 29:113-116. 2004 Mozambique Field Study & Monitoring Algae; Coralline Algae; Discharges; Fleshy Macroalgae; Invertebrates; Octocoral; Salinity; Sea Urchins; Sediment; Skeletal Coral; Sponges; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Turf Algae
Duineveld, G. C. A., M. S. S. Lavaleye, and E. M. Berghuis. 2004. Particle flux and food supply to a seamount cold-water coral community (Galicia Bank, NW Spain). Marine Ecology Progress Series 277:13-23. 2004 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Europe; Spain Algae; Microorganisms; Sediment
Osmond, B., G. Ananyev, J. Berry, C. Langdon, Z. Kolber, G. Lin, R. Monson, C. Nichol, U. Rascher, U. Schurr, S. Smith, and D. Yakir. 2004. Changing the way we think about global change research: Scaling up in experimental ecosystem science. Global Change Biology 10:393-407. 2004 Global Lab Study; Model Climate; Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Mallela, J., C. T. Perry, and M. P. Haley. 2004. Reef morphology and community structure along a fluvial gradient, Rio Bueno, Jamaica. Caribbean Journal of Science 40:299-311. 2004 Jamaica Discharges; Nutrients; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Feely, R. A., C. L. Sabine, K. Lee, W. Berelson, J. Kleypas, V. J. Fabry, and F. J. Millero. 2004. Impact of anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 system in the oceans. Science 305:362-366. 2004 Global Calcium Carbonate Deposition; CO2
Lin, J.-Y., S. Huang, S.-H. Chen, W.-C. Chen, and S. L. Yu. 2004. A BMP system for A clay mining facility in Taiwan. Pages 477-485 in Proceedings of the 2004 World Water and Environmetal Resources Congress: Critical Transitions in Water and Environmetal Resources Management. 2004 Taiwan Field Study & Monitoring Mining; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetlands
Sumida, P. Y. G., M. Y. Yoshinaga, L.A.S.-P. Madureira, and M. Hovland. 2004. Seabed pockmarks associated with deepwater corals off SE Brazilian continental slope, Santos Basin. Marine Geology 207:159-167. 2004 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean GIS & Maps Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Marine Worms; Sediment; Skeletal Coral
Bhagooli, R. and M. Hidaka. 2004. Release of zooxanthellae with intact photosynthetic activity by the coral Galaxae fascicularis in response to high temperature stress. Marine Biology 145:329-337. 2004 Discharges; Primary Production; Stony Coral; Zooxanthellae
Iliescu, M., V. Nelea, J. Werckmann, I. N. Mihailescu, G. Socol, A. Bigi, and B. Bracci. 2004. Electron microscopy studies of octa-calcium phosphate thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition. Pages 157-161 Thin Solid Films. 2004 Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics Sources; Substrate
Raghunathan, C., R. Sen Gupta, U. Wangikar, and J. Lakhmapurkar. 2004. A record of live corals along the Saurashtra coast of Gujarat, Arabian Sea. Current Science 87:1131-1138. 2004 Plankton; Stony Coral
Chen, C.-Y., K.-T. Shao, and Y.-Y. Tu. 2004. Effect of thermal discharges on the fish assemblages of a nuclear power plant in northern Taiwan. Journal of Marine Science and Technology 12:404-410. 2004 Taiwan Field Study & Monitoring Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Fish
Walsh, J. P. and C. A. Nittrouer. 2004. Mangrove-bank sedimentation in a mesotidal environment with large sediment supply, Gulf of Papua. Marine Geology 208:225-248. 2004 US Pacific & Hawaii; Papua New Guinea Model; Remote Sensing Discharges; Mangroves; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Duque, C., M. Puyana, G. Narvaez, O. Osorno, N. Hara, and Y. Fujimoto. 2004. Pseudopterosins P-V, new compounds from the gorgonian octocoral Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae from Providencia island, Colombian Caribbean. Tetrahedron 60:10627-10635. 2004 South & Central America; Caribbean Octocoral
Kiriakoulakis, K., B. J. Bett, M. White, and G. A. Wolff. 2004. Organic biogeochemistry of the Darwin Mounds, a deep-water coral ecosystem, of the NE Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 51:1937-1954. 2004 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Marine Worms; Microorganisms; Plankton; Sediment
Feary, D. A., A. C. Hine, N. P. James, and M. J. Malone. 2004. Leg 182 synthesis: Exposed secrets of the Great Australian Bight. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program: Scientific Results 182:30-Jan. 2004 Global; Australia Algae; Coralline Algae; Salinity; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Tunicates; Water Depth & Sea Level
Ramos, A. A., Y. Inoue, and S. Ohde. 2004. Metal contents in Porites corals: Anthropogenic input of river run-off into a coral reef from an urbanized area, Okinawa. Marine Pollution Bulletin 48:281-294. 2004 Non-point Source Runoff; Salinity; Sediment; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Loya, Y. 2004. Coral Reef Health and Diease. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 2004 Review Aquaculture; Discharges; Nutrients; Petroleum Spills; Stony Coral
Tsang, C. F., C. K. Chang, Y. J. Su, H. Y. Li, L. Y. Wong, W. H. Li, and M. L. Koh. 2004. Improved dense via yields of Cu/CVD low k Coral™ dual damascene metallization at post Cu cap etch wet clean. Microelectronic Engineering 75:433-442. 2004 Cleaner & Solvent Use
Lapointe, B. E., P. J. Barile, and W. R. Matzie. 2004. Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment of seagrass and coral reef communities in the Lower Florida Keys: Discrimination of local versus regional nitrogen sources. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 308:23-58. 2004 Global; Florida Agriculture; Algae; Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Plankton; Seagrasses; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Zhang, S.-H., D.-S. Xiong, and C. Cui. 2004. Preparation and properties of β-tricalcium phosphate porous bioceramic. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China (English Edition) 14:981-986. 2004 CO2
Gardinali, P. R., M. D. Plasencia, and C. Maxey. 2004. Occurrence and transport of Irgarol 1051 and its major metabolite in coastal waters from South Florida. Marine Pollution Bulletin 49:1072-1083. 2004 Florida Model Algae; Docks & Marinas; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Point Source Discharges; Ports & Harbors; Primary Production; Seagrasses; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Sun, W. H., J. B. Lo, F. M. Robert, C. Ray, and C.-S. Tang. 2004. Phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in tropical coastal soils: I. Selection of promising woody plants. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 11:260-266. 2004 US Pacific & Hawaii Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Military; Remediation; Salinity; Sediment
Gaston, T. F., A. Kostoglidis, and I. M. Suthers. 2004. The 13C, 15N and 34S signatures of a rocky reef planktivorous fish indicate different coastal discharges of sewage. Marine and Freshwater Research 55:689-699. 2004 Discharges; Fish; Nutrients; Planktivorous Fish; Sewage Treatment; Waste Management Policies
Bath, A., B. Shackleton, and C. Botica. 2004. Development of temperature criteria for marine discharge from a large industrial seawater supplies project in Western Australia. Water SA 30:648-654. 2004 Australia Discharges; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Pipelines; Water
Pichler, T. and J. Veizer. 2004. The precipitation of aragonite from shallow-water hydrothermal fluids in a coral reef, Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea. Chemical Geology 207:31-45. 2004 Papua New Guinea Model Calcium Carbonate Deposition; CO2; Discharges; Skeletal Coral
Klosowska, B. B., S. R. Troelstra, J. E. Van Hinte, D. Beets, K. Van Der Borg, and A. F. M. De Jong. 2004. Late holocene environmental reconstruction of St. Michiel saline lagoon, Curacao (Dutch Antilles). Radiocarbon 46:765-774. 2004 Antilles; Europe Agriculture; Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Deforestation & Devegetation; Non-point Source Runoff; Salinity; Sediment; Skeletal Coral
Sinclair, D. J. and M. T. McCulloch. 2004. Corals record low mobile barium concentrations in the Burdekin River during the 1974 flood: Evidence for limited Ba supply to rivers? Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 214:155-174. 2004 Australia Model Discharges; Salinity; Sediment; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Schiel, D. R., J. R. Steinbeck, and M. S. Foster. 2004. Ten years of-induced ocean warming causes comprehensive changes in marine benthic communities. Ecology 85:1833-1839. 2004 Global Model Algae; Climate; Discharges; Invertebrates
Liu, Y., H. Qiang, and Z. Zhu. 2004. Silk-proof measures. International Water Power and Dam Construction 56:18-20. 2004 Non-point Source Runoff
Goldberg, J. and C. Wilkinson. 2004. Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2004. 2004 Global Agriculture; Climate; Deforestation & Devegetation; Finfish Harvest; Invasive Species; Non-point Source Runoff; Pathogens; Seastars; Sediment
Cosgrove, J., D. Walker, P. Morrison, and K. Hillman. 2004. Periphyton indicate effects of wastewater discharge in the near-coastal zone, Perth (Western Australia). Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 61:331-338. 2004 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study; Index or Indicator Discharges; Nutrients; Plankton; Primary Production; Wastewater Discharge
Lapointe, B. E., P. J. Barile, C. S. Yentsch, M. M. Littler, D. S. Littler, and B. Kakuk. 2004. The relative importance of nutrient enrichment and herbivory on macroalgal communities near Norman's Pond Cay, Exumas Cays, Bahamas: A \natural\" enrichment experiment". Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 298:275-301. 2004 Bahamas Algae; Corallivorous Fish; Discharges; Fish; Large Herbivorous Fish; Mangroves; Nutrients; Small Herbivorous Fish; Snails & Conch; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Ayliffe, L. K., M. I. Bird, M. K. Gagan, P. J. Isdale, H. Scott-Gagan, B. Parker, D. Griffin, M. Nongkas, and M. T. McCulloch. 2004. Geochemistry of coral from Papua New Guinea as a proxy for ENSO ocean-atmosphere interactions in the Pacific Warm Pool. Continental Shelf Research 24:2343-2356. 2004 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia; Papua New Guinea Climate; Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Dzeranov, N. K. and E. K. Ianenko. 2004. Operative treatment of kidney calculi. [Operativnoe lechenie korallovidnogo nefrolitiaza.]. Urologiia (Moscow, Russia : 1999) 1:34-38. 2004 Discharges
Trapeznikova, M. F. and V. V. Dutov. 2004. Use of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for kidney calculi. [Primenenie DUVL-monoterapii pri korallovidnom nefrolitiaze.]. Urologiia (Moscow, Russia : 1999) 1:38-43. 2004 Discharges
Carnell, A. J. H. and M. E. J. Wilson. 2004. Dolomites in SE Asia - Varied origins and implications for hydrocarbon exploration. Geological Society Special Publication 255-300. 2004 Australia; Thailand; Java Review; Model CO2
Riccardi, A. C., S. E. Damborenea, M. O. Mancenido, and M. P. Iglesia Llanos. 2004. The Triassic/Jurassic boundary in the Andes of Argentina. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 110:69-76. 2004 Europe Surface & Groundwater Flow
Burns, K. A., P. Greenwood, R. Benner, D. Brinkman, G. Brunskill, S. Codi, and I. Zagorskis. 2004. Organic biomarkers for tracing carbon cycling in the Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea). Continental Shelf Research 24:2373-2394. 2004 Papua New Guinea Carbon Storage & Cycling; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Plankton; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
[No author name available]. 2004. Proceedings of SPIE - Remote Sensing of the Ocean and Sea Ice 2004. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 5569. 2004 Taiwan Field Study & Monitoring; Remote Sensing Petroleum Spills; Primary Production
Fletcher, R. 2004. Advanced FCC catalysts for VGO applications. Petroleum Technology Quarterly 9:42-43. 2004 France Index or Indicator
van Beukering, P. J. H. and H. S. J. Cesar. 2004. Ecological economic modeling of coral reefs: Evaluating tourist overuse at Hanauma Bay and algae blooms at the Kīhei Coast, Hawai'i. Pacific Science 58:243-260. 2004 Model Algae; Discharges; Hotel & Food Services; Mitigation; Monetary Valuation; Nutrients; Tourism & Recreation
Kawahata, H., H. Ohta, M. Inoue, and A. Suzuki. 2004. Endocrine disrupter nonylphenol and bisphenol A contamination in Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands, Japan - Within coral reefs and adjacent river mouths. Chemosphere 55:1519-1527. 2004 Japan Agriculture; Discharges; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Watanabe, K., K. Sugiyama, and A. Nakamura. 2004. A concept of distributed compact AUV groups for the continuous monitoring of coastal sea environment. Pages 511-516 in Ocean '04 - MTS/IEEE Techno-Ocean '04: Bridges across the Oceans - Conference Proceedings. 2004 Field Study & Monitoring Aquaculture; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Small Boats; Waterborne Discharges
Nemr, A. E., A. El-Sikaily, A. Khaled, T. O. Said, and A. M. A. Abd-Allah. 2004. Chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the coral reef skeleton of the Egyptian Red Sea coast. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 72:119-1202. 2004 Egypt Fertilizer & Pesticide Use
Harvey, L. D. D. 2004. Declining temporal effectiveness of carbon sequestration: Implications for compliance with the united national framework convention on climate change. Climatic change 63:259-290. 2004 Model Carbon Storage & Cycling; Climate; CO2; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Water Depth & Sea Level
Timmons, C. L. and D. W. Hess. 2004. Fluorocarbon post-plasma etch residue cleaning with naphthalenide radical amons. Pages 275-282 in Proceedings - Electrochemical Society. 2004 Model Cleaner & Solvent Use
Rajakrishna Kumar, G., C. R. K. Reddy, M. Ganesan, S. Thiruppathi, S. Dipakkore, K. Eswaran, P. V. Subba Rao, and B. Jha. 2004. Tissue culture and regeneration of thallus from callus of Gelidiella acerosa (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 43:596-602. 2004 Cuba Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Cleaner & Solvent Use
Haasch, M. L., M. F. Johnston, and S. Codi. 2004. Environmental induction of CYP1A- and CYP2K1-like proteins in two tropical fish species by produced formation water on the northwest shelf of Australia. Marine Environmental Research 58:536-537. 2004 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Discharges; Fish; Oil & Gas Rigs
Moreira, S. M., M. Moreira-Santos, R. Ribeiro, and L. Guilhermino. 2004. The 'Coral Bulker' fuel oil spill on the north coast of portugal: Spatial and temporal biomarker responses in Mytilus galloprovincialis. Ecotoxicology 13:619-630. 2004 Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study; Index or Indicator; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Petroleum Spills; Waterborne Discharges
Lee, T. W., M. Radzuan b Yusof, BO NI Rosli b, and S. A. Rahman. 2004. Protecting shallow water environment through re-injecting drilling wastes down hole: A proactive management decision. Pages 855-861 in International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production. 2004 Bahrain Discharges; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Seagrasses
Laws, E. A., D. Brown, and C. Peace. 2004. Coastal water quality in the Kihei and Lahaina districts of the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands. Impacts from physical habitat and groundwater seepage: Implications for water quality standards. International Journal of Environment and Pollution 22:531-546. 2004 US Pacific & Hawaii Beaches & Nature Parks; Nutrients; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waterborne Discharges
Li, Y., S. Kershaw, and C. Xu. 2004. Control of carbonate sedimentation and reef growth in Llandovery sequences on the Northwestern margin of the Yangtze Platform, South China. Gondwana Research 7:937-949. 2004 Global; Japan; China Model Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Water Depth & Sea Level
Pinazo, C., S. Bujan, P. Douillet, R. Fichez, C. Grenz, and A. Maurin. 2004. Impact of wind and freshwater inputs on phytoplankton biomass in the coral reef lagoon of New Caledonia during the summer cyclonic period: A coupled three-dimensional biogeochemical modeling approach. Coral Reefs 23:281-296. 2004 New Caledonia Model Discharges; Nutrients; Plankton; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Dollar, S.J., R.W. Grigg. 2004. Anthropogenic and Natural Stresses on Selected Coral Reefs in Hawai'i: A Multidecade Synthesis of Impact and Recovery. Pacific Science 58:281-304. 2004 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii Field Study & Monitoring Hotel & Food Services; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Tourism & Recreation
McCarthy, L. H., R. L. Thomas, and C. I. Mayfield. 2004. Assessing the toxicity of chemically fractionated Hamilton Harbour (Lake Ontario) sediment using selected aquatic organisms. Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management 9:89-103. 2004 Sediment
Vargas-Angel, B. 2003. Coral community structure off the Pacific coast of Colombia: Onshore vs offshore coral reefs. Atoll Research Bulletin 21-Jan. 2003 US Pacific & Hawaii Complex Habitat & Resources; Discharges; Fish; Invertivorous Fish; Non-point Source Runoff; Sea Urchins; Sediment; Skeletal Coral; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Turf Algae
Runnalls, L. A. and M. L. Coleman. 2003. Record of natural and anthropogenic changes in reef environments (Barbados West Indies) using laser ablation ICP-MS and sclerochronology on coral cores. Coral Reefs 22:416-426. 2003 Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Stony Coral; Storms & Hurricanes; Waterborne Discharges
Cesar, H., L. Burke, L. Pet-Soede. 2003. The economics of worldwide coral reef degradation. Cesar Environmental Economics Consulting, Arnhem, Netherlands. 2003 Climate; Finfish Harvest; Monetary Valuation; Non-point Source Runoff; Tourism & Recreation
Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2003. Waste Treatment Lagoon. CODE 359. U.S. Depatrment of Agriculture. 2003 Domestic Animal Waste; Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
Hovland, M. and M. Risk. 2003. Do Norwegian deep-water coral reefs rely on seeping fluids? Marine Geology 198:83-96. 2003 Norway Index or Indicator Microorganisms; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Kemp, A. E. S., D. N. Langhorne, I. J. Fairchild, T. S. Schmitt, and E. G. Nisbet. 2003. Evidence for abrupt climate changes in annually laminated marine sediments. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 361:1851-1870. 2003 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii Climate; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment
Orellana, M.V., P. Verdugo. 2003. Ultraviolet radiation blocks the organic carbon exchange between the dissolved phase and the gel phase in the ocean. Limnology and Oceanography 48:1618-1623. 2003 Light; Microorganisms; Substrate
Allen, J. P., M. Nelson, and A. Alling. 2003. The legacy of biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems. Advances in Space Research 31:1629-1639. 2003 Global; Columbia Review; Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study; Model Agriculture; Artificial Habitat; CO2; Nutrients; Pathogens; Toxics; Wastewater Discharge
Burrage, D. M., M. L. Heron, J. M. Hacker, J. L. Miller, T. C. Stieglitz, C. R. Steinberg, and A. Prytz. 2003. Structure and influence of tropical river plumes in the Great Barrier Reef: Application and performance of an airborne sea surface salinity mapping system. Remote Sensing of Environment 85:204-220. 2003 Australia GIS & Maps; Remote Sensing Discharges; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Salinity; Seagrasses; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Runghen, H., M. Bhuruth, S. D. D. V. Rughooputh, and H. C. S. Rughooputh. 2003. Oil spill information system for mauritius: Oil spill shoreline sensitivity mapping & analysis. Pages 450-455 in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology. 2003 Mauritius Model; GIS & Maps Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Petroleum Spills
Dunbar, G. B. and G. R. Dickens. 2003. Massive siliciclastic discharge to slopes of the Great Barrier Reef Platform during sea-level transgression: Constraints from sediment cores between 15°S and 16°S latitude and possible explanations. Sedimentary Geology 162:141-158. 2003 Australia Model Climate; Discharges; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Rao, V. P., G. Rajagopalan, K. H. Vora, and F. Almeida. 2003. Late Quaternary sea level and environmental changes from relic carbonate deposits of the western margin of India. Pages 25-Jan in Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Earth and Planetary Sciences. 2003 India Index or Indicator Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Discharges; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Barnes, D. J., R. B. Taylor, and J. M. Lough. 2003. Measurement of luminescence in coral skeletons. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 295:91-106. 2003 Agriculture; Civil Engineering & Construction; Discharges; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Non-point Source Runoff; Salinity; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Hashimoto, N., S. Fujiwara, K. Watanabe, K. Iguchi, and M. Tsuzuki. 2003. Localization of clavulones, prostanoids with antitumor activity, within the Okinawan soft coral Clavularia viridis (Alcyonacea, Clavulariidae): Preparation of a high-purity Symbiodinium fraction using a protease and a detergent. Lipids 38:991-997. 2003 Field Study & Monitoring Cleaner & Solvent Use; Octocoral
Edmundson, J. A., T. M. Willette, J. M. Edmundson, D. C. Schmidt, S. R. Carlson, B. G. Bue, and K. E. Tarbox. 2003. Sockeye Salmon Overescapement (Kenai River Component). Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Project Final Report. 2003 Commercial Fisheries; Fishing Sector; Non-point Source Runoff; Petroleum Spills; Plankton; Primary Production; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Rocha, L. A. 2003. Patterns of distribution and processes of speciation in Brazilian reef fishes. Journal of Biogeography 30:1161-1171. 2003 South & Central America; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Caribbean Discharges; Fish; Sediment; Sponges; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Sandweiss, D. H. 2003. Terminal Pleistocene through Mid-Holocene archaeological sites as paleoclimatic archives for the Peruvian coast. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 194:23-40. 2003 Climate; Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Wright, A. D., E. Goclik, and G. M. Konig. 2003. Oxygenated analogues of gorgosterol and ergosterol from the soft coral Capnella lacertiliensis. Journal of Natural Products 66:157-160. 2003 Octocoral
Cervino, J. M., R.L. Hayes, M. Honovich, T.J. Goreau, S. Jones, and P.J. Rubec. 2003. Changes in zooxanthellae density, morphology, and mitotic index in hermatypic corals and anemones exposed to cyanide. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46:573-586. 2003 Southeast Asia Index or Indicator Anemones & Zooanthids; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Fish; Hydrocoral; Microorganisms; Stony Coral; Toxics; Zooxanthellae
Leichter, J.J., H.L. Stewart, S. Miller. 2003. Episodic nutrient transport to Florida coral reefs. Limnology and Oceanography 48:1394-1407. 2003 Florida Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wastewater Discharge
Walsh, J. P. and C. A. Nittrouer. 2003. Contrasting styles of off-shelf sediment accumulation in new guinea. Marine Geology 196:105-125. 2003 Global Discharges; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Daby, D. 2003. Some quantitative aspects of seagrass ecology in a coastal lagoon of Mauritius. Marine Biology 142:193-203. 2003 Mauritius GIS & Maps Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Molluscs; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Salinity; Seagrasses; Sediment
Bandara, N. J. G. J. 2003. Water and wastewater related issues in Sri Lanka. Water Science and Technology 47:305-312. 2003 Sri Lanka Agriculture; Irrigation; Non-point Source Runoff; Pathogens; Petroleum Spills; Special Use Permitting; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wastewater Discharge; Water; Waterborne Discharges
Page, M. C., G. R. Dickens, and G. B. Dunbar. 2003. Tropical view of Quaternary sequence stratigraphy: Siliciclastic accumulation on slopes east of the Great Barrier Reef since the Last Glacial Maximum. Geology 31:1013-1016. 2003 Australia Model Climate; Discharges; Plankton; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Ngatunga, E. L., S. Dondeyne, and J. A. Deckers. 2003. Is sulphur acidifying cashew soils of South Eastern Tanzania? Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 95:179-184. 2003 Tanzania Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Pathogens
Ferrandini, J., J. Gattacceca, M. Ferrandini, A. Deino, and M.-C. Janin. 2003. Chronostratigraphy and paleomagnetism of Oligo-Miocene deposits of Corsica (France): Geodynamic implications for the liguro-provencal basin spreading [Chronostratigraphie et paleomagnetisme des depots oligo-miocenes de Corse: implications geodynami. Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France 174:357-371. 2003 Europe; France Sediment
Hanisko, D. S. and J. Lyczkowski-Shultz. 2003. Occurrence and pelagic habitat of reef fish larvae in the Gulf of Mexico. Pages 205-224 in American Fisheries Society Symposium. 2003 South & Central America; Caribbean; Mexico Field Study & Monitoring Corallivorous Fish; Discharges; Fish; Large Herbivorous Fish; Plankton; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Hoitink, A. J. F. 2003. Physics of coral reef systems in a shallow tidal embayment. Nederlandse Geografische Studies 313:11-141. 2003 Global Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Discharges; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Permitting & Zoning; Salinity; Sediment; Substrate; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Peresypkin, V. I., E. A. Romankevich, and N. A. Belyaev. 2003. Paraffin hydrocarbons and lignin in the bottom sediments of the Blake-Bahama abyssal plain. Oceanology 43:503-511. 2003 Algae; Fleshy Macroalgae; Mangroves; Plankton; Sediment
Sunshine, S. 2003. Surfing injuries. Current sports medicine reports2:136-141. 2003 Sunscreen Use
Mallinson, D., A. Hine, P. Hallock, S. Locker, E. Shinn, D. Naar, B. Donahue, and D. Weaver. 2003. Development of small carbonate banks on the south Florida platform margin: Response to sea level and climate change. Marine Geology 199:45-63. 2003 Florida Climate; Discharges; Water Depth & Sea Level
Maruyama, T., E. Hirose, and M. Ishikura. 2003. Ultraviolet-light-absorbing tunic cells in didemnid ascidians hosting a symbiotic photo-oxygenic prokaryote, Prochloron. Biological Bulletin 204:109-113. 2003 Light; Sunscreen Use
Middleton, H. and M. W. Wallace. 2003. The evolution of fluid flow systems prior to, during, and post MVT mineralization in the Givetian-Frasnian carbonates of the Emanuel Range, Western Australia. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 91-97. 2003 Australia Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Lemmens, S. 2003. Periphyton collectors as a tool to measure environmental performance of ocean outlets. Water Science and Technology 47:125-131. 2003 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Model; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Algae; Artificial Habitat; Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Chemical Use Regulations; Collaboration & Partnering; Discharges; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Primary Production; Seagrasses; Wastewater Discharge
Jompa, J. and L. J. McCook. 2003. Contrasting effects of turf algae on corals: Massive Porites spp. are unaffected by mixed-species turfs, but killed by the red alga Anotrichium tenue. Marine Ecology Progress Series 258:79-86. 2003 Australia Algae; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Stony Coral; Turf Algae
Despinoy, M., A. Minghelli-Roman, A. Begue, M. Petit, J. Coudray, and A. Barcelo. 2003. Airborne CASI imagery for bathymetric study in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean). Pages 2368-2370 in International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS). 2003 Indian Ocean; Reunion; India Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator; Remote Sensing Agriculture; Algae; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Light
Thattai, D. V. and B. Kjerfve. 2003. Numerical modeling of tidal and wind-driven circulation in the Meso-American barrier reef lagoon, Western Caribbean. in Oceans Conference Record (IEEE). 2003 South & Central America; Belize; Caribbean Model Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Piscivorous Fish; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Biernacka, J., J. Wosko, W. Dabrowski, and A. Nestorowicz. 2003. Use of drotrecorgin alfa - recombinant activated human protein C in treatment of septic shock in the course of therapy for nephrolithiasis. Medical Science Monitor 9. 2003 Discharges; Housing
Pinheiro, L. M., M. K. Ivanov, A. Sautkin, G. Akhmanov, V. H. Magalhaes, A. Volkonskaya, J. H. Monteiro, L. Somoza, J. Gardner, N. Hamouni, and M. R. Cunha. 2003. Mud volcanism in the Gulf of Cadiz: Results from the TTR-10 cruise. Marine Geology 195:131-151. 2003 Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Echinoderms; Marine Worms; Molluscs; Sediment; Skeletal Coral; Water Depth & Sea Level
Langer, M. R. and J. H. Lipps. 2003. Foraminiferal distribution and diversity, Madang Reef and Lagoon, Papua New Guinea. Coral Reefs 22:143-154. 2003 Papua New Guinea Index or Indicator Mangroves; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Ports & Harbors; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Zepp, R. G. 2003. UV exposure of coral assemblages in the Florida Keys. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. 2003 Florida; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Review Light; Littering; Mangroves; Plankton; Seagrasses; Zooxanthellae
Li, Y. and S. Kershaw. 2003. Reef reconstruction after extinction events of the latest Ordovician in the Yangtze Platform, South China. Facies 269-284. 2003 Global; China Echinoderms; Sediment
Hendy, E. J., J. M. Lough, and M. K. Gagan. 2003. Historical mortality in massive Porites from the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia: Evidence for past environmental stress? Coral Reefs 22:207-215. 2003 Australia Boring Sponges; Climate; Non-point Source Runoff; Salinity; Sponges; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
McLaughlin, C. J., C. A. Smith, R. W. Buddemeier, J. D. Bartley, and B. A. Maxwell. 2003. Rivers, runoff, and reefs. Global and Planetary Change 39:191-199. 2003 Global GIS & Maps Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Salinity; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Legros, E. J. 2003. Exploration-Production. The day when peak production will come... [Exploration-Production. Le jour où le pic viendra...]. Pages 57-59 in Petrole et Gaz Informations. 2003 Global; Middle East; Saudi Arabia; Iran; Oman; Europe Schools & Colleges
Schroder-Ritzrau, A., A. Mangini, and M. Lomitschka. 2003. Deep-sea corals evidence periodic reduced ventilation in the North Atlantic during the LGM/Holocene transition. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216:399-410. 2003 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Model Discharges
Golbuu, Y., S. Victor, E. Wolanski, and R. H. Richmond. 2003. Trapping of fine sediment in a semi-enclosed bay, Palau, Micronesia. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 57:941-949. 2003 Palau; Micronesia Algae; Fleshy Macroalgae; Mangroves; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Corda, L. and M. Brandano. 2003. Aphotic zone carbonate production on a Miocene ramp, Central Apennines, Italy. Sedimentary Geology 161:55-70. 2003 Model Climate; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment
Raberg, S., M. Nystrom, M. Eros, P. Plantman. 2003. Impact of the Herbicides 2, 4-D and diuron on the metabolism of the coral Porites Cylindrica. Marine Environmental Research 56:503-514. 2003 Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Primary Production; Stony Coral
Alibert, C., L. Kinsley, S. J. Fallon, M. T. McCulloch, R. Berkelmans, and F. McAllister. 2003. Source of trace element variability in Great Barrier Reef corals affected by the Burdekin flood plumes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67:231-246. 2003 Australia Discharges; Mangroves; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Rayment, G. E. 2003. Water quality in sugar catchments of Queensland. Water Science and Technology 48:35-47. 2003 Australia Review; Index or Indicator Discharges; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Irrigation; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Griggs, E. M., L. R. Kump, and J. K. Bohlke. 2003. The fate of wastewater-derived nitrate in the subsurface of the Florida Keys: Key Colony Beach, Florida. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 58:517-539. 2003 Florida Field Study & Monitoring Discharges; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation; Wastewater Discharge
Scheibner, C., J. J. G. Reijmer, A. M. Marzouk, R. P. Speijer, and J. Kuss. 2003. From platform to basin: The evolution of a Paleocene carbonate margin (Eastern Desert, Egypt). International Journal of Earth Sciences 92:624-640. 2003 Egypt
Banerjee, S., A. Via, S. Joshi, and J. Eklund. 2003. Aqueous cryogenically enhanced post copper CMP cleaning. Pages 329-336 in Proceedings - Electrochemical Society. 2003 Cleaner & Solvent Use; CO2
Bartosh, K., E. Brown, S. Naghshineh, D. Peters, and E. Walker. 2003. Low carbon contamination and water mark free post-CMP cleaning of hydrophobic osg dielectrics. Pages 305-311 in Proceedings - Electrochemical Society. 2003 Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Cleaner & Solvent Use
Jimenez-Rodriguez, L. O., E. Rodriguez-Diaz, M. Velez-Reyes, and C. A. DiMarzio. 2003. Image reconstruction and subsurface detection by the application of Tikhonov regularization to inverse problems in hyperspectral images. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 4892:398-407. 2003 Field Study & Monitoring; Model; Remote Sensing; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Roberts, J. M., D. Long, J. B. Wilson, P. B. Mortensen, and J. D. Gage. 2003. The cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia) and enigmatic seabed mounds along the north-east Atlantic margin: Are they related? Marine Pollution Bulletin 46:20-Jul. 2003 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Finfish Harvest; Stony Coral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Water Depth & Sea Level
Tamboli, D., G. Banerjee, M. Waddell, J. Listebarger, Q. Arefeen, and S. Hymes. 2003. Post-CMP challenges for Cu-Low K integration. Pages 18-Oct in Proceedings - Electrochemical Society. 2003 Cleaner & Solvent Use
Allison, G. W., S. D. Gaines, J. Lubchenco, and H. P. Possingham. 2003. Ensuring persistence of marine reserves: Catastrophes require adopting an insurance factor. Ecological Applications 13. 2003 Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Pathogens; Petroleum Spills; Storms & Hurricanes
Perry, C. T. 2003. Reef development at Inhaca Island, Mozambique: Coral communities and impacts of the 1999/2000 southern African floods. Ambio 32:134-139. 2003 Indian Ocean; Mozambique; India Discharges; Sediment
Rees, W. E. 2003. Economic development and environmental protection: An ecological economics perspective. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 86:29-45. 2003 Global Model Cultural Protections; Fishing Sector; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Mining Policies; Non-Monetary Valuation
[No author name available]. 2003. Oceans 2003 MTS/IEEE Proceedings. in Oceans Conference Record (IEEE). 2003 Field Study & Monitoring; Model Discharges; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Wastewater Discharge; Whales & Dolphins
Raberg, S., Nystrom, M., Eros, M., Plantman, P. 2003. Impact of the herbicides 2,4-D and diuron on the metabolism of the coral Porites cylindrica. Marine Environmental Research 56:503-514. 2003 Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Stony Coral
Guidetti, P., A. Terlizzi, S. Fraschetti, and F. Boero. 2003. Changes in Mediterranean rocky-reef fish assemblages exposed to sewage pollution. Marine Ecology Progress Series 253:269-278. 2003 Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Fish; Planktivorous Fish; Small Herbivorous Fish
Pulfrich, A., C. A. Parkins, G. M. Branch, R. H. Bustamante, and C. R. Velasquez. 2003. The effects of sediment deposits from Namibian diamond mines on intertidal and subtidal reefs and rock lobster populations. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 13:257-278. 2003 South Africa Field Study & Monitoring Algae; Discharges; Fishing Sector; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mining; Sediment
Galindo-Riano, M. D., L. Castellon, K. Gonzalez, and M. Garcia-Vargas. 2003. Development and optimization of a digestion method for heavy metal determination in scleractinian corals by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) [Desarrollo y optimizacion de un ḿetodo de digestion para la determinacion de metales pesados en corales. Ciencias Marinas 29:413-424. 2003 Sediment; Stony Coral; Waterborne Discharges
Van De Schootbrugge, B., O. Kuhn, T. Adatte, P. Steinmann, and K. Follmi. 2003. Decoupling of P- And Corg-burial following Early Cretaceous (Valanginian-Hauterivian) platform drowning along the NW Tethyan margin. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 199:315-331. 2003 Global GIS & Maps Climate; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Carruthers, T. J. B., W. C. Dennison, B. J. Longstaff, M. Waycott, E. G. Abal, L. J. McKenzie, and W. J. Lee Long. 2002. Seagrass habitats of northeast Australia: Models of key processes and controls. Bulletin of Marine Science 71:1153-1169. 2002 Australia Model Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sea Turtles; Seagrasses; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Lough, J. M., D. J. Barnes, and F. A. McAllister. 2002. Luminescent lines in corals from the Great Barrier Reef provide spatial and temporal records of reefs affected by land runoff. Coral Reefs 21:333-343. 2002 Australia Model Non-point Source Runoff; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Van Duyl, F. C., G. J. Gast, W. Steinhoff, S. Kloff, M. J. W. Veldhuis, and R. P. M. Bak. 2002. Factors influencing the short-term variation in phytoplankton composition and biomass in coral reef waters. Coral Reefs 21:293-306. 2002 South & Central America; Caribbean Discharges; Nutrients; Plankton; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Waterhouse, J. and J. Johnson. 2002. Sewage discharges in the great barrier reef region. Water 29:43-49. 2002 Australia Review Discharges; Hotel & Food Services; Marine Protected Areas
Fallon, S. J., J. C. White, and M. T. McCulloch. 2002. Porites corals as recorders of mining and environmental impacts: Misima Island, Papua New Guinea. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 66:45-62. 2002 Papua New Guinea Mineral, Rock, & Metal Mining; Mining; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Stony Coral
Whitfield, P. E., T. Gardner, S. P. Vives, M. R. Gilligan, W. R. Courtenay Jr., G. C. Ray, and J. A. Hare. 2002. Biological invasion of the Indo-Pacific lionfish Pterois volitans along the Atlantic coast of North America. Marine Ecology Progress Series 235:289-297. 2002 Florida; US Pacific & Hawaii; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean; Bermuda Ballast Discharge; Escape & Release of Non-natives; Fish; Invasive Species
Nyberg, J. 2002. Luminescence intensity in coral skeletons from Mona Island in the Caribbean sea and its Link to precipitation and wind speed. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 360:749-766. 2002 South & Central America; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Caribbean Non-point Source Runoff; Stony Coral
Morgan, M. B. and T. W. Snell. 2002. Characterizing stress gene expression in reef-building corals exposed to the mosquitoside dibrom. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44:1206-1218. 2002 Florida Field Study & Monitoring Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Stony Coral
Gutjahr-Gobell, R. E., M. Huber, D. J. Borsay Horowitz, G. E. Zaroogian, and L. J. Mills. 2002. A temperate reef fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus, (walbaum) as a potential model species for laboratory studies evaluating reproductive effects of chemical exposure. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21:380-389. 2002 Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study; Model; Index or Indicator Discharges; Fish
Scavia, D., J. C. Field, D. F. Boesch, R. W. Buddemeier, V. Burkett, D. R. Cayan, M. Fogarty, M. A. Harwell, R. W. Howarth, C. Mason, D. J. Reed, T. C. Royer, A. H. Sallenger, and J. G. Titus. 2002. Climate change impacts on U.S. coastal and marine ecosystems. Estuaries 25:149-164. 2002 Global Review Climate; CO2; Coastal Development; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Invasive Species; Nutrients; Sea Temperatures; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level; Wetlands
Owen, R., A. Knap, M. Toaspern, and K. Carbery. 2002. Inhibition of coral photosynthesis by the antifouling herbicide Irgarol 1051. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44:623-632. 2002 Florida; US Virgin Islands; Cuba; Bermuda Algae; Docks & Marinas; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Light; Primary Production; Special Use Permitting; Zooxanthellae
Dela Pierre, F., P. Clari, S. Cavagna, and E. Bicchi. 2002. The Parona chaotic complex: A puzzling record of the Messinian (Late Miocene) events in Monferrato (NW Italy). Sedimentary Geology 152:289-311. 2002 Algae; Sediment
Marcantonio, F., A. Zimmerman, Y. Xu, and E. Canuel. 2002. A Pb isotope record of mid-Atlantic US atmospheric Pb emissions in Chesapeake Bay sediments. Marine Chemistry 77:123-132. 2002 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Bermuda Atmospheric Emissions; Sediment
Goldberg, W. M. 2002. Feeding behavior, epidermal structure and mucus cytochemistry of the scleractinian Mycetophyllia reesi, a coral without tentacles. Tissue and Cell 34:232-245. 2002 Discharges; Stony Coral
Gagan, M. K., L. K. Ayliffe, B. N. Opdyke, D. Hopley, H. Scott-Gagan, and J. Cowley. 2002. Coral oxygen isotope evidence for recent groundwater fluxes to the Australian Great Barrier Reef. Geophysical Research Letters 29:43-1. 2002 Australia Agriculture; Calcium Carbonate Deposition; CO2; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharges; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Burridge, T. R. and J. Bidwell. 2002. Review of the potential use of brown algal ecotoxicological assays in monitoring effluent discharge and pollution in southern Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 45:140-147. 2002 Australia Review; Field Study & Monitoring Algae; Discharges
Heron, M. L., D. M. Burrage, and A. Prytz. 2002. Terrigenous runoff in the tropics observed with a scanning low frequency radiometer. Pages 2008-2013 in Oceans Conference Record (IEEE). 2002 Australia GIS & Maps Agriculture; Fish; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation; Wetlands
Mwashote, B. M. and I. O. Jumba. 2002. Quantitative aspects of inorganic nutrient fluxes in the Gazi Bay (Kenya): Implications for coastal ecosystems. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44:1194-1205. 2002 Kenya Discharges; Mangroves; Nutrients; Plankton; Salinity; Seagrasses; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Koskela, R. W., P. Ringeltaube, A. R. Small, T. V. Koskela, A. R. Fraser, J. D. Lee, and P. Marshall. 2002. Using predictive monitoring to mitigate construction impacts in sensitive marine environments. Pages 1-15 in Recent Advances in Marine Science and Technology. 2002 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Model Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Mangroves; Marine Protected Areas; Ports & Harbors
Roberts, J. M. and R. M. Anderson. 2002. A new laboratory method for monitoring deep-water coral polyp behaviour. Hydrobiologia 471:143-148. 2002 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Sediment; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Torres, J. L. and J. Morelock. 2002. Effect of terrigenous sediment influx on coral cover and linear extension rates of three Caribbean massive coral species. Caribbean Journal of Science 38:222-229. 2002 South & Central America; Puerto Rico; Caribbean Discharges; Sediment; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Sheu, J.-H., A. F. Ahmed, R.-T. Shiue, C.-F. Dai, and Y.-H. Kuo. 2002. Scabrolides A-D, four new norditerpenoids isolated from the soft coral Sinularia scabra. Journal of Natural Products 65:1904-1908. 2002 Taiwan Octocoral
Haynes, D. and D. Kwan. 2002. Trace metals in sediments from Torres Strait and the Gulf of Papua: Concentrations, distribution and water circulation patterns. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44:1309-1313. 2002 Australia Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waterborne Discharges
US Environmental Protection Agency. 2002. Water-Efficient Landscaping: Preventing Pollution & Using Resources Wisely. 4204M, US EPA. 2002 Climate; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Housing; Landscaping & Household Services; Textiles & Apparel
US Environmental Protection Agency. 2002. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual. EPA/625/R-00/008, US EPA. 2002 Sewage Treatment; Wastewater Discharge
Schroeder, W. W. 2002. Observations of Lophelia pertusa and the surficial geology at a deep-water site in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Hydrobiologia 471:29-33. 2002 South & Central America; Mexico Substrate
Freiwald, A., V. Huhnerbach, B. Lindberg, J. B. Wilson, and J. Campbell. 2002. The Sula Reef Complex, Norwegian shelf. Facies 179-200. 2002 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA)
Kanno, S., Y. Furushima, M. Okamoto, and S. Murakami. 2002. Box model analysis for the estimation of the water mass transport in coral reef region, Japan. Pages 654-659 in Oceans Conference Record (IEEE). 2002 Japan Model Discharges; Light; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Guzman, H. M. and C. A. Guevara. 2002. Annual reproductive cycle, spatial distribution, abundance, and size structure of Oreaster reticulatus (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in Bocas del Toro, Panama. Marine Biology 141:1077-1084. 2002 Panama Index or Indicator Aquarium & Pet Trade; Echinoderms; Non-point Source Runoff; Seagrasses; Seastars; Sediment; Souvenir & Decorative Trade
Dupraz, C. and A. Strasser. 2002. Nutritional modes in coral-microbialite reefs (Jurassic, Oxfordian, Switzerland): Evolution of trophic structure as a response to environmental change. Palaios 17:449-471. 2002 Model Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment
Hendy, E. J., M. K. Gagan, C. A. Alibert, M. T. McCulloch, J. M. Lough, and P. J. Isdale. 2002. Abrupt decrease in tropical pacific sea surface salinity at end of little ice age. Science 295:1511-1514. 2002 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia Salinity
Lambert, G. 2002. Nonindigenous Ascidians in tropical waters. Pacific Science 56:291-298. 2002 South & Central America; US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia; Palau; Guam; Caribbean; Mexico Field Study & Monitoring Ballast Discharge; Coastal Defense; Docks & Marinas; Invasive Species; Military; Nutrients; Oil & Gas Rigs; Plankton; Ports & Harbors; Salinity
Montagna, P. A., S. C. Jarvis, and M. C. Kennicutt II. 2002. Distinguishing between contaminant and reef effects on meiofauna near offshore hydrocarbon platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59:1584-1592. 2002 South & Central America; Mexico Artificial Habitat
Samkutty, P. J. and R. H. Gough. 2002. Filtration treatment of dairy processing wastewater. Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering 37:195-199. 2002 Lab Study Wastewater Discharge
Belliveau, S. A. and V. J. Paul. 2002. Effects of herbivory and nutrients on the early colonization of crustose coralline and fleshy algae. Marine Ecology Progress Series 232:105-114. 2002 Guam Algae; Coralline Algae; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fleshy Macroalgae; Nutrients; Sediment
Guzman, H. M. and E. M. Garcia. 2002. Mercury levels in coral reefs along the Caribbean coast of Central America. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44:1415-1420. 2002 South & Central America; Costa Rica; Panama; Caribbean Non-point Source Runoff; Point Source Discharges; Sediment; Stony Coral; Toxics
Paulay, G., L. Kirkendale, G. Lambert, and C. Meyer. 2002. Anthropogenic biotic interchange in a coral reef ecosystem: A case study from Guam. Pacific Science 56:403-422. 2002 US Pacific & Hawaii; Micronesia; Guam Ballast Discharge; Complex Habitat & Resources; Docks & Marinas; Escape & Release of Non-natives; Invasive Species; Military; Ports & Harbors; Tourism & Recreation
Downs, C. A., G. Shigenaka, J. E. Fauth, C. E. Robinson, and A. Huang. 2002. Cellular physiological assessment of bivalves after chronic exposure to spilled Exxon Valdez crude oil using a novel molecular diagnostic biotechnology. Environmental Science and Technology 36:2987-2993. 2002 Biotechnology Research & Development; Bivalves
Vanderploeg, H. A., T. F. Nalepa, D. J. Jude, E. L. Mills, K. T. Holeck, J. R. Liebig, I. A. Grigorovich, and H. Ojaveer. 2002. Dispersal and emerging ecological impacts of Ponto-Caspian species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59:1209-1228. 2002 GIS & Maps Algae; Ballast Discharge; Cyanobacteria; Fish; Microorganisms; Plankton; Substrate
McClanahan, T. R. 2002. The near future of coral reefs. Environmental Conservation 29:460-483. 2002 Global Algae; Calcium Carbonate Deposition; CO2; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Pathogens; Resource Use Management; Sea Urchins; Seastars; Snails & Conch; Water Depth & Sea Level; Zooxanthellae
Michaelis, W., R. Seifert, K. Nauhaus, T. Treude, V. Thiel, M. Blumenberg, K. Knittel, A. Gieseke, K. Peterknecht, T. Pape, A. Boetius, R. Amann, B. B. Jorgensen, F. Widdel, J. Peckmann, N. V. Pimenov, and M. B. Gulin. 2002. Microbial reefs in the black sea fueled by anaerobic oxidation of methane. Science 297:1013-1015. 2002 Cuba Carbon Storage & Cycling; Microorganisms
Mohammed, S. M. 2002. Pollution management in Zanzibar: The need for a new approach. Ocean and Coastal Management 45:301-311. 2002 Discharges; Mangroves; Pathogens; Seagrasses; Tourism & Recreation; Wastewater Discharge
Heap, A. D., G. R. Dickens, L. K. Stewart, and K. J. Woolfe. 2002. Holocene storage of siliciclastic sediment around islands on the middle shelf of the Great Barrier Reef Platform, north-east Australia. Sedimentology 49:603-621. 2002 Australia Model; GIS & Maps Discharges; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Gartner, A., P. Lavery, and A. J. Smit. 2002. Use of δ15N signatures of different functional forms of macroalgae and filter-feeders to reveal temporal and spatial patterns in sewage dispersal. Marine Ecology Progress Series 235:63-73. 2002 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Algae; Nutrients; Sewage Treatment; Sponges; Wastewater Discharge
Griffin, D. W., C. A. Kellog, V. H. Garrison, and E. A. Shinn. 2002. The global transport of dust. American Scientist 90:230-238. 2002 Global Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Microorganisms
Rushton, B. 2002. Treatment of Storm water Runoff from an Agricultural Basin by a Wet-Detention Pond in Ruskin, Florida, Final Report, Southwest Florida Management District. 2002 Florida Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Heller, P. S. and M. Mani. 2002. Adapting to climate change. Finance and Development 39:29-31. 2002 India Agriculture; Climate; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Mangroves; Mitigation; Pathogens; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Gu, J., J. Jia, and H. Fang. 2002. Reservoir characteristics and genesis of high-porosity and high-permeability reservoirs in Tarim Basin. Chinese Science Bulletin 47:19-Dec. 2002
Umezawa, Y., T. Miyajima, H. Kayanne, and I. Koike. 2002. Significance of groundwater nitrogen discharge into coral reefs at ishigaki island, southwest of Japan. Coral Reefs 21:346-356. 2002 Japan Discharges; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Lin, P.-H., M.-D. Chou, Q. Ji, and S.-C. Tsay. 2002. Clear-sky surface solar radiation during the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment. Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 13:185-195. 2002 China Model Light
Jackson, C. Rhett; Kolka, Randy. 2002. Forestry Best Management Practices And Their Effectiveness. in Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation. 2002 Chemical Use Regulations; Deforestation & Devegetation; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Forestry; Road Construction & Maintenance; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Strecker, Eric W.; Quigley, Marcus M.; Urbonas, Ben. 2002. How Well Do BMPs Work? A Guidance Manual for Meeting the National Stormwater BMP Database Requirements and an Update on BMP Effectiveness. Pages 172-188 in Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation. 2002 Field Study & Monitoring Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Lipp, E. K., J. L. Jarrell, D. W. Griffin, J. Lukasik, J. Jacukiewicz, and J. B. Rose. 2002. Preliminary evidence for human fecal contamination in corals of the Florida Keys, USA. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44:666-670. 2002 Florida Index or Indicator Microorganisms; Wastewater Discharge
De Mol, B., P. Van Rensbergen, S. Pillen, K. Van Herreweghe, D. Van Rooij, A. McDonnell, V. Huvenne, M. Ivanov, R. Swennen, and J. P. Henriet. 2002. Large deep-water coral banks in the Porcupine Basin, southwest of Ireland. Marine Geology 188:193-231. 2002 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Europe Nutrients; Skeletal Coral; Stony Coral; Water Depth & Sea Level
Hungspreugs, M., W. Utoomprurkporn, P. Sompongchaiyakul, and W. Heungraksa. 2002. Possible impact of dam reservoirs and river diversions on material fluxes to the Gulf of Thailand. Marine Chemistry 79:185-191. 2002 Thailand Agriculture; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Discharges; Sediment; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
McClanahan, T. R., B. A. Cokos, and E. Sala. 2002. Algal growth and species composition under experimental control of herbivory, phosphorus and coral abundance in Glovers Reef, Belize. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44:441-451. 2002 South & Central America; Belize Algae; Calcareous Macroalgae; Corallivorous Fish; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fish; Fleshy Macroalgae; Large Herbivorous Fish; Nutrients; Small Herbivorous Fish; Stony Coral
Burrage, D. M., M. L. Heron, J. M. Hacker, T. C. Stieglitz, C. R. Steinberg, and A. Prytz. 2002. Evolution and dynamics of tropical river plumes in the Great Barrier Reef: An integrated remote sensing and in situ study. Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans 107. 2002 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Model; GIS & Maps; Remote Sensing Discharges; Salinity; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Roberts, J. M. 2002. The occurrence of the coral Lophelia pertusa and other conspicuous epifauna around an oil platform in the North Sea. Underwater Technology 25:83-91. 2002 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Anemones & Zooanthids; Discharges; Octocoral; Oil & Gas Industry; Oil & Gas Rigs; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Sayer, M. D. J. and M. S. P. Baine. 2002. Rigs to reefs: A critical evaluation of the potential for reef development using decommissioned rigs. Underwater Technology 25:93-97. 2002 South & Central America; Mexico Review; Field Study & Monitoring; Model Fish; Fishing Sector
Tourova, T. P., T. V. Kolganova, B. B. Kuznetsov, and N. V. Pimenov. 2002. Phylogenetic diversity of the archaeal component in microbial mats on coral-like structures associated with methane seeps in the black sea. Mikrobiologiya 71:230-236. 2002
Ono, Y. 2002. Landform conservation and flood control: The issue of the Chitose Diversion Channel project in Hokkaido, Japan. Australian Geographical Studies 40:143-154. 2002 Japan Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water
Berkelmans, R., J. C. Hendee, P. A. Marshall, P. V. Ridd, A. R. Orpin, and D. Irvine. 2002. Automatic weather stations: Tools for managing and monitoring potential impacts to coral reefs. Marine Technology Society Journal 36:29-38. 2002 Field Study & Monitoring; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Coastal Development; Discharges; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research
Poff, N. L., M. M. Brinson, and J. W. Day. 2002. Aquatic ecosystems & global climate change. 2002 Global Model Algae; Climate; CO2; Fish; Invasive Species; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level; Wetlands
Trautman, D. A., R. Hinde, L. Cole, A. Grant, and R. Quinnell. 2002. Visualisation of the symbiosome membrane surrounding cnidarian algal cells. Symbiosis 32:133-145. 2002 Algae; Anemones & Zooanthids; Cleaner & Solvent Use
Chaston, K.A.V. 2001. Sediment Nutrient Bioavailability in a Sub-tropical Catchment Dominated by Agriculture: The transition from Land to Sea. PhD Thesis. University of Queensland. 2001 Australia Agriculture; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Point Source Discharges; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Phinney, J. T., F. Muller-Karger, P. Dustan, and J. Sobel. 2001. Using remote sensing to reassess the mass mortality of Diadema antillarum 1983-1984. Conservation Biology 15:885-891. 2001 South & Central America; US Virgin Islands; Bermuda; Caribbean; Mexico GIS & Maps; Remote Sensing Ballast Discharge; Pathogens; Sea Urchins
Shigenaka, G. 2001. Toxicity of Oil to Reef-Building Corals: A spill response perspective, NOAA technical memorandum NOS OR&R 8. 2001 Petroleum Spills; Primary Production; Stony Coral
Roberts, R. 2001. A review of settlement cues for larval abalone (Haliotis spp.). Journal of Shellfish Research 20:571-586. 2001 Review Algae; Coralline Algae; Microorganisms; Special Use Permitting; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Popenoe, P. and F. T. Manheim. 2001. Origin and history of the Charleston Bump - Geological formations, currents, bottom conditions, and their relationship to wreckfish habitats on the Blake Plateau. Pages 43-94 in American Fisheries Society Symposium. 2001 Discharges; Fish; Sediment
Bedir, M., N. Boukadi, S. Tlig, F. B. Timzal, L. Zitouni, R. Alouani, F. Slimane, C. Bobier, and F. Zargouni. 2001. Subsurface Mesozoic basins in the central Atlas of Tunisia: Tectonics, Sequence deposit distribution, and hydrocarbon potential. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 85:885-907. 2001 Model Sediment
Wilson, P. A. and R. D. Norris. 2001. Warm tropical ocean surface and global anoxia during the mid-Cretaceous period. Nature 412:425-429. 2001 Global; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean Review Climate; CO2; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
McFall, D. 2001. Finally! Engine Oil Tiers. Lubes-n-Greases 7. 2001 Octocoral
Morelock, J., W. R. Ramrez, A. W. Bruckner, and M. Carlo. 2001. Status of coral reefs southwest Puerto Rico. Caribbean Journal of Science pp.57. 2001 Puerto Rico Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Meric, E. and Gormus. 2001. The genus Loftusia. Micropaleontology 47:Jan-73. 2001 Middle East Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Salinity; Sediment; Substrate
Rutherford, A. W. and A. Krieger-Liszkay. 2001. Herbicide-induced oxidative stress in photosystem II. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26:648-653. 2001 Fertilizer & Pesticide Use
Yokoyama, Y., T. M. Esat, and K. Lambeck. 2001. Coupled climate and sea-level changes deduced from Huon Peninsula coral terraces of the last ice age. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 193:579-587. 2001 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Papua New Guinea Climate; Discharges
Risk, M. J., J. M. Heikoop, E. N. Edinger, and M. V. Erdmann. 2001. The assessment 'toolbox': Community-based reef evaluation methods coupled with geochemical techniques to identify sources of stress. Bulletin of Marine Science 69:443-458. 2001 Indonesia Index or Indicator; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Discharges; Fish; Nutrients; Sediment; Skeletal Coral
[No author name available]. 2001. Corals wear fluorescent sunscreen. Photonics Spectra 35:40. 2001 Sunscreen Use
Board, M.S. 2001. Vortechnics Treatment of Parking Lot Runoff, Thesis. 2001 Impervious Surfaces; Non-point Source Runoff
Pache, M., J. Reitner, and G. Arp. 2001. Geochemical evidence for the formation of a large miocene \Travertine\" mound at a sublacustrine spring in a soda lake (Wellerstein Castle Rock, Nordlinger Ries, Germany)". Facies 211-230. 2001 Germany CO2; Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Obura, D. O. 2001. Kenya. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42:1264-1278. 2001 Indian Ocean; Somalia; Kenya; India Field Study & Monitoring; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Coastal Development; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fish; Fishing Sector; Infrastructure; Mangroves; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Salinity; Seagrasses; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Special Use Permitting; Substrate; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation
Lourey, M. J., D. M. Alongi, D. A. J. Ryan, and M. J. Devlin. 2001. Variability of nutrient regeneration rates and nutrient concentrations in surface sediments of the northern Great Barrier Reef shelf. Continental Shelf Research 21:145-155. 2001 Australia Discharges; Nutrients; Plankton; Primary Production; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Kimmig, B., W. Werner, and T. Aigner. 2001. Highly pure limestone in the Upper Jurassic of the Swabian Jura: Composition, distribution, applications [Hochreine Kalksteine im Oberjura der Schwabischen Alb - Zusammensetzung, Verbreitung, Einsatzmoglichkeiten]. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Geologie 47:101-108. 2001 Germany GIS & Maps Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Sponges
Stimson, J., S. T. Larned, and E. Conklin. 2001. Effects of herbivory, nutrient levels, and introduced algae on the distribution and abundance of the invasive macroalga Dictyosphaeria cavernosa in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. Coral Reefs 19:343-357. 2001 US Pacific & Hawaii Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Algae; Discharges; Fish; Invasive Species; Nutrients; Small Herbivorous Fish
Brodie, J., C. Christie, M. Devlin, D. Haynes, S. Morris, M. Ramsay, J. Waterhouse, and H. Yorkston. 2001. Catchment management and the Great Barrier Reef. Water Science and Technology 43:203-211. 2001 Australia Agriculture; Chemical Use Regulations; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Seagrasses; Sediment
Angiolini, L., M. Gaetani, G. Olivini, and A. Zanchi. 2001. Geology and stratigraphy of the carboniferous of Western-Central Karakoram. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 19:3-Feb. 2001 GIS & Maps Sediment
Urbonas, B. and Doerfer, J. 2001. Testing of an Underground Stormwater Treatment Vault in Denver, Colorado, USA, Innovative Technologies in Urban Drainage, Proceedings 4th International Conference Novatech 2001, Lyon, France. 2001 France Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
West, T, Sutherland, J., Bloomfield, J., Lake, D. 2001. Final Report, A Study of the Effectiveness of a Vortechs Stormwater Treatment System of Removal of Total Suspended Solids and Other Pollutants in the Marine Village Watershed, Village of Lake George, New York. 2001 Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Li, Q. X., A. E. Karu, K. Li, and S. Thomas. 2001. Refinement of Immunochemical Methods for Environmental Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Pages 379-396 in ACS Symposium Series. 2001 US Pacific & Hawaii Index or Indicator CO2; Remediation; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Mylroie, J. E., J. W. Jenson, D. Taborosi, J. M. U. Jocson, D. T. Vann, and C. Wexel. 2001. Karst features of Guam in terms of a general model of carbonate island karst. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 63:22-Sep. 2001 Guam Field Study & Monitoring; Model Beaches & Nature Parks; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Peckmann, J., E. Gischler, W. Oschmann, and J. Reitner. 2001. An Early Carboniferous seep community and hydrocarbon-derived carbonates from the Harz Mountains, Germany. Geology 29:271-274. 2001 Germany Bivalves; Microorganisms
Done, T. J. 2001. Useful science for coral reef management: The cooperative research centre model. Bulletin of Marine Science 69:309-315. 2001 Australia Model; GIS & Maps; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Ballast Discharge; Finfish Harvest; Non-point Source Runoff; Seastars; Special Use Permitting; Wastewater Discharge
Harborne, A. R., D. C. Afzal, and M. J. Andrews. 2001. Honduras: Caribbean Coast. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42:1221-1235. 2001 South & Central America; Belize; Honduras; Caribbean; Mexico Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Chemical Use Regulations; Coastal Development; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish Harvest; Funding & Donations; Funding & Incentives; Infrastructure; Mangroves; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Seagrasses; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Special Use Permitting; Storms & Hurricanes; Tourism & Recreation; Waste Management Policies; Wetlands
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2001. Better Assessment Science Integrating Point & Nonpoint Sources. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2001 Model; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Non-point Source Runoff; Point Source Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Katz, M. E., B. S. Cramer, G. S. Mountain, S. Katz, and K. G. Miller. 2001. Uncorking the bottle: What triggered the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum metahane release? Paleoceanography 16:549-562. 2001 Global; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Model Sediment
McCook, L. J. 2001. Competition between corals and algal turfs along a gradient of terrestrial influence in the nearshore central Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 19:419-425. 2001 Australia Algae; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Stony Coral
Noad, J. 2001. The Gomantong Limestone of eastern Borneo: A sedimentological comparison with the near-contemporaneous Luconia Province. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 175:273-302. 2001 Oman Field Study & Monitoring Algae; Coralline Algae; Sediment
Hu, M., Z. Wen, C. Xiao, W. Gong, S. Zhang, and Z. Yao. 2001. Depositional system and potential of hydrocarbon generation of upper Jurassic Suowa formation in Qiangtang basin. Jianghan Shiyou Xueyuan Xuebao/Journal of Jianghan Petroleum Institute 23:8-May. 2001 Sediment
Ryland, J. S. 2001. Convergent colonial organization and reproductive function in two bryozoan species epizoic on gastropod shells. Journal of Natural History 35:1085-1101. 2001 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); South Africa Discharges; Fleshy Macroalgae; Snails & Conch
Storch, P. 2001. Graptolites, stratigraphy and depositional setting of the middle llandovery (silurian) volcanic-carbonate facies of hýskov (barrandian area, Czech Republic). Vestnik Ceskeho Geologickeho Ustavu 76:55-73. 2001 Europe Echinoderms
Xu, G., S. Gong, Y. Wang, and W. Yuan. 2001. Quantitative biostratigraphy and species evolutionary sequence. Science in China, Series D: Earth Sciences 44:587-599. 2001
Ginsburg, R. N., E. Gischler, and W. E. Kiene. 2001. Partial mortality of massive reef-building corals: An index of patch reef condition, Florida Reef Tract. Bulletin of Marine Science 69:1149-1173. 2001 Florida Index or Indicator Boating Activities; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Finfish Harvest; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Non-point Source Runoff; Pathogens; Stony Coral; Storms & Hurricanes
Bett, B. J. 2001. UK atlantic margin environmental survey: Introduction and overview of bathyal benthic ecology. Continental Shelf Research 21:917-956. 2001 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Field Study & Monitoring; GIS & Maps Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Oil & Gas Industry; Sediment; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Sponges; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Water Depth & Sea Level
Insalaco, E. 2001. Reservoir characterisation of late Jurassic reefal carbonates: An overview. Geologie Mediterraneenne 28:93-97. 2001 Middle East; Europe Model Sediment
Pedersen, M. and P. Snoeijs. 2001. Patterns of macroalgal diversity, community composition and long-term changes along the swedish west coast. Hydrobiologia 459:83-102. 2001 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Algae; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Plankton; Salinity; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Tricklebank, K. A. 2001. Histological alterations in fish from Sydney reefs: Possible biomarkers for environmental effects? Biomarkers 6:26-32. 2001 Field Study & Monitoring; Model Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fish; Small Herbivorous Fish
Fursich, F. T., R. Berndt, T. Scheuer, and M. Gahr. 2001. Comparative ecological analysis of Toarcian (Lower Jurassic)benthic faunas from southern France and east-central Spain. Lethaia 34:169-202. 2001 Spain; France Bivalves; Climate; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Substrate
Andrefouet, S., F. E. Muller-Karger, E. J. Hochberg, C. Hu, and K. L. Carder. 2001. Change detection in shallow coral reef environments using Landsat 7 ETM+ data. Remote Sensing of Environment 78:150-162. 2001 Florida; US Pacific & Hawaii GIS & Maps Algae; Skeletal Coral; Storms & Hurricanes
MacDonald, L. H., R. W. Sampson, and D. M. Anderson. 2001. Runoff and road erosion at the plot and road segment scales, St John, US Virgin Islands. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 26:251-272. 2001 US Virgin Islands Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Transportation Policies
Connelly, D. P., J. W. Readman, A. H. Knaps, and J. Davies. 2001. Contamination of the coastal waters of Bermuda by organotins and the triazine herbicide Irgarol 1051. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42:409-414. 2001 Bermuda Fertilizer & Pesticide Use
Glynn, P. W. and J. S. Ault. 2000. A biogeographic analysis and review of the far eastern Pacific coral reef region. Coral Reefs 19:23-Jan. 2000 South & Central America; US Pacific & Hawaii; Costa Rica; Mexico Review Discharges; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Newman, D. J., G. M. Cragg, and K. M. Snader. 2000. The influence of natural products upon drug discovery. Natural Product Reports 17:215-234. 2000 Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics Sources; Textiles & Apparel
Costa O.S., JR ., Z. M. A. N. Leao, M. Nimmo, and M. J. Attrill. 2000. Nutrification impacts on coral reefs from northern Bahia, Brazil. Hydrobiologia 440:307-315. 2000 Algae; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Pathogens; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wastewater Discharge
Pollnac, R. B., J. W. McManus, A. E. Del Rosario, A. A. Banzon, S. G. Vergara, and M. L. G. Gorospe. 2000. Unexpected relationships between coral reef health and socio-economic pressures in the Philippines: Reef base/RAMP applied. Marine and Freshwater Research 51:529-533. 2000 Philippines Finfish Harvest; Non-point Source Runoff
Stejskal, I. V. 2000. Obtaining Approvals for Oil and Gas Projects in Shallow Water Marine Areas in Western Australia using an Environmental Risk Assessment Framework. Spill Science and Technology Bulletin 6:69-76. 2000 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Model; GIS & Maps Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Mangroves; Oil & Gas Industry; Petroleum Spills
Fritz, D. A., T. W. Belsher, J. M. Medlin, J. L. Stubbs, R. P. Wright, and P. M. Harris. 2000. New exploration concepts for the Edwards and Sligo margins, Cretaceous of onshore Texas. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 84:905-922. 2000 South & Central America; Mexico Field Study & Monitoring
Paul, J. H., M. R. McLaughlin, D. W. Griffin, E. K. Lipp, R. Stokes, and J. B. Rose. 2000. Rapid movement of wastewater from on-site disposal systems into surface waters in the Lower Florida Keys. Estuaries 23:662-668. 2000 Florida; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean Ports & Harbors; Sewage Treatment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
Wilks, J. and R. J. Davis. 2000. Risk management for scuba diving operators on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Tourism Management 21:591-599. 2000 Australia; Cuba Review Discharges; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Tourism & Recreation
Diaz, J. M., G. Diaz-Pulido, and J. A. Sanchez. 2000. Distribution and structure of the southernmost Caribbean coral reefs: Golfo de Uraba, Colombia. Scientia Marina 64:327-336. 2000 South & Central America; Caribbean Field Study & Monitoring Algae; Discharges; Hydrocoral; Sediment; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Simo, J. A. and P. J. Lehmann. 2000. Diagenetic history of Pipe Creek Jr. Reef, Silurian, North-Central Indiana, U.S.A. Journal of Sedimentary Research 70:937-951. 2000 India Sediment
Weiss, D., W. Shotyk, and O. Kempf. 2000. Archives of atmospheric lead pollution. Environmental Pollution 107:262-275. 2000 Atmospheric Emissions; Metals, Electronics, & Machinery Products; Sediment
Edgar, G. J. and N. S. Barrett. 2000. Impact of the Iron Baron oil spill on subtidal reef assemblages in Tasmania. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40:36-49. 2000 Field Study & Monitoring Algae; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fish; Invertebrates; Petroleum Spills
Negri, A. P. and A. J. Heyward. 2000. Inhibition of fertilization and larval metamorphosis of the coral Acropora millepora (Ehrenberg, 1834) by petroleum products. Marine Pollution Bulletin 41:420-427. 2000 Lab Study; Index or Indicator Petroleum Spills; Stony Coral
Bishop, G. A. and A. B. Williams. 2000. Fossil crabs from Tepee Buttes, submarine seeps of the Late Cretaceous Pierre Shale, South Dakota and Colorado, U.S.A. Journal of Crustacean Biology 20:286-300. 2000 Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp
Astakhova, N. V. and A. V. Sorochinskaya. 2000. Authigenic carbonates of the upper Pleistocene-Holocene deposits in the Northwest Pacific Marginal Seas. Geology of the Pacific Ocean 16:65-78. 2000 US Pacific & Hawaii; Japan; China Sediment
Wei, G., M. Sun, X. Li, and B. Nie. 2000. Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and U/Ca ratios of a porites coral from Sanya Bay, Hainan Island, South China Sea and their relationships to sea surface temperature. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 162:59-74. 2000 China Non-point Source Runoff; Stony Coral
Haynes, D. and J. E. Johnson. 2000. Organochlorine, heavy metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon pollutant concentrations in the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) environment: A review. Marine Pollution Bulletin 41:267-278. 2000 Australia Review; Field Study & Monitoring; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Agriculture; Chemical Use Regulations; Discharges; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Toxics
Haynes, D. and K. Michalek-Wagner. 2000. Water quality in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area: Past perspectives, current issues and new research directions. Marine Pollution Bulletin 41:428-434. 2000 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Chemical Use Regulations; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Landuse Management; Marine Protected Areas; Nutrients; Sediment; Toxics
Haynes, D., J. Muller, and S. Carter. 2000. Pesticide and herbicide residues in sediments and seagrasses from the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and Queensland Coast. Marine Pollution Bulletin 41:279-287. 2000 Australia Agriculture; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Seagrasses; Sediment
Goldsworthy, S. D., R. P. Gales, M. Giese, and N. Brothers. 2000. Effects of the Iron Baron oil spill on little penguins (Eudyptula minor). I. Estimates of mortality. Wildlife Research 27:559-571. 2000 Australia Petroleum Spills; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Esler, D., T. D. Bowman, T. A. Dean, C. E. O'Clair, S. C. Jewett, and L. L. McDonald. 2000. Correlates of Harlequin Duck densities during winter in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Condor 102:920-926. 2000 Petroleum Spills; Substrate; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Yasumoto, M., K. Mada, T. Ooi, and T. Kusumi. 2000. New terpenoid components from the volatile oils of the soft corals Clavularia viridis and Sarcophyton acutangulum. Journal of Natural Products 63:1534-1536. 2000 Octocoral
Jeng, W.-L., C.-F. Dai, and K.-L. Fan. 2000. Taiwan Strait. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 2 499-512. 2000 China; Taiwan Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Aquaculture; Beaches & Nature Parks; Environmental Education & Outreach; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Non-point Source Runoff; Seawater Flow; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wastewater Discharge; Water Depth & Sea Level; Wetlands
Maragos, J. E. 2000. Hawaiian Islands (U.S.A.). Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 2 791-812. 2000 US Pacific & Hawaii Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Apex Fish Predators; Aquaculture; Aquarium & Pet Trade; Aquarium Stock; Beaches & Nature Parks; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Education & Outreach; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Golf Course Operations; Hotel & Food Services; Invasive Species; Marine Birds; Marine Debris; Marine Protected Areas; Military; Pathogens; Recreational Fishing; Scientific Research; Sea Turtles; Sediment; Special Use Permitting; Storms & Hurricanes; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Waterborne Discharges; Wetlands
Myers, M. and M. Whittington. 2000. Mozambique. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 2 99-112. 2000 Indian Ocean; Mozambique; Madagascar; India Finfish Harvest; Fish; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Monetary Valuation; Seagrasses; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waterborne Discharges
Quod, J.-P., O. Naim, and F. Abdourazi. 2000. The Comoros archipelago. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 2 243-252. 2000 Global; Indian Ocean; Mozambique; Comoros; Mayotte; India Agriculture; Beaches & Nature Parks; Discharges; Mangroves; Sediment
Richardson, B. J., P. K. S. Lam, and R. S. S. Wu. 2000. Hong Kong. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 2 535-547. 2000 China Beaches & Nature Parks; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Land & Air Transportation; Mangroves; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Salinity; Seagrasses; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Toxics; Wastewater Discharge
Gribble, G. W. 2000. The natural production of organobromine compounds. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 7:37-49. 2000 Algae; Microorganisms; Sponges; Tunicates
Sheppard, C. R. C. 2000. The Red Sea. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 2 35-45. 2000 Indian Ocean; India Algae; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Fleshy Macroalgae; Mangroves; Nutrients; Primary Production; Seagrasses; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Special Use Permitting; Substrate; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Waste Management Policies
Hill, C. A. 2000. Overview of the geologic history of cave development in the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 62:60-71. 2000 South & Central America; Mexico Sponges
Roseth, R. 2000. Shell sand: A new filter medium for constructed wetlands and wastewater treatment. Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering 35:1335-1355. 2000 Norway Sewage Treatment; Snails & Conch; Wastewater Discharge; Wetlands
Rajasuriya, A. and A. Premaratne. 2000. Sri Lanka. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 2 175-187. 2000 Indian Ocean; Cuba; Sri Lanka; India Agriculture; Aquarium & Pet Trade; Aquarium Stock; Chemical Use Regulations; Climate; Discharges; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Echinoderms; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Hotel & Food Services; Infrastructure; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Seagrasses; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Wetlands
Wong, P. P. 2000. Malacca Strait including Singapore and Johore Straits. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 2 331-344. 2000 Thailand; Malaysia; Southeast Asia; Indonesia Agriculture; Aquaculture; Beaches & Nature Parks; Commercial Fisheries; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Hotel & Food Services; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Marine Protected Areas; Nutrients; Seagrasses; Sediment; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Solid Waste Disposal; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Waterborne Discharges; Wetlands
Zann, L. P. 2000. Northeastern Australia: The Great Barrier Reef region. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 2 611-628. 2000 Australia Model Finfish Harvest; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Recreational Fishing; Seagrasses; Seastars; Sediment; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Zann, L. P. 2000. The Australian Region: An overview. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 2 579-592. 2000 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia Agriculture; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Mangroves; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sea Temperatures; Seagrasses; Sediment
Pichler, T., J. M. Heikoop, M. J. Risk, J. Veizer, and I. L. Campbell. 2000. Hydrothermal effects on isotope and trace element records in modern Reef Corals: A study of porites lobata from Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea. Palaios 15:225-234. 2000 Papua New Guinea CO2; Discharges; Stony Coral
Frouin, P. 2000. Effects of anthropogenic disturbances of tropical soft-bottom benthic communities. Marine Ecology Progress Series 194:39-53. 2000 Marine Worms; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment
Wolanski, E. and S. Spagnol. 2000. Pollution by mud of Great Barrier Reef coastal waters. Journal of Coastal Research 16:1151-1156. 2000 Florida; Australia Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Sheehy Daniel, J. 2000. Developing methods for assessing contaminant bioavailability on a coral atoll. Pages 509-515 in Oceans Conference Record (IEEE). 2000 Marshall Islands Field Study & Monitoring Discharges; Fish; Military; Ports & Harbors
Falter, J. L. and F. J. Sansone. 2000. Hydraulic control of pore water geochemistry within the oxic-suboxic zone of a permeable sediment. Limnology and Oceanography 45:550-557. 2000 Index or Indicator Sediment
Miao, X.-S., C. Swenson, L. A. Woodward, and Q. X. Li. 2000. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine species from French Frigate Shoals, North Pacific Ocean. Science of the Total Environment 257:17-28. 2000 US Pacific & Hawaii; Pacific Ocean Field Study & Monitoring Fish; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Sediment; Small Herbivorous Fish; Stony Coral; Waterborne Discharges
Costanzo, S. D., M. J. O'Donohue, and W. C. Dennison. 2000. Gracilaria edulis (Rhodophyta) as a biological indicator of pulsed nutrients in oligotrophic waters. Journal of Phycology 36:680-685. 2000 Australia; Cuba Index or Indicator; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Algae; Discharges; Nutrients
U.S. Coral Reef Task Force. 2000. The National Action Plan to Conserve Coral Reefs. Washington, D.C. 2000 Global Field Study & Monitoring; GIS & Maps Agriculture; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Climate; Collaboration & Partnering; Complex Habitat & Resources; Cultural Policies; Cultural Protections; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landuse Management; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Pathogens; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics Sources; Shoreline Protection; Tourism & Recreation
Martin, C. E., B. Peucker-Ehrenbrink, G. J. Brunskill, and R. Szymczak. 2000. Sources and sinks of unradiogenic osmium runoff from Papua New Guinea. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 183:261-274. 2000 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii; Papua New Guinea Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Sabti, H., M. M. Hossain, R. R. Brooks, and R. B. Stewart. 2000. The current environmental impact of base-metal mining at the Tui Mine, Te Aroha, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 30:197-207. 2000 Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Drinking Water Supply; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Johnson, A. K. L. and S. P. Ebert. 2000. Quantifying inputs of pesticides to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park - A case study in the Herbert River catchment of North-East Queensland. Marine Pollution Bulletin 41:302-309. 2000 Australia Agriculture; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Landscape Changes; Marine Protected Areas; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Lesser, M. P. 2000. Depth-dependent photoacclimatization to solar ultraviolet radiation in the Caribbean coral Montastraea faveolata. Marine Ecology Progress Series 192:137-151. 2000 Global; South & Central America; Florida; Caribbean Light; Primary Production; Stony Coral
Matsuda, T. and M. Yamaguma. 2000. Tantalum dust deflagration in a bag filter dust-collecting device. Journal of Hazardous Materials 77:33-42. 2000 Discharges
Baker, J. 2000. The Eastern Bristlebird: Cover-dependent and fire-sensitive. Emu 100:286-298. 2000 Littering
Hearty, P. J. and D. S. Kaufman. 2000. Whole-rock aminostratigraphy and Quaternary sea-level history of the Bahamas. Quaternary Research 54:163-173. 2000 Global; Bahamas
Tricklebank, K. A. 2000. Effects of organochlorines on the ultrastructure of the liver of the damselfish Parma microlepis from reefs in New South Wales, Australia. Marine Biology 136:337-348. 2000 Australia Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fish; Small Herbivorous Fish
Rice, M. A., A. Valliere, and A. Caporelli. 2000. A review of shellfish restoration and management projects in Rhode Island. Journal of Shellfish Research 19:401-408. 2000 Review Aquaculture; Artificial Habitat; Bivalves; Commercial Fisheries; Docks & Marinas; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Finfish Harvest; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Molluscs; Petroleum Spills; Ports & Harbors; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Hallock, P. 2000. Symbiont-bearing foraminifera: Harbingers of global change? Micropaleontology 46:95-104. 2000 Global CO2; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Light; Nutrients; Plankton; Surface & Groundwater Flow
House, M. R., V. V. Menner, R. T. Becker, G. Klapper, N. S. Ovnatanova, and V. Kuzmin. 2000. Reef episodes, anoxia and sea-level changes in the Frasnian of the southern Timan (NE Russian Platform). Geological Society Special Publication 147-176. 2000 Global; Australia; Oman; Europe
Wilson, M. E. J., D. W. J. Bosence, and A. Limbong. 2000. Tertiary syntectonic carbonate platform development in Indonesia. Sedimentology 47:395-419. 2000 Indonesia Model; GIS & Maps Forestry; Sediment
Comings, K.J., Booth, D.B., and R.R. Horner. 2000. Storm Water Pollutant Removal by Two Wet Ponds in Bellevue, Washington, April. Journal of Environmental Engineering 2000 Impervious Surfaces; Non-point Source Runoff; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Wilkinson, C. R. 2000. World-wide coral reef bleaching and mortality during 1998: A global climate change warning for the new Millennium? Pages 43-57 Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 3. 2000 Global; South & Central America; Australia; Maldives; Japan; Palau; Caribbean Climate; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Sediment; Stony Coral
Nhan, D. D., N. X. Duc, D. H. Duong, N. T. Tiep, and B. C. Que. 2000. Vietnam and adjacent Bien Dong (South China Sea). Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 2 561-568. 2000 China; Vietnam Agriculture; Algae; Aquaculture; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Non-point Source Runoff; Plankton; Salinity
Peach, M. B. and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 1999. Sweeper polyps of the coral Goniopora tenuidens (Scleractinia: Poritidae). Invertebrate Biology 118:7-Jan. 1999 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Discharges; Stony Coral
Calner, M. and E. Sall. 1999. Transgressive oolites onlapping a Silurian rocky shoreline unconformity, Gotland, Sweden. GFF 121:91-100. 1999
Lee Long, W. J., R. G. Coles, and L. J. McKenzie. 1999. Issues for seagrass conservation management in Queensland. Pacific Conservation Biology 5:321-328. 1999 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Chemical Use Regulations; Commercial Fisheries; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Landuse Management; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Marine Protected Areas; Nutrients; Permitting & Zoning; Petroleum Spills; Sea Turtles; Seagrasses; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Nansingh, P. and S. Jurawan. 1999. Environmental sensitivity of a tropical coastline (Trinidad, West Indies) to oil spills. Spill Science and Technology Bulletin 5:161-172. 1999 South & Central America; Trinidad; Caribbean Index or Indicator Beaches & Nature Parks; Mangroves; Petroleum Spills
Feary, D., A. Hine, and M. Malone. 1999. Cool-water 'reefs', possible hydrogen sulphide/methane clathrates, and brine circulation - Preliminary results of Leg 182 drilling in the Great Australian Bight. JOIDES Journal 25:7-Apr. 1999 Australia Forestry; Sediment
Mikhail, W. Z. A., S. A. K. Abo-Hegab, and M. S. A. Ammar. 1999. Distribution of reef-building corals at some locations of the Red Sea, Egypt. Zoology in the Middle East 17:109-119. 1999 Egypt Stony Coral; Waterborne Discharges
Schaffelke, B. 1999. Short-term nutrient pulses as tools to assess responses of coral reef macroalgae to enhanced nutrient availability. Marine Ecology Progress Series 182:305-310. 1999 Australia Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Algae; Fleshy Macroalgae; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Primary Production; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Ochieng, C. A. and P. L. A. Erftemeijer. 1999. Accumulation of seagrass beach cast along the Kenyan coast: A quantitative assessment. Aquatic Botany 65:221-238. 1999 Kenya Field Study & Monitoring Beaches & Nature Parks; Fleshy Macroalgae; Littering; Marine Worms; Nutrients; Primary Production; Seagrasses
Racey, A., J. G. S. Goodall, and D. G. Quirk. 1999. Palynological and geochemical analysis of carboniferous borehole and outcrop samples from the Isle of Man. Journal of Petroleum Geology 22:349-362. 1999 Algae; Sediment
Al-Awadhi, F. M. A. 1999. The Year of the Ocean and its crucial importance to the Gulf. Desalination 123:127-133. 1999 Global Discharges; Drinking Water Supply; Finfish Harvest; Littering; Sediment; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Waste Management Policies
Pichler, T., J. Veizer, and G. E. M. Hall. 1999. The chemical composition of shallow-water hydrothermal fluids in Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea and their effect on ambient seawater. Marine Chemistry 64:229-252. 1999 Papua New Guinea Model CO2; Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Kiessling, W., E. Flugel, and J. Golonka. 1999. Paleoreef maps: Evaluation of a comprehensive database on Phanerozoic reefs. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 83:1552-1587. 1999 GIS & Maps Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Climate; CO2; Sediment
Letourneur, Y., P. Labrosse, and M. Kulbicki. 1999. Commercial fish assemblages on New Caledonian fringing reefs submitted to different levels of ground erosion. Oceanologica Acta 22:609-622. 1999 US Pacific & Hawaii; Pacific Ocean; New Caledonia Corallivorous Fish; Fish; Large Herbivorous Fish; Mining; Non-point Source Runoff; Small Herbivorous Fish; Substrate
McClintock, J. B., B. J. Baker, T. K. Baumiller, and C. G. Messing. 1999. Lack of chemical defense in two species of stalked crinoids: Support for the predation hypothesis for mesozoic bathymetric restriction. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 232:7-Jan. 1999 Echinoderms; Fish; Planktivorous Fish; Small Herbivorous Fish
Smith, A. K., P. A. Ajani, and D. E. Roberts. 1999. Spatial and temporal variation in fish assemblages exposed to sewage and implications for management. Marine Environmental Research 47:241-260. 1999 Australia Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Fish; Sea Urchins
Goatcher, B., D. Zwiefelhofer, R. Lanctot, S. Talbot, B. Pierson, D. Esler, and K. Scribner. 1999. Differentiation and Interchange of Harlequin Duck Populations Within the North Pacific. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Project Final Report. 1999 US Pacific & Hawaii Petroleum Spills
Milliman, J. D., K. L. Farnsworth, and C. S. Albertin. 1999. Flux and fate of fluvial sediments leaving large islands in the East Indies. Journal of Sea Research 41:97-107. 1999 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii; Java Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Sierro, F. J., J. A. Flores, I. Zamarreno, A. Vazquez, R. Utrilla, G. Frances, F. J. Hilgen, and W. Krijgsman. 1999. Messinian pre-evaporite sapropels and precession-induced oscillations in western Mediterranean climate. Marine Geology 153:137-146. 1999 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Climate; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Sanchez, J. A. 1999. Black coral-octocoral distribution patterns on imelda bank, a deep-water reef, Colombia, Caribbean sea. Bulletin of Marine Science 65:215-225. 1999 South & Central America; Caribbean Non-point Source Runoff; Octocoral; Plankton; Stony Coral
Shennan, I. 1999. Global meltwater discharge and the deglacial sea-level record from northwest Scotland. Journal of Quaternary Science 14:715-719. 1999 Global Model Climate; Discharges
Glenn, E. P., D. Moore, M. Akutagawa, A. Himler, T. Walsh, and S. G. Nelson. 1999. Correlation between Gracilaria parvispora (Rhodophyta) biomass production and water quality factors on a tropical reef in Hawaii. Aquaculture 178:323-331. 1999 US Pacific & Hawaii Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Nutrients; Salinity
Mioche, D. and P. Cuet. 1999. Carbon, carbonate and nutrient fluxes in summer on a fringing reef subject to anthropogenic pressure (Reunion Island, Indian Ocean) [Metabolisme du carbone, des carbonates et des sels nutritifs en saison chaude, sur un recif frangeant soumis a une pressio. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie de Sciences - Serie IIa: Sciences de la Terre et des Planetes 329:53-59. 1999 Indian Ocean; Reunion; India Discharges; Nutrients; Primary Production; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Anderson, C. and M. Roche. 1999. Transporting the minerals industry into the next century: Environmental challenges at the Port of Townsville. Pages 252-268 in Mining into the next century : environmental opportunities and challenges. Proceedings of the 24th annual environmental workshop. Townsville, October 1999. 1999 Australia Infrastructure; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Leif, Bill. 1999. Compost Stormwater Filter Evaluation, Final Report. 1999 Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Shick, J. M., S. Romaine-Lioud, C. Ferrier-Pages, and J.-P. Gattuso. 1999. Ultraviolet-B radiation stimulates shikimate pathway-dependent accumulation of mycosporine-like amino acids in the coral Stylophora pistillata despite decreases in its population of symbiotic dinoflagellates. Limnology and Oceanography 44:1667-1682. 1999 Light; Stony Coral; Sunscreen Use; Zooxanthellae
Day, J. G., E. E. Benson, and R. A. Fleck. 1999. In vitro culture and conservation of microalgae: Applications for aquaculture, biotechnology and environmental research. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant 35:127-136. 1999 Review; Index or Indicator Algae; Aquaculture; Biotechnology Research & Development; Cyanobacteria; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Microorganisms
Harper, D. M., M. Ebrahimnezhad, E. Taylor, S. Dickinson, O. Decamp, G. Verniers, and T. Balbi. 1999. A catchment-scale approach to the physical restoration of lowland UK rivers. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 9:141-157. 1999 Artificial Habitat; Discharges; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Purdy, E. G. and D. Waltham. 1999. Reservoir implications of modern karst topography. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 83:1774-1794. 1999 Jamaica; China; Java Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Alam, H., D. W. Paterson, N. Syarifuddin, I. Busono, and S. G. Corbin. 1999. Reservoir potential of carbonate rocks in the Kutai Basin region, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 17:203-214. 1999 Indonesia Review Algae; Water Depth & Sea Level
Li, Q. X., K. Li, S. Thomas, and H. Li. 1999. Application of immunochemical methods for the analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment. in ACS National Meeting Book of Abstracts. 1999 Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Ports & Harbors; Sediment; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Urbonas, B.R. 1999. Design of a Sand Filter for Stormwater Quality Enhancement, Water Environment Research, Vol 71 No. 1, Washington DC. Also see the paper titled: Stormwater Sand Filter Sizing and Design - A Unit Operation Approach, Ben Urbonas, 2002 at www.udfcd.org. 1999 Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Urbonas, B.R. 1999. Design of a Sand Filter for Stormwater Quality Enhancement, Vol 71 No. 1, Washington DC. Also see the paper titled: Stormwater Sand Filter Sizing and Design - A Unit Operation Approach, Ben Urbonas, 2002 at www.udfcd.org. Water Environment Research 71. 1999 Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
1999. Internal storm summary monitoring reports; also see Annual Compliance Report No. 4, Fourth Stormwater Monitoring Report, Fiscal Year 1998-1999, Prepared for Oregon Dept. of Env. Quality. 1999 Field Study & Monitoring Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Vandamme, N. S., L. Que, and L. D. T. Topoleski. 1999. Carbide surface coating of Co-Cr-Mo implant alloys by a microwave plasma-assisted reaction. Journal of Materials Science 34:3525-3531. 1999 CO2; Substrate
Bell, P. R. F., I. Elmetri, and P. Uwins. 1999. Nitrogen fixation by Trichodesmium spp. in the Central and Northern Great Barrier Reef Lagoon: Relative importance of the fixed-nitrogen load. Marine Ecology Progress Series 186:119-126. 1999 Australia Discharges; Nutrients; Plankton; Surface & Groundwater Flow
McCook, L. J. 1999. Macroalgae, nutrients and phase shifts on coral reefs: Scientific issues and management consequences for the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 18:357-367. 1999 Australia Review; Index or Indicator Algae; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Small Herbivorous Fish
Barrie Pnrock, A. 1999. Coral reefs and environmental change: Adaptation to what? American Zoologist 39:29-Oct. 1999 Global Climate; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish Harvest; Nutrients; Salinity; Storms & Hurricanes; Tourism & Recreation
Ratnasooriya, W. D., G. K. Liyanage, and L. M. V. Tillekeratne. 1999. Studies on the post-coital contraceptive mechanisms of a crude extract of Sri Lankan soft coral, Sinularia crispa. Medical Science Research 27:331-334. 1999 Sri Lanka Octocoral
Wiltshire John, C. and A. Moore Kathleen. 1999. Marine manganese tailings concrete: advantages and drawbacks. Pages 237-244 in Oceans Conference Record (IEEE). 1999 Fishing Sector; Waterborne Discharges
Cherns, L. 1999. Silurian Chitons as indicators of rocky shores and lowstand on Gotland, Sweden. Palaios 14:172-179. 1999 Index or Indicator Sediment
Dunlap, W. C. 1999. Sunscreens, oxidative stress and antioxidant functions in marine organisms of the Great Barrier Reef. Redox Report 4:304-306. 1999 Australia Microorganisms; Pathogens; Stony Coral; Sunscreen Use
1) Yu, S.; Earles, T.A., and G. Fitch [1998] ; 2) Earles, T.A. [1999]. 1999. 1) Constructed Wetlands for Stormwater Management. Final Report, Virginia Transportation Research Council (VTRC)99-R14 and 2) Earles, T. A. 1999. Mitigated Wetlands for the Control of Stormwater Runoff: Monitoring and Management. Dissertation, Unive. 1999 Field Study & Monitoring Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Runoff; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetlands
[No author name available]. 1999. Proceedings of the 1999 Exploration and Production Environmental Conference, SPE/EPA. in SPE/EPA Exploration & Production Environmental Conference. 1999 Natural Gas & Electric Power; Petroleum Spills; Pipelines; Waterborne Discharges
Pandolfi, J. M. 1999. Response of pleistocene coral reefs to environmental change over long temporal scales. American Zoologist 39:113-130. 1999 Global; South & Central America; Papua New Guinea; Caribbean Climate; CO2; Complex Habitat & Resources; Non-point Source Runoff; Stony Coral; Water Depth & Sea Level
Jahn, T., G. M. Konig, and A. D. Wright. 1999. Three new scalarane-based sesterterpenes from the tropical marine sponge Strepsichordaia lendenfeldi. Journal of Natural Products 62:375-377. 1999 Australia Sponges
Sterr, H., V. Ittekkot, and R. J. T. Klein. 1999. Oceans and coasts responding to future climatic change [Weltmeere und kusten im wandel des klimas]. Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen 143:24-31. 1999 Global Climate; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Mangroves; Nutrients; Storms & Hurricanes
Natural Resources Conservation Service. 1999. Temporary Seeding. NRCS Planning and Design Manual. U.S. Depatrment of Agriculture. 1999 Non-point Source Runoff; Shoreline Protection
Lehmann, C., D. A. Osleger, I. P. Montanez, W. Sliter, A. Arnaud-Vanneau, and J. Banner. 1999. Evolution of Cupido and Coahuila carbonate platforms, early Cretaceous, northeastern Mexico. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 111:1010-1029. 1999 Global; South & Central America; Oman; Mexico GIS & Maps Sediment
Camoin, G. F., P. Gautret, L. F. Montaggioni, and G. Cabioch. 1999. Nature and environmental significance of microbialites in Quaternary reefs: The Tahiti paradox. Sedimentary Geology 126:271-304. 1999 Algae; Coralline Algae; Microorganisms; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Stony Coral; Substrate; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Tarasov, V. G., A. V. Gebruk, V. M. Shulkin, G. M. Kamenev, V. I. Fadeev, V. N. Kosmynin, V. V. Malakhov, D. A. Starynin, and A. I. Obzhirov. 1999. Effect of shallow-water hydrothermal venting on the biota of Matupi Harbour (Rabaul Caldera, New Britain Island, Papua New Guinea). Continental Shelf Research 19:79-116. 1999 Papua New Guinea; Britain Model Marine Worms; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Plankton; Primary Production; Salinity; Sediment; Sponges
Nixon, L. D., B. J. Bascle, and D. A. Marin. 1999. Offshore Atlas Project: Methodology and results. Marine Georesources and Geotechnology 17:211-212. 1999 South & Central America; Mexico Field Study & Monitoring; GIS & Maps; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Oil & Gas Industry; Surface & Groundwater Flow
1999. Internal storm summary monitoring reports; also see Annual Compliance Report No. 4, Fourth Stormwater Monitoring Report, Fiscal Year 1998-1999, Prepared for Oregon Dept. of Env. Quality. 1999 Field Study & Monitoring Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Barrett, N. S. 1999. Food availability is not a limiting factor in the growth of three Australian temperate reef fishes. Environmental Biology of Fishes 56:419-428. 1999 Australia Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Ilan, M., Y. Loya, G. A. Kolbasov, and I. Brickner. 1999. Sponge-inhabiting barnacles on Red Sea coral reefs. Marine Biology 133:709-716. 1999 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Index or Indicator Discharges; Sponges; Substrate
Scarlett, A., P. Donkin, T. W. Fileman, and R. J. Morris. 1999. Occurrence of the antifouling herbicide, Irgarol 1051, within coastal-water seagrasses from Queensland, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 38:687-691. 1999 Australia; Europe Algae; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Marine Protected Areas; Seagrasses
Smith, J. E., U. Brand, M. J. Risk, and H. P. Schwarcz. 1999. Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal events recorded by deep-sea corals. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 36:511-517. 1999 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Discharges
Whitaker, F. F. and P. L. Smart. 1998. Hydrology, geochemistry and diagenesis of fracture blue holes, South Andros, Bahamas. Cave and Karst Science 25:75-82. 1998 Bahamas Index or Indicator Calcium Carbonate Deposition; CO2; Discharges; Microorganisms; Primary Production; Salinity; Seawater Flow; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Robertson, A. I., P. Dixon, and D. M. Alongi. 1998. The influence of fluvial discharge on pelagic production in the Gulf of Papua, Northern Coral Sea. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 46:319-331. 1998 Papua New Guinea Discharges; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Plankton; Primary Production; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Duwig, C., T. Becquer, B. E. Clothier, and M. Vauclin. 1998. Nitrate leaching through oxisols of the Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia) under intensified agricultural practices. Geoderma 84:29-43. 1998 US Pacific & Hawaii; New Caledonia Agriculture; Drinking Water Supply; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Nutrients; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Buick, R., B. Rasmussen, and B. Krapez. 1998. Archean oil: Evidence for extensive hydrocarbon generation and migration 2.5-3.5 Ga. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 82:50-69. 1998 Australia; South Africa Microorganisms; Sediment
Hader, D.-P., H. D. Kumar, R. C. Smith, and R. C. Worrest. 1998. Effects on aquatic ecosystems. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 46:53-68. 1998 Global; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Europe Field Study & Monitoring; Model Algae; Climate; Cyanobacteria; Light; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Plankton; Primary Production; Sea Urchins; Seagrasses; Wetlands
Aguayo-Camargo, J. E. 1998. The middle cretaceous El Abra Limestone at its type locality (facies, diagenesis and oil emplacement), east-central Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas 15:8-Jan. 1998 South & Central America; Oman; Mexico Plankton; Sediment
Carpenter, S. R., N. F. Caraco, D. L. Correll, R. W. Howarth, A. N. Sharpley, and V. H. Smith. 1998. Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecological Applications 8:559-568. 1998 Review Agriculture; Domestic Animal Waste; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fish; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation
Roberts, D. E., A. Smith, P. Ajani, and A. R. Davis. 1998. Rapid changes in encrusting marine assemblages exposed to anthropogenic point-source pollution: A 'Beyond BACI' approach. Marine Ecology Progress Series 163:213-224. 1998 Algae; Discharges; Microorganisms; Point Source Discharges; Sponges
Abdel-Kader, A. F., S. M. Nasr, H. I. El-Gamily, and M. El-Raey. 1998. Environmental sensitivity analysis of potential oil spill for Ras-Mohammed coastal zone, Egypt. Journal of Coastal Research 14:502-510. 1998 Egypt Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator; GIS & Maps; Remote Sensing; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Petroleum Spills; Tourism & Recreation
Ruffell, A. H., N. R. Moles, and J. Parnell. 1998. Characterisation and prediction of sediment-hosted ore deposits using sequence stratigraphy. Ore Geology Reviews 12:207-223. 1998 Model Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Dollar, E. S. J. 1998. Palaeofluvial geomorphology in southern Africa: A review. Progress in Physical Geography 22:325-349. 1998 South Africa Review Climate; Discharges; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Vervoort, H. C., J. R. Pawlik, and W. Fenical. 1998. Chemical defense of the Caribbean ascidian Didemnum conchyliatum. Marine Ecology Progress Series 164:221-228. 1998 South & Central America; Caribbean Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Seagrasses; Snails & Conch; Tunicates
Sassi, R., F. Souissi, N. Soussi, F. Baccar, A. Added, A. Charef, and S. Abdeljaoued. 1998. Environmental diagnosis of the northern part of the Bay of Monastir (eastern Tunisia) from the geochemistry of superficial sediments [Diagnostic environnemental du nord de la Baie de Monastir (Tunisie orientale) par l'etude geochimique des sediments su. Bulletin des Laboratoires des Ponts et Chaussees 218:49-58. 1998 Aquaculture; Discharges; Light; Sediment; Wastewater Discharge
Guzman, H. M. and C. A. Guevara. 1998. Arrecifes coralinos de Bocas del Toro, Panama: I. Distribucion, estructura y estado de conservacion de los arrecifes continentales de la Laguna de Chiriqui y la Bahia Almirante. Revista de Biologia Tropical 46:601-623. 1998 South & Central America; Panama; Iran; Caribbean Algae; Coralline Algae; Discharges; Salinity; Sediment; Sponges; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Gittings, S. R. 1998. Reef community stability on the Flower Garden Banks, northwest Gulf of Mexico. Gulf of Mexico Science 16:161-169. 1998 South & Central America; Mexico Field Study & Monitoring Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Pathogens; Special Use Permitting; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Te, F. T. 1998. Preliminary investigations into the effects of Dursban® insecticide on Pocillopora damicornis (Scleractinia: Cnidaria). Journal of Marine Environmental Engineering 4:189-199. 1998 Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Stony Coral
Guzman, H. M. and A. W. Tudhope. 1998. Seasonal variation in skeletal extension rate and stable isotopic (13C/12C and 18O/16O) composition in response to several environmental variables in the Caribbean reef coral Siderastrea siderea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 166:109-118. 1998 South & Central America; Panama; Caribbean Field Study & Monitoring Non-point Source Runoff; Salinity; Stony Coral
Williamson, A. 1998. Use of acoustics in remote sensing of the seabed. Hydro International 2:51-53. 1998 Field Study & Monitoring; GIS & Maps; Remote Sensing Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Petroleum Spills; Resource Use Management
Fraser, I. and R. H. Bruce. 1998. Petroleum developments in Western Australia. Pages 777-783 in Proceedings of the Annual Offshore Technology Conference. 1998 Australia Review Infrastructure; Oil & Gas Industry; Pipelines
Nieland, D. L., C. A. Wilson, and J. W. Fleeger. 1998. Preliminary evaluation of the use of phosphogypsum for reef substrate in the Gulf of Mexico. Gulf of Mexico Science 16:54-63. 1998 South & Central America; Mexico Lab Study; Index or Indicator Artificial Habitat; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Hotel & Food Services; Invertebrates; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Substrate
Gardinali, P. R. and T. L. Wade. 1998. Contribution of PAHs, PCBs, and PCDD/PCDFs to the total induction equivalents (ΣIEs) in mollusks. Marine Pollution Bulletin 37:27-31. 1998 South & Central America; Mexico Bivalves; Molluscs
Ketterer, M. E. and C. J. Khourey. 1998. High-precision determination of 234U/238U activity ratios in natural waters and carbonates by ICPMS. ASTM Special Technical Publication 1344:120-136. 1998 Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Hovland, M., P. B. Mortensen, T. Brattegard, P. Strass, and K. Rokoengen. 1998. Ahermatypic coral banks off mid-Norway: Evidence for a link with seepage of light hydrocarbons. Palaios 13:189-200. 1998 Norway Model; GIS & Maps Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Ranjith, M. W. and N. De Silva. 1998. The Coastal Resources Management Program in Brunei Darussalam. Ocean and Coastal Management 38:147-160. 1998 Artificial Habitat; Oil & Gas Rigs; Petroleum Spills
Takeuchi, M. and M. Komada. 1998. Phosphorus removal from hoggery sewage using natural calcium carbonate. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly 32:23-30. 1998 Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Chemical Use Regulations; CO2; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use
Duan, Y., J. Song, M. Cui, and B. Luo. 1998. Organic geochemical studies of sinking particulate material in China sea area (I) - Organic matter fluxes and distributional features of hydrocarbon compounds and fatty acids. Science in China, Series D: Earth Sciences 41:208-214. 1998 China Plankton; Sediment
Elias, R. J. and G. A. Young. 1998. Coral diversity, ecology, and provincial structure during a time of crisis: The latest Ordovician to earliest Silurian Edgewood Province in Laurentia. Palaios 13:98-112. 1998 Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients
Gibson, J., M. McField, and S. Wells. 1998. Coral reef management in Belize: An approach through integrated coastal zone management. Ocean and Coastal Management 39:229-244. 1998 South & Central America; Belize Field Study & Monitoring Banks, Credit, & Securities; Coastal Development; Finfish Harvest; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Runoff; Permitting & Zoning; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Tourism & Recreation; Tourism & Recreation Policies
Kump, L. R. 1998. Wastewater Nutrients in Groundwaters of the Florida Keys. United States Environmental Protection Agency Cooperative Agreement #X994870-96-0. 1998 Florida Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wastewater Discharge
Aguirre, J. and A. P. Jimenez. 1998. Fossil analogues of present-day Cladocora caespitosa coral banks: Sedimentary setting, dwelling community, and taphonomy (Late Pliocene, W Mediterranean). Coral Reefs 17:203-213. 1998 Spain Discharges; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Substrate
Friedlander, A. M. and J. D. Parrish. 1998. Temporal dynamics of fish communities on an exposed shoreline in Hawaii. Environmental Biology of Fishes 53:18-Jan. 1998 US Pacific & Hawaii Complex Habitat & Resources; Discharges; Fish; Shoreline Protection; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Konig, G. M. and A. D. Wright. 1998. New cembranoid diterpenes from the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi. Journal of Natural Products 61:494-496. 1998 Octocoral
Proni John, R., CH RI S McArthur, and GL EN N Schuster. 1998. Adaptive dredged material discharge for the Port of Miami. Pages 1249-1257 in Ports - Proceedings. 1998 Florida Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Military
Yu, S. and E. Patron. 1998. Technical Assistance Report Route 7/Goose Creek Water Quality Impact Study. 1998 Dam Construction & Maintenance; Land & Air Transportation; Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Letourneur, Y., M. Kulbicki, and P. Labrosse. 1998. Spatial structure of commercial reef fish communities along a terrestrial runoff gradient in the northern lagoon of New Caledonia. Environmental Biology of Fishes 51:141-159. 1998 New Caledonia Finfish Harvest; Fish; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Small Herbivorous Fish
Pierce, R. H. 1998. Effects of Mosquito Control Measures on Non-Target Organisms in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Mote Marine Laboratory Technical Report 609. 1998 Florida Fertilizer & Pesticide Use
Isdale, P. J., B. J. Stewart, K. S. Tickle, and J. M. Lough. 1998. Palaeohydrological variation in a tropical river catchment: A reconstruction using fluorescent bands in corals of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Holocene 8:8-Jan. 1998 Australia Model; Index or Indicator Climate; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Runoff; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Bourrouilh-Le Jan, F. G. 1998. The role of high-energy events (hurricanes and/or tsunamis) in the sedimentation, diagenesis and karst initiation of tropical shallow water carbonate platforms and atolls. Sedimentary Geology 118:Mar-36. 1998 US Pacific & Hawaii; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean; Bahamas; Pacific Ocean Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Discharges; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Water Depth & Sea Level
Gordeeva, A. O. and A. V. Khomenko. 1998. New data on stratigraphy and lithofacies regioning of Cambrian and Lower Ordovician deposits in the Southern Tunguska oil- and gas-bearing region. Geologiya i Geofizika 39:131-135. 1998
Dunlap, W. C., B. E. Chalker, W. M. Bandaranayake, and J. J. Wu Won. 1998. Nature's sunscreen from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Pages 41-51 in International Journal of Cosmetic Science. 1998 Australia Light; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics Sources; Stony Coral; Sunscreen Use
Gagan, M. K., L. K. Ayliffe, D. Hopley, J. A. Cali, G. E. Mortimer, J. Chappell, M. T. McCulloch, and M. J. Head. 1998. Temperature and surface-ocean water balance of the mid-Holocene tropical western Pacific. Science 279:1014-1017. 1998 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia
Schwark, L., M. Vliex, and P. Schaeffer. 1998. Geochemical characterization of Malm Zeta laminated carbonates from the Franconian Alb, SW-Germany (II). Organic Geochemistry 29:1921-1952. 1998 Oman; Germany Cyanobacteria; Microorganisms; Salinity
Moore, C. G., G. R. Saunders, and D. B. Harries. 1998. The status and ecology of reefs of Serpula vermicularis L. (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) in Scotland. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 8:645-656. 1998 Complex Habitat & Resources; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Marine Worms
Belka, Z. 1998. Early devonian kess-kess carbonate mud mounds of the eastern anti-atlas (Morocco), and their relation to submarine hydrothermal venting. Journal of Sedimentary Research 68:368-377. 1998 Microorganisms; Sediment
Freiwald, A. 1998. Modern nearshore cold-temperate calcareous sediments in the troms district, northern norway. Journal of Sedimentary Research 68:763-776. 1998 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean; Norway Algae; Bivalves; Climate; Coralline Algae; Discharges; Light; Molluscs; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes
Hung, T.-C., C.-C. Huang, and K.-T. Shao. 1998. Ecological survey of coastal water adjacent to nuclear power plants in Taiwan. Chemistry and Ecology 519-532. 1998 Taiwan Algae; Discharges; Fish; Fishing Sector; Plankton
UMIAMI-RSMAS,. 1998. Ocean Status Information Management System (OSIMS) oil spill data and information. Ocean Status Information Management System (OSIMS) oil spill data and information. 1998 South & Central America; Florida; Caribbean; Mexico Model Collaboration & Partnering; Fish; Marine Debris; Non-point Source Runoff; Petroleum Spills; Plankton; Point Source Discharges
Falcon-Lang, H. 1998. The impact of wildfire on an early carboniferous coastal environment, North Mayo, Ireland. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 139:121-138. 1998 Algae; Discharges; Fish; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Mercier, A., E. Pelletier, and J.-F. Hamel. 1997. Effects of butyltins on the symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia pallida (Verrill). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 215:289-304. 1997 Anemones & Zooanthids; Discharges; Microorganisms; Toxics; Zooxanthellae
McClanahan, T. R. 1997. Primary succession of coral-reef algae: Differing patterns on fished versus unfished reefs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 218:77-102. 1997 Model Algae; Coralline Algae; Discharges; Fish; Light; Nutrients; Sea Urchins; Sediment; Small Herbivorous Fish; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Langer, M. R., M. T. Silk, and J. H. Lipps. 1997. Global ocean carbonate and carbon dioxide production: The role of reef foraminifera. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 27:271-277. 1997 Global Algae; Calcium Carbonate Deposition; CO2; Coralline Algae; Discharges; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Sediment
Hovland, M. and E. Thomsen. 1997. Cold-water corals - Are they hydrocarbon seep related? Marine Geology 137:159-164. 1997 Norway Sediment
Bachu, S. 1997. Flow of formation waters, aquifer characteristics, and their relation to hydrocarbon accumulations, Northern Alberta Basin. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 81:712-733. 1997 Discharges; Oil & Gas Industry; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Major Mark, R. P. and H. Holtz. 1997. Predicting reservoir quality at the development scale: Methods for quantifying remaining hydrocarbon resource in diagenetically complex carbonate reservoirs. AAPG Memoir 231-248. 1997 Field Study & Monitoring Algae
Chicu, S. A. and S. Berking. 1997. Interference with metamorphosis inductionn in the marine cnidaria Hydractinia echinata (hydrazoa): a structure-activity relationship analysis of lower alcohols, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, thiophenes, tributyl tin and crude oil. Chemosphere 34:1851-1866. 1997 China
Edgar, G. J., J. Moverley, N. S. Barrett, D. Peters, and C. Reed. 1997. The conservation-related benefits of a systematic marine biological sampling programme: The Tasmanian reef bioregionalisation as a case study. Biological Conservation 79:227-240. 1997 Field Study & Monitoring Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Climate; Marine Protected Areas; Petroleum Spills; Seagrasses
Kitheka, J. U. 1997. Coastal tidally-driven circulation and the role of water exchange in the linkage between tropical coastal ecosystems. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 45:177-187. 1997 Kenya Discharges; Mangroves; Salinity; Seagrasses; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Parrish, F. A., E. E. DeMartini, and D. M. Ellis. 1997. Nursery habitat in relation to production of juvenile pink snapper, Pristipomoides filamentosus, in the Hawaiian Archipelago. Fishery Bulletin 95:137-148. 1997 US Pacific & Hawaii Model Fishing Sector; Piscivorous Fish; Point Source Discharges; Sediment
Chandramohan, D. 1997. Recent advances in marine microbiology: The Indian scenario. Journal of Marine Biotechnology 5:73-81. 1997 India Review Algae; Microorganisms; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Pathogens
Mebs, D., S. Benesch, B. Konig, Y. Yamakawa, and T. Omori-Satoh. 1997. A protease from the marine sponge Callyspongia schulzi. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International 42:789-797. 1997 Papua New Guinea Sponges; Substrate
Goldberg, W. M. and G. T. Taylor. 1997. Coelenterate cnidae capsules: Disulfide linkages revealed by silver cytochemistry and their differential responses to thiol reagents. Biological Bulletin 192:16-Jan. 1997 Discharges
[No author name available]. 1997. Special Issue: 5th symposium on our environment. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 44:1-615. 1997 Global; Malaysia; Southeast Asia Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Artificial Habitat; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Bacud, J., A. Moore, and C.-S. Lee. 1997. Tectonic structure and petroleum potential of Tayabas Bay southeast Luzon, Philippines. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 15:195-215. 1997 Australia; Philippines
Robison, W. L., K. T. Bogen, and C. L. Conrado. 1997. An updated dose assessment for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll - A U.S. nuclear test site. Health Physics 73:100-114. 1997 Marshall Islands; Europe Field Study & Monitoring Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fish; Housing; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Pandey, J. S. and P. Khanna. 1997. Sensitivity analysis of a mangrove ecosystem model. Journal of Environmental Systems 26:57-72. 1997 Model Mangroves; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients
McClanahan, T. R., D. Obura. 1997. Sedimentation effects on shallow coral communities in Kenya. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 209:103-122. 1997 Kenya Algae; Discharges; Hydrocoral; Marine Protected Areas; Nutrients; Sediment; Sponges; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Grimshaw, R. 1997. Floating on the margins. Pages 29-30+32 Offshore Engineer. 1997 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Discharges; Mitigation; Plankton; Sponges; Whales & Dolphins
Lidz, B. H., E. A. Shinn, A. C. Hine, and S. D. Locker. 1997. Contrasts within an outlier-reef system: Evidence for differential quaternary evolution, south Florida windward margin, U.S.A. Journal of Coastal Research 13:711-731. 1997 Florida GIS & Maps Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Ritchie, R. J., A. J. Grant, K. Eltringham, and R. Hinde. 1997. Clotrimazole, a model compound for the host release factor of the coral Plesiastrea versipora. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 24:283-290. 1997 Cuba Model Algae; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Invertebrates; Primary Production
World Resource Institute International Marinelife Alliance, editor. 1997. Sullied Seas. WRI, Washington D.C. 1997 Global; Tanzania; Maldives; Fiji; Papua New Guinea; Southeast Asia; Vietnam; Indonesia; Philippines; Germany Lab Study; GIS & Maps Apex Fish Predators; Aquarium & Pet Trade; Aquarium Stock; Banks, Credit, & Securities; Coastal Development; Collaboration & Partnering; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Health Policies; Live Collection; Mangroves; Non-point Source Runoff; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
J. R. Maxted, S. B. Weisberg, J. C. Chaillou, R. A. Eskin, F. W. Kutz. 1997. The Ecological Condition of Dead-End Canals of the Delaware and Maryland Coastal Bays. Estuaries 20:319-327. 1997 Boating Activities; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Housing; Invertebrates; Marine Worms; Sediment
Lapointe, B. E., W. R. Matzie. 1997. High Frequency Monitoring of Wastewater Nutrient Discharges and Their Ecological Effects in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution. 1997 Florida Field Study & Monitoring Discharges; Nutrients; Wastewater Discharge
Kump, L. R. 1997. Fate of Wastewater nutrients in Florida Keys Groundwater. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency #x98429297-0-PA. 1997 Florida Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wastewater Discharge
Peters, E.C., N.J. Gassman, J.C. Firman, R.H. Richmonds, E.A. Power. 1997. Ecotoxicology of Tropical Marine Ecosystems. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16:12-40. 1997 Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Agriculture; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Chemical Use Regulations; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Mangroves; Petroleum Spills; Seagrasses; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Toxics
Meehan, W. J. and G. K. Ostrander. 1997. Coral bleaching: A potential biomarker of environmental stress. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 50:529-552. 1997 Review; Field Study & Monitoring Algae; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Light; Salinity; Sediment
Jenson, J. W., J. M. Jocson, and H. G. Siegrist. 1997. Groundwater discharge styles from an uplifted Pleistocene island karst aquifer, Guam, Mariana Islands. Pages 15-19 in The engineering geology and hydrogeology of karst terranes. Proc. 6th multidisciplinary conference, Springfield, 1997. 1997 Guam Beaches & Nature Parks; Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Ohowa, B. O., B. M. Mwashote, and W. S. Shimbira. 1997. Dissolved inorganic nutrient fluxes from two seasonal rivers into Gazi Bay, Kenya. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 45:189-195. 1997 Kenya Discharges; Mangroves; Nutrients; Plankton; Salinity; Seagrasses; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Hunter, D. J., L. G. G. Yapa, and N. V. Hue. 1997. Effects of green manure and coral lime on corn growth and chemical properties of an acid Oxisol in Western Samoa. Biology and Fertility of Soils 24:266-273. 1997 Samoa Agriculture; Domestic Animal Waste; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Nutrients
Singh, B. 1997. Climate-related global changes in the southern Caribbean: Trinidad and Tobago. Global and Planetary Change 15:93-111. 1997 Global; South & Central America; Trinidad; Tobago; Caribbean Field Study & Monitoring Beaches & Nature Parks; Climate; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Kushmaro, A., G. Henning, D. K. Hofmann, and Y. Benayahu. 1997. Metamorphosis of Heteroxenia fuscescens planulae (cnidaria: octocorallia) is inhibited by crude oil: A novel short term toxicity bioassay. Marine Environmental Research 43:295-302. 1997 Index or Indicator Octocoral; Petroleum Spills
Rougerie, F., C. Jehl, and J. Trichet. 1997. Phosphorus pathways in atolls: Interstitial nutrient pool, cyanobacterial accumulation and Carbonate-Fluoro-Apatite (CFA) precipitation. Marine Geology 139:201-217. 1997 Cyanobacteria; Microorganisms; Nutrients
Shapiro, D. Y. and L.-A. Giraldeau. 1996. Mating tactics in external fertilizers when sperm is limited. Behavioral Ecology 7:19-23. 1996 Model Fertilizer & Pesticide Use
Longman, M. W. 1996. Did the Mississippian Lodgepole buildup at Dickinson Field (North Dakota) form as a gas seep (\vent\") community?". Mountain Geologist 33:105-114. 1996 Field Study & Monitoring; Model CO2; Echinoderms; Microorganisms; Sediment; Substrate; Water Depth & Sea Level
Lapointe, B. E. and W. R. Matzie. 1996. Effects of stormwater nutrient discharges on eutrophication processes in nearshore waters of the Florida Keys. Estuaries 19:422-435. 1996 Florida Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Salinity; Seagrasses; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wastewater Discharge
Gourlay, M. R. 1996. Wave set-up on coral reefs. 1. Set-up and wave-generated flow on an idealised two dimensional horizontal reef. Coastal Engineering 27:161-193. 1996 Lab Study; Model Discharges; Shoreline Protection; Water Depth & Sea Level
Karnkowski, P. H. 1996. Thermal history and hydrocarbon generation in the area of dobrzyca structure (Western Pomerania, Poland) [Historia termiczna a generacja wȩglowodorow w rejonie struktury Dobrzycy (Pomorze Zachodnie)]. Przeglad Geologiczny 44:349-357. 1996 Poland Model
Rostron, B. J. and J. Toth. 1996. Ascending fluid plumes above devonian pinnacle reefs: Numerical modeling and field example from West-Central Alberta, Canada. AAPG Memoir 185-201. 1996 Field Study & Monitoring; Model; GIS & Maps Petroleum Spills; Seawater Flow
Harris, P. T., C. B. Pattiaratchi, J. B. Keene, R. W. Dalrymple, J. V. Gardner, E. K. Baker, A. R. Cole, D. Mitchell, P. Gibbs, and W. W. Schroeder. 1996. Late quaternary deltaic and carbonate sedimentation in the Gulf of Papua foreland basin: Response to sea-level change. Journal of Sedimentary Research 66:801-819. 1996 Australia Algae; Calcareous Macroalgae; Discharges; Primary Production; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Martin, E.H., and Smoot, J.L. (1986) and Gain, W.S. (1996). 1996. Constituent-Load Changes in Urban Stormwater Runoff Routed Through a Detention Pond-Wetlands System in Central Florida, USGS Report 85-4310 (1986) AND The Effects of Flow-Path Modification on Water-Quality Constituent Retention in an Urban Stormwater Dete. 1996 Florida Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetlands
Kitheka, J. U., B. O. Ohowa, B. M. Mwashote, W. S. Shimbira, J. M. Mwaluma, and J. M. Kazungu. 1996. Water circulation dynamics, water column nutrients and plankton productivity in a well-flushed tropical bay in Kenya. Journal of Sea Research 35:257-268. 1996 Kenya Discharges; Mangroves; Nutrients; Plankton; Primary Production; Seagrasses; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Dubinsky, Z. and N. Stambler. 1996. Marine pollution and coral reefs. Global Change Biology 2:511-526. 1996 Deforestation & Devegetation; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Nutrients; Plankton; Sediment; Waterborne Discharges; Zooxanthellae
Wilkinson, C. R. 1996. Global change and coral reefs: Impacts on reefs, economies and human cultures. Global Change Biology 2:547-558. 1996 Global Climate; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Tourism & Recreation; Water Depth & Sea Level
Shick, J. M., M. P. Lesser, and P. L. Jokiel. 1996. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on corals and other coral reef organisms. Global Change Biology 2:527-545. 1996 Global Review Light; Sediment
Zann, L. P. 1996. The state of the Marine Environment Report for Australia (SOMER): Process, findings and perspectives. Ocean and Coastal Management 33:63-86. 1996 Global; Australia Invasive Species; Littering; Mangroves; Nutrients; Seagrasses; Seastars; Sediment; Snails & Conch; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Wohlfarth, B. 1996. The chronology of the last termination: A review of radiocarbon-dated, high-resolution terrestrial stratigraphies. Quaternary Science Reviews 15:267-284. 1996 Review; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools
Laurenti-Ribaud, A. and J.-P. Masse. 1996. Geometry and dynamics of a bioclastic and coral complex the Barremian limestones of the Saint-Chamas region (Bouches-du-Rhone, France) [Geometrie et dynamique d'un complexe bioclastique et corallien: Les calcaires barremiens de la region de Saint-Cham. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie de Sciences - Serie IIa: Sciences de la Terre et des Planetes 322:33-38. 1996 France Model Sediment
Mohammed, S. Z. and S. Al-Ssadh. 1996. Coral reef grounds and its associated biota in the western side of 1 the Arabian Gulf (ROPME Sea Area) with respect to 1991 Gulf war oil spill. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 25:35-40. 1996 Bahrain Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Petroleum Spills; Sediment
[No author name available]. 1996. Coral reefs and global change. Global Change Biology 2:479-582. 1996 Global Light; Stony Coral; Waterborne Discharges
Laws, E. A. and C. B. Allen. 1996. Water quality in a subtropical embayment more than a decade after diversion of sewage discharges. Pacific Science 50:194-210. 1996 US Pacific & Hawaii Cyanobacteria; Discharges; Microorganisms; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Plankton; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Downey Marlan, W. 1996. Understanding the value of 3-D seismic for exploration. Pages 27-28 in Proceedings of the Annual Offshore Technology Conference. 1996
Readman, J. W., I. Tolosa, A. T. Law, J. Bartocci, S. Azemard, T. Hamilton, L. D. Mee, A. Wagener, M. Le Tissieri, C. Roberts, N. Downing, and A. R. G. Price. 1996. Discrete bands of petroleum hydrocarbons and molecular organic markers identified within massive coral skeletons. Marine Pollution Bulletin 32:437-443. 1996 Saudi Arabia; Kuwait; Iran Index or Indicator Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Stony Coral
Flathman Paul, E., L. Laski Mary, R. Trausch Jason, H. Carson Jr. John, M. Woodhull Patrick, E. Jerger Douglas, and R. Lear Paul. 1996. Effect of micronutrient addition on the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC)-contaminated coral sand at a U.S. Navy facility on Midway Island in the Pacific. in Proceedings of the Air & Waste Management Association's Annual Meeting & Exhibition. 1996 US Pacific & Hawaii Lab Study Coastal Defense; Military; Nutrients; Remediation; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies
Kulbicki, M. 1996. First observations on the fish communities of fringing reefs in the region of Maumere (Flores - Indonesia). Atoll Research Bulletin 10-Aug. 1996 US Pacific & Hawaii; New Caledonia; Indonesia Algae; Corallivorous Fish; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Invertebrates; Large Herbivorous Fish; Non-point Source Runoff; Small Herbivorous Fish
Pichler, T. and G. R. Dix. 1996. Hydrothermal venting within a coral reef ecosystem, Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea. Geology 24:435-438. 1996 Papua New Guinea Calcium Carbonate Deposition; CO2; Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Clarke, A. J. and A. Lebedev. 1996. Long-term changes in the equatorial Pacific trade winds. Journal of Climate 9:1020-1029. 1996 US Pacific & Hawaii Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Physical Variables; Water Depth & Sea Level
[No author name available]. 1996. Potential spill shows Australia is ready. Work Boat World 15:36. 1996 Australia Petroleum Spills
Shulman, M. J. and D. R. Robertson. 1996. Changes in the coral reefs of San Bias, Caribbean Panama: 1983 to 1990. Coral Reefs 15:231-236. 1996 South & Central America; Panama; Caribbean Algae; Calcareous Macroalgae; Deforestation & Devegetation; Fleshy Macroalgae; Hydrocoral; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sea Urchins; Sediment; Stony Coral
Derr, J. F., R. S. Chandran, and W. D. Ward. 1996. Preemergence and postemergence yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) control with MON 12000 in nursery crops. Weed Technology 10:95-99. 1996 Japan Field Study & Monitoring Fertilizer & Pesticide Use
Carte, B. K. 1996. Biomedical Potential of Marine Natural Products. Bioscience 46:271-286. 1996 Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Invertebrates; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics Sources
Homewood, P. W. 1996. The carbonate feedback system: Interaction between stratigraphic accommodation, ecological succession and the carbonate factory [Le systeme de feed-back des carbonate: Une interaction entre accommodation stratigraphique, succession ecologique et l'usine. Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France 167:701-715. 1996 Oman; France Model Climate; Nutrients; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Lesser, M. P. and S. Lewis. 1996. Action spectrum for the effects of UV radiation on photosynthesis in the hermatypic coral Pocillopora damicornis. Marine Ecology Progress Series 134:171-177. 1996 US Pacific & Hawaii Algae; Light; Primary Production; Stony Coral
Meroz, E. and M. Ilan. 1996. Cohabitation of a coral reef sponge and a colonial scyphozoan. Marine Biology 124:453-459. 1996 Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Discharges; Sea Urchins; Seastars; Sponges
Barker, R. A. and A. F. Ardis. 1996. Hydrogeologic framework of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, west-central Texas. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 1996 Oman GIS & Maps Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Discharges; Seawater Flow; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Colonna, M., J. Casanova, W.-C. Dullo, and G. Camoin. 1996. Sea-level changes and δ18O record for the past 34,000 yr from Mayotte reef, Indian Ocean. Quaternary Research 46:335-339. 1996 Indian Ocean; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean; Mayotte; India Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Tsukamoto, S. and J. M. Heikoop. 1996. Sulfite radicals in banded coral. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 47:1437-1441. 1996 Indonesia CO2; Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Harvey, L. D. D. 1996. Development of a risk-hedging CO2-emission policy, Part I: Risks of unrestrained emissions. Climatic change 34:Jan-40. 1996 Global Review Agriculture; Climate; CO2; Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Jones, G. LL . and I. D. Somerville. 1996. Irish Dinantian biostratigraphy: Practical applications. Geological Society Special Publication 371-385. 1996 Europe; Britain GIS & Maps
Hamzah, AM IR, A. AD JI Z Saleh, and SA TY A Budhi Takdir. 1996. Marine management efforts for the Pagerungan gas development. Pages 891-898 in International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production. 1996 Indonesia Artificial Habitat; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Waterborne Discharges
Piller, W. E. and M. Rasser. 1996. Rhodolith formation induced by reef erosion in the Red Sea, Egypt. Coral Reefs 15:191-198. 1996 Egypt Algae; Coralline Algae; Discharges; Sea Urchins; Seagrasses
Borg, L. E. and J. L. Banner. 1996. Neodymium and strontium isotopic constraints on soil sources in Barbados, West Indies. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60:4193-4206. 1996 Antilles Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Sediment
Hicklenton, P. R. and K. G. Cairns. 1996. Plant water relations and mineral nutrition of containerized nursery plants in relation to irrigation method. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 76:155-160. 1996 Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Irrigation; Nutrients
Rigo, F. 1995. Overlooked Tunisia reef play may have giant field potential. Oil and Gas Journal 93:56-60. 1995 Review; Field Study & Monitoring Oil & Gas Research & Exploration
Petrae, Lcdr. G. 1995. Barge Morris J. Berman Spill: NOAAs Scientific Response. HAZMAT Report No. 95-10. Hazardous Materials Response and Assessment Division, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle. 1995 Coastal Defense; Collaboration & Partnering; Petroleum Spills
Nyagah, K. 1995. Stratigraphy, depositional history and environments of deposition of Cretaceous through Tertiary strata in the Lamu Basin, southeast Kenya and implications for reservoirs for hydrocarbon exploration. Sedimentary Geology 96:43-71. 1995 Indian Ocean; Kenya; Madagascar; India Sediment
Vogt, I. P. 1995. Coral reefs in Saudi Arabia: 3.5 years after the Gulf War oil spill. Coral Reefs 14:271-273. 1995 Saudi Arabia; Kuwait Petroleum Spills
Deslarzes, K. J. P., P. N. Boothe, B. J. Presley, and G. L. Steinmentz. 1995. Historical incorporation of barium in the reef building coral Montastrea annularis at the Flower Garden Banks, north-west Gulf of Mexico. Marine Pollution Bulletin 30:718-722. 1995 South & Central America; Mexico Index or Indicator Oil & Gas Research & Exploration
Huang, H. and C. J. Forsyth. 1995. Anti selective spirocarbomercuration: Synthesis and stereochemistry of the spirobicyclic sesquiterpenes spirojatamol and erythrodiene. Journal of Organic Chemistry 60:2773-2779. 1995 South & Central America; India; Caribbean Octocoral; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics Sources
1995. GLOBAL PROGRAMME OF ACTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT FROM LAND-BASED ACTIVITIES. United Nations Environment Programme, Washington, D.C.(USA). 1995 Global Agriculture; Non-point Source Runoff; Wetlands
Ashton, P. H. and B. J. Richardson. 1995. Biological monitoring of the marine ocean outfall at Black Rock, Victoria, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 31:334-340. 1995 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Discharges; Sediment
Dullo, W.-C., M. Gektidis, S. Golubic, G. A. Heiss, H. Kampmann, W. Kiene, D. K. Kroll, M. L. Kuhrau, G. Radtke, J. G. Reijmer, G. B. Reinicke, D. Schlichter, H. Schuhmacher, and K. Vogel. 1995. Factors controlling holocene reef growth: An interdisciplinary approach. Facies 32:145-188. 1995 Global; Bahamas; Egypt; Sudan; Djibouti Field Study & Monitoring Algae; Cyanobacteria; Light; Microorganisms; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Octocoral; Plankton; Primary Production; Sea Urchins; Sediment; Snails & Conch; Stony Coral; Substrate; Tourism & Recreation; Water Depth & Sea Level; Zooxanthellae
Glynn, P. W., D. G. Rumbold, S. C. Snedaker. 1995. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Marine Sediment and Biota from the Northern Florida Reef Tract. Marine Pollution Bulletin 30:397-402. 1995 Florida Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Sediment; Sponges
Rillera, F. G. 1995. Independent focuses Philippines exploration on Visayan Basin. Oil and Gas Journal 93:68-73. 1995 Philippines Oil & Gas Research & Exploration
Ellis, J. and D. N. Schramm. 1995. Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92:235-238. 1995 Light; Plankton
Pisano William, C., ST EV E Kiss, DA VI D Connelly, and TO M Giles. 1995. Holistic stormwater master planning for Cape Coral, Fl. Pages 137-140 in [No source information available]. 1995 Florida Finfish Harvest; Irrigation; Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation; Water
Van Tussenbroek, B. I. 1995. Thalassia testudinum leaf dynamics in a Mexican caribbean coral reef lagoon. Marine Biology 122:33-40. 1995 South & Central America; Caribbean; Mexico Discharges; Mangroves; Primary Production; Seagrasses
Miller, R. L. and J. F. Cruise. 1995. Effects of Suspended Sediments on Coral Growth: Evidence from Remote Sensing and Hydrologic Modeling. Remote Sensing of Environment 53:177-187. 1995 Puerto Rico Model; GIS & Maps; Remote Sensing Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Mohammed, S. Z. 1995. Observations on the benthic macrofauna of the soft sediment on western side of the Arabian Gulf (ROPME sea area) with respect to 1991 Gulf War oil spill. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 24:147-152. 1995 Echinoderms; Marine Worms; Molluscs; Petroleum Spills; Sediment; Substrate
Li, S., R. R. Manory, and J. H. Hensler. 1995. Compound layer growth and compound layer porosity of austenite plasma nitrocarburised non-alloyed steel. Surface and Coatings Technology 71:112-120. 1995 Nutrients
Buckingham, S. D., M. I. Balk, S. C. R. Lunimis, P. Jewess, and D. B. Sattelle. 1995. Actions of nitromethylenes on an α-bungarotoxin-sensitive neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Neuropharmacology 34:591-597. 1995 Fertilizer & Pesticide Use
Catena John, G. 1995. World prodigy oil spill restoration planning. Pages 92-93 in Coastal Zone: Proceedings of the Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management. 1995 Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Petroleum Spills
Sindermann, C. J. 1995. Ocean Pollution Effects on Living Resources and Humans. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 1995 Waterborne Discharges
Russo Anthony, R. 1995. Survey of selected coral and fish assemblages near the Waianae ocean outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1994. Pages 896-906 in Oceans Conference Record (IEEE). 1995 US Pacific & Hawaii Discharges; Fish; Pipelines; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes
Scally Douglas, R., E. Harrington John, and L. Timpe Gerald. 1995. Marine observation network for the Prince William Sound. Pages 741-749 in Oceans Conference Record (IEEE). 1995 Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Coastal Defense; Petroleum Spills
ANON,. 1995. Iron Baron scuttling. Australasian Ships & Ports 8:12. 1995 Australia Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Petroleum Spills; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Pyburn, B. 1995. Oil spill recovery, little development but hope for the future. Work Boat World 14:30-38. 1995 Australia; South Africa Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Petroleum Spills; Remediation
Fadlallah, Y. H., K. W. Allen, and R. A. Estudillo. 1995. Mortality of shallow reef corals in the western Arabian Gulf following aerial exposure in winter. Coral Reefs 14:99-107. 1995 Saudi Arabia Petroleum Spills; Stony Coral
Wolanski, E., A. Norro, and B. King. 1995. Water circulation in the Gulf of Papua. Continental Shelf Research 15:185-212. 1995 Papua New Guinea Model Non-point Source Runoff; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Hathway, B. 1995. Deposition and diagenesis of Miocene arc-fringing platform and debris-apron carbonates, southwestern Viti Levu, Fiji. Sedimentary Geology 94:187-208. 1995 Fiji Sediment
Popp, B. N., F. J. Sansone, T. M. Rust, and D. A. Merritt. 1995. Determination of concentration and carbon isotopic composition of dissolved methane in sediments and nearshore waters. Analytical Chemistry 67:405-411. 1995 Field Study & Monitoring Sediment
Clarke, J. W. 1995. Petroleum potential of the Amu Dar'ya Province, western Uzbekistan and eastern Turkmenistan. International Geology Review 36:407-415. 1995
Mendonca, V. M., H. D. Klepin, and S. W. Matson. 1995. DNA helicases in recombination and repair: Construction of a ΔuvrD ΔhelD ΔrecQ mutant deficient in recombination and repair. Journal of Bacteriology 177:1326-1335. 1995 Substrate
San Diego-McGlone, M. L., C. L. Villanoy, and P. M. Alino. 1995. Nutrient mediated stress on the marine communities of a coastal lagoon (Puerto Galera, Philippines). Marine Pollution Bulletin 31:355-366. 1995 Philippines Index or Indicator Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Plankton
Sholkovitz, E. and G. T. Shen. 1995. The incorporation of rare earth elements in modern coral. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 59:2749-2756. 1995 Bermuda Index or Indicator Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Climate; Discharges; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Turner, S. J. 1994. The biology and population outbreaks of the corallivorous gastropod Drupella on Indo-Pacific reefs. Pages 461-530 Oceanography and marine biology: an annual review. Vol. 32. 1994 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia; Japan; Marshall Islands; Philippines Review Finfish Harvest; Non-point Source Runoff; Snails & Conch
Stoffle, R. W., D. B. Halmo, T. W. Wagner, and J. J. Luczkovich. 1994. Reefs from space: Satellite imagery, marine ecology, and ethnography in the Dominican Republic. Human Ecology 22:355-378. 1994 Global; Dominican Republic Index or Indicator; Remote Sensing Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Mangroves; Seagrasses; Tourism & Recreation
Searle, P. A. and T. F. Molinski. 1994. Five new alkaloids from the tropical ascidian, Lissoclinum sp. lissoclinotoxin A is chiral. Journal of Organic Chemistry 59:6600-6605. 1994 Australia
Lemke, W., A. Kuijpers, G. Hoffmann, D. Milkert, and R. Atzler. 1994. The Darss Sill, hydrographic threshold in the southwestern Baltic: Late Quaternary geology and recent sediment dynamics. Continental Shelf Research 14:847-870. 1994 Germany Discharges; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
McCulloch, M. T., M. K. Gagan, G. E. Mortimer, A. R. Chivas, and P. J. Isdale. 1994. A high-resolution Sr/Ca and δ18O coral record from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and the 1982-1983 El Nino. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 58:2747-2754. 1994 Australia Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Climate; Non-point Source Runoff; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Guzman, H. M., K. A. Burns, and J. B. C. Jackson. 1994. Injury, regeneration and growth of Caribbean reef corals after a major oil spill in Panama. Marine Ecology Progress Series 105:231-242. 1994 South & Central America; Panama; Caribbean Petroleum Spills
Hutchings, P., C. Payri, and C. Gabrie. 1994. The current status of coral reef management in French Polynesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 29:26-33. 1994 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia Review Agriculture; Designate Protected Species; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Non-point Source Runoff; Tourism & Recreation
Hunter, C. L. and C. W. Evans. 1994. Reefs in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii: two centuries of western influence and two decades of data. Pages 339-345 in Proceedings of the colloquium on global aspects of coral reefs, Miami, 1993. 1994 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii Algae; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Plankton; Point Source Discharges; Sediment; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Richmond, R. H. 1994. Effects of coastal runoff on coral reproduction. Pages 360-364 in Proceedings of the colloquium on global aspects of coral reefs, Miami, 1993. 1994 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii; Guam Golf Course Operations; Hotel & Food Services; Housing; Non-point Source Runoff; Salinity; Sediment
Roberts, C. M., N. Downing, and A. R. G. Price. 1994. Oil on troubled waters: impacts of the Gulf War on coral reefs. Pages 132-138 in Proceedings of the colloquium on global aspects of coral reefs, Miami, 1993. 1994 Global; Saudi Arabia; Kuwait Fish; Petroleum Spills; Stony Coral
Pitt, R. and R. Creel. 1994. Evaluating Detention Pond Performance with Computer Modeling Verification. 1994 Model Civil Engineering & Construction; Construction Codes & Projects; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Non-point Source Runoff; Solid Waste Disposal; Storms & Hurricanes
Naqvi, S. A. S. 1994. Seasonal variation in an annually-banded coral Porites: A scanning electron microscopy investigation. Marine Geology 118:187-194. 1994 Indian Ocean; India Non-point Source Runoff; Stony Coral
Hearty, P. J. and H. L. Vacher. 1994. Quaternary stratigraphy of Bermuda: A high-resolution pre-Sangamonian rock record. Quaternary Science Reviews 13:685-697. 1994 Bermuda Model; GIS & Maps Climate; Sediment; Snails & Conch; Water Depth & Sea Level
Wang, W., S. Wu, and D. Xia. 1994. The erosional process of the soft shore of China in the recent decades. Chinese Geographical Science 4:106-118. 1994 China Beaches & Nature Parks; Discharges; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation
Dollar, S. 1994. Sewage discharge on coral reefs: not always pollution. Coral Reefs 13:224. 1994 Discharges
Avsar, N., D. Basso, S. Spezzaferri, H. Koral, and V. Yanko. 1994. Cruise AVI-II 93: Preliminary data from the Iskenderun Bay (Turkey) [Crociera AVI-II 93: Dati preliminari dalla Baia di Iskenderun (Turchia)]. Rendiconti Lincei 5:233-245. 1994 Field Study & Monitoring Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Roberts, H. H. and P. Aharon. 1994. Hydrocarbon-derived carbonate buildups of the northern Gulf of Mexico continental slope: A review of submersible investigations. Geo-Marine Letters 14:135-148. 1994 South & Central America; Mexico Review Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Thomas, P. M. E. 1994. Everglades nutrient removal project. Pages 27-Nov in Proc. conference on explosives and blasting technique, Austin Texas, 1994. 1994 Florida Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Stony Coral
Ehrlich, R., R. J. Wenning, G. W. Johnson, S. H. Su, and D. J. Paustenbach. 1994. A mixing model for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in surface sediments from Newark Bay, New Jersey using polytopic vector analysis. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 27:486-500. 1994 Model Discharges; Ports & Harbors; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wastewater Discharge
Prove, B. G., T. J. McShane, J. R. Reghenzani, J. D. Armour, S. Sen, and P. W. Moody. 1994. Nutrient loss via drainage from the major agricultural industries on the wet tropical coast of Queensland. in National Conference Publication - Institution of Engineers, Australia. 1994 Australia Agriculture; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Hovland, M., P. F. Croker, and M. Martin. 1994. Fault-associated seabed mounds (carbonate knolls?) off western Ireland and north-west Australia. Marine and Petroleum Geology 11:232-246. 1994 Australia Calcareous Macroalgae; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Bell, P. R. F. and T. Tomascik. 1994. The demise of the fringing coral reefs of Barbados and of regions in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon - impacts of eutrophication. Pages 319-325 in Proceedings of the colloquium on global aspects of coral reefs, Miami, 1993. 1994 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia Agriculture; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Stony Coral; Tourism & Recreation
Sassen, R., G. A. Cole, R. Drozd, and H. H. Roberts. 1994. Oligocene to Holocene hydrocarbon migration and salt-dome carbonates, northern Gulf of Mexico. Marine and Petroleum Geology 11:55-65. 1994 South & Central America; Mexico Microorganisms
Brown, B. E., M. D. Le Tissier, R. P. Dunne, and T. P. Scoffin. 1994. Natural and anthropogenic disturbances of intertidal reefs of SE Phuket, Thailand 1979-1992. Pages 279-285 in Proceedings of the colloquium on global aspects of coral reefs, Miami, 1993. 1994 Global; Thailand Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Byron, G. 1994. Impacts of cyclone-induced floods on fringing reefs: case study of Keppel Bay, Queensland, Australia. Pages 326-332 in Proceedings of the colloquium on global aspects of coral reefs, Miami, 1993. 1994 Global; Australia Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Frappa, M. and M. Pujos. 1994. Late quaternary evolution of the French Guiana continental shelf: Evidence from 3.5 kHz data. Marine Geology 121:231-245. 1994 Discharges; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Schroeter, S. C., J. D. Dixon, J. Kastendiek, R. O. Smith, and J. R. Bence. 1993. Detecting the ecological effects of environmental impacts: a case study of kelp forest invertebrates. Ecological Applications 3:331-350. 1993 Discharges; Octocoral; Plankton; Sea Urchins; Seastars; Snails & Conch; Sponges; Substrate
Marsh, G. 1993. A workboat future for the AP 1-88 hovercraft? Pages 13-Sep Ship & Boat International. 1993 Forestry; Petroleum Spills
Sheppard, C. R. C. 1993. Physical environment of the Gulf relevant to marine pollution: An overview. Marine Pollution Bulletin 27:8-Mar. 1993 Salinity; Sediment; Substrate; Waterborne Discharges
Readman, J. W., L. L. W. Kwong, D. Grondin, J. Bartocci, J.-P. Villeneuve, and L. D. Mee. 1993. Coastal water contamination from a triazine herbicide used in antifouling paints. Environmental Science and Technology 27:1940-1942. 1993 Fertilizer & Pesticide Use
Bowen James, D., P. Galya Donald, and T. Villars Monique. 1993. Modeling the impacts of plankton entrainment in a tropical bay. Pages 1167-1171 in Proceedings - National Conference on Hydraulic Engineering. 1993 Field Study & Monitoring; Model Discharges; Plankton; Seawater Flow
Burns, K. A., M. G. Ehrhardt, B. L. Howes, and C. D. Taylor. 1993. Subtidal benthic community respiration and production near the heavily oiled Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 27:199-205. 1993 Saudi Arabia Algae; Light; Petroleum Spills; Primary Production; Seagrasses; Sediment
Gable, F. J. 1993. Marine habitats: selected environmental and ecological charts. Pages 217-261 Climatic change in the intra-Americas sea. 1993 GIS & Maps Molluscs; Plankton; Seagrasses; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetlands
Maul, G. A. 1993. Implications of future climate on the ecosystems and socio-economic structure in the marine and coastal regions of the intra-Americas sea. Pages 28-Mar Climatic change in the intra-Americas sea. 1993 Global; South & Central America; Bahamas; Bermuda; Caribbean; Mexico Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Beaches & Nature Parks; Climate; Coastal Development; Deforestation & Devegetation; Finfish Harvest; Mangroves; Non-point Source Runoff; Seagrasses; Storms & Hurricanes; Tourism & Recreation; Wetlands
Green, R. H. 1993. Application of repeated measures designs in environmental impact and monitoring studies. Australian Journal of Ecology 18:81-98. 1993 Field Study & Monitoring; Model Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Petroleum Spills
Brown, B. E., M. D. Tissier, R. P. Dunne, and T. P. Scoffin. 1993. Natural and anthropogenic disturbances on intertidal reefs of S.E. Phuket, Thailand 1979-1992. Pages 279-285 Miami, FL. 1993 Thailand Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Water Depth & Sea Level
Harris, P. T., E. K. Baker, A. R. Cole, and S. A. Short. 1993. A preliminary study of sedimentation in the tidally dominated Fly River Delta, Gulf of Papua. Continental Shelf Research 13:441-472. 1993 Model Discharges; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water. 1993. Guidance Specifying Management Measures For Sources Of Nonpoint Pollution In Coastal Waters. EPA/840/B-92/002, US EPA, Washington, DC. 1993 Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Agriculture; Docks & Marinas; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetlands
[No author name available]. 1993. Coastal Zone'93. Pages 2415-3512 in Coastal Zone: Proceedings of the Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management. 1993 Global; South & Central America; US Pacific & Hawaii; Mexico GIS & Maps Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Microorganisms; Non-point Source Runoff; Point Source Discharges; Ports & Harbors; Resource Use Management; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Tourism & Recreation; Waterborne Discharges; Wetlands; Whales & Dolphins
Robert Pitt and K. Dunkers. 1993. Lake Water Quality Improvements from Treatment of Stormwater Using the Flow Balancing Method, 66th Annual Water Environment Federation Conference. Anaheim, CA. October 1993.; Detecting Water Quality Trends from Stormwater Discharge Reductions, Engineerin. in 66th Annual Water Environment Federation Conference. 1993 Global Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Algae; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Improved Technology; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Seawater Flow; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wastewater Discharge; Water Depth & Sea Level
Leinfelder, R. and H. Seyfried. 1993. Sea level change: a philosophical approach. Geologische Rundschau 82:159-172. 1993 Global Model Climate; CO2; Coal Mining; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Special Use Permitting; Water Depth & Sea Level
Gabric, A. J. and P. R. F. Bell. 1993. Review of the effects of non-point nutrient loading on coastal ecosystems. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 44:261-283. 1993 Review Discharges; Marine Birds; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Pathogens; Remediation; Seagrasses; Whales & Dolphins
Medeiros, C. and B. Kjerfve. 1993. Hydrology of a Tropical Estuarine System: Itamaraca, Brazil. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 36:495-515. 1993 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean Discharges; Mangroves; Non-point Source Runoff; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water; Wetlands
[No author name available]. 1993. 11th Australasian Conference on Coastal and Ocean Engineering. Pages 429-726 in National Conference Publication - Institution of Engineers, Australia. 1993 Australia Model Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Petroleum Spills; Seagrasses; Shoreline Protection; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Xia, DO NG XI NG, WE NH AI Wang, GU IQ IU Wu, JI NR UI Cui, and FU LI N Li. 1993. Coastal erosion in China. Acta Geographica Sinica 48:468-476. 1993 China Discharges; Housing; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation
Guzman, H. M. and I. Holst. 1993. Effects of chronic oil-sediment pollution on the reproduction of the Caribbean reef coral Siderastrea siderea. Marine Pollution Bulletin 26:276-282. 1993 South & Central America; Panama; Caribbean Mangroves; Petroleum Spills; Sediment; Stony Coral
Chavez, ER NE ST O and JO HN Tunnell. 1993. Needs for management and conservation of the southern Gulf of Mexico. Pages 2040-2053 in Coastal Zone: Proceedings of the Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management. 1993 South & Central America; Mexico Review Beaches & Nature Parks; Coastal Development; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Petroleum Spills; Piscivorous Fish; Sea Turtles; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation
Nozaki, K., K. Kato, A. Negishi, and K. Onda. 1993. Technologies to suppress the greenhouse gas through coral reefs. Denshi Gijutsu Sogo Kenkyusho Iho/Bulletin of the Electrotechnical Laboratory 57:176-192. 1993 Review CO2; Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Alongi, D. M., F. Tirendi, and P. Christoffersen. 1993. Sedimentary profiles and sediment-water solute exchange of iron and manganese in reef- and river-dominated shelf regions of the Coral Sea. Continental Shelf Research 13:287-305. 1993 Australia Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Microorganisms; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Barton, C. E., M. Lackie, and F. M. Peerdeman. 1993. Environmental control of magnetic properties of upper-slope sediments near the Great Barrier Reef: results from Leg 133, Site 820. Proc., scientific results, ODP, Leg 133, northeast Australian margin 543-562. 1993 Australia Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Letourneur, Y., M. Harmelin-Vivien, and R. Galzin. 1993. Impact of hurricane Firinga on fish community structure on fringing reefs of Reunion Island, S.W. Indian Ocean. Environmental Biology of Fishes 37:109-120. 1993 Indian Ocean; Reunion; India Fish; Non-point Source Runoff; Storms & Hurricanes
Pathirana, C., W. Fenical, E. Corcoran, and J. Clardy. 1993. Erythrodiene: A new spirobicyclic sesquiterpene of a rare skeletal class from the Caribbean gorgonian coral Erythropodium caribaeorum. Tetrahedron Letters 34:3371-3372. 1993 South & Central America; Caribbean Octocoral
Reichelt, A. J. and G. B. Jones. 1993. Characterization and fate of suspended sediments associated with dredging activities in Cleveland Bay. Pages 385-390 in National Conference Publication - Institution of Engineers, Australia. 1993 Australia Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Donoghue, J. F. 1993. Late Wisconsinan and Holocene depositional history, northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Marine Geology 112:185-205. 1993 South & Central America; Florida; Mexico Discharges; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Hajdas, I., S. D. Ivy, J. Beer, G. Bonani, D. Imboden, A. F. Lotter, M. Sturm, and M. Suter. 1993. AMS radiocarbon dating and varve chronology of Lake Soppensee: 6000 to 12000 14C years BP. Climate Dynamics 9:107-116. 1993 France Sediment
Wolanski, E., B. Delesalle, V. Dufour, and A. Aubanel. 1993. Modeling the fate of pollutants in the Tiahura Lagoon, Moorea, French Polynesia. Pages 583-588 in National Conference Publication - Institution of Engineers, Australia. 1993 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Model Discharges; Tourism & Recreation; Wastewater Discharge
Baker, D. J. 1993. Sustainable development and NOAA's special role in meeting national goals. Marine Technology Society Journal 27:49-54. 1993 Fishing Sector; Waterborne Discharges; Whales & Dolphins
Stasiuk, L. D. 1993. Algal bloom episodes and the formation of bituminite and micrinite in hydrocarbon source rocks: evidence from the Devonian and Mississippian, northern Williston Basin, Canada. International Journal of Coal Geology 24:195-210. 1993 Index or Indicator Algae; Microorganisms; Sediment
Ross, D. J. and P. W. Skelton. 1993. Rudist formations of the Cretaceous: a palaeoecological, sedimentological and stratigraphical review. Pages 73-91 Sedimentology review/1. 1993 Review Sediment
Arakel, A. V., T. Loder, D. McConchie, and C. Pailles. 1993. Environmental consequences of land degradation in coastal drainage basins of north Queensland, Australia: influence of farming practices. Land Degradation & Rehabilitation 4:99-112. 1993 Australia Agriculture; Chemical Use Regulations; Discharges; Point Source Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Oldale, R. N., S. M. Colman, and G. A. Jones. 1993. Radiocarbon Ages from Two Submerged Strandline Features in the Western Gulf of Maine and a Sea-Level Curve for the Northeastern Massachusetts Coastal Region. Quaternary Research 40:38-45. 1993 Global Discharges; Water Depth & Sea Level
Andreason, M. W. 1992. Coastal siliciclastic sabkhas and related evaporative environments of the Permian Yates Formation, North Ward-Estes field, Ward County, Texas. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 76:1735-1759. 1992 Field Study & Monitoring Water Depth & Sea Level
Jensen, P. 1992. \Bubbling reefs' in the Kattegat: submarine landscapes of carbonate- cemented rocks support a diverse ecosystem at methane seeps". Marine Ecology Progress Series 83:103-112. 1992 Algae; Bivalves; Invertebrates; Marine Worms; Microorganisms; Sediment; Sponges
Kennedy, C. J., N. J. Gassman, and P. J. Walsh. 1992. The fate of benzo[a]pyrene in the scleractinian corals Favia fragum and Montastrea annularis. Marine Biology 113:313-318. 1992 Florida Stony Coral; Zooxanthellae
Dando, P. R. and M. Hovland. 1992. Environmental effects of submarine seeping natural gas. Continental Shelf Research 12:1197-1207. 1992 CO2; Microorganisms; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Sediment
Wehmiller, J. F., L. L. York, D. F. Belknap, and S. W. Snyder. 1992. Theoretical correlations and lateral discontinuities in the Quaternary aminostratigraphic record of the U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain. Quaternary Research 38:275-291. 1992 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Model
Gittings, S. 1992. Historica data on Gulf of Mexico reef shows compatibility with drilling, production. OFFSHORE, INCORPORATING THE OILMAN 52:33-34+36. 1992 South & Central America; Mexico Field Study & Monitoring Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research
Dykens, J. A., J. M. Shick, C. Benoit, G. R. Buettner, and G. W. Winston. 1992. Oxygen radical production in the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima and its endosymbiotic algae. Journal of Experimental Biology 168:219-241. 1992 Algae; Anemones & Zooanthids; Light; Primary Production; Zooxanthellae
IEPIECA (International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association). 1992. Biological impacts of oil pollution: coral reefs. London, UK. 1992 Global Petroleum Spills
NOAA. 1992. Oil spill case histories 1967-1991: summaries of significant U.S. and international spills. Hazardous Materials Response and Assessment Division, Seattle, Washington. 1992 Coastal Defense; Funding & Donations; Funding & Incentives; Petroleum Spills
Dasinger, AN DR EW and DO NA LD Galya. 1992. Application for a mixing zone authorization for the ocean discharge of once-through cooling water in Puerto Rico. Pages 605-610 in National Conference on Environmental Engineering. 1992 Puerto Rico Review; Field Study & Monitoring; Model Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Special Use Permitting
NOAA: Hazardous Materials Response and Assessment Division. 1992. Oil Spill Case Histories: Summaries of Significant U.S. and International Spills. 1992 Petroleum Spills
Kuang-Lung, FA N. 1992. The thermal discharges from nuclear power plants in Taiwan. Chemistry & Ecology 6:213-224. 1992 Taiwan Discharges; Fishing Sector; Natural Gas & Electric Power
Te, F. T. 1992. The effects of Dursban insecticide on Pocillopora damicornis (Cnidaria Scleractinia). University of Guam, Guam. 1992 Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Stony Coral
Vacher, H. L., M. J. Wightman, and M. T. Stewart. 1992. Hydrology of meteoric diagenesis: effect of Pleistocene stratigraphy on freshwater lenses of Big Pine Key, Florida. Pages 213-219 Quaternary coasts of the United States. 1992 Florida Model Discharges
Wendte, J., F. A. Stoakes, and C. V. Campbell. 1992. Devonian-early Mississippian carbonates of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin: a sequence stratigraphic framework. Devonian-early Mississippian carbonates of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin: a sequence stratigraphic framework. 1992 Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Guzman, H. M. and C. E. Jimenez. 1992. Contamination of coral reefs by heavy metals along the Caribbean coast of Central America (Costa Rica and Panama). Marine Pollution Bulletin 24:554-561. 1992 South & Central America; Costa Rica; Panama; Caribbean Agriculture; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharges; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Petroleum Spills; Sediment; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Herrera, A. and J. B. C. Jackson. 1992. Environmental versus taxonomic variation in lophophore morphology of Panamanian cheilostome bryozoans. Marine Biology 112:99-106. 1992 South & Central America; Panama; Caribbean Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment
Bell, P. R. F. 1991. Status of eutrophication in the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. Marine Pollution Bulletin 23:89-93. 1991 Australia Review Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Plankton; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Fan, K. L. 1991. The thermal effluent problems of three nuclear power plants in Taiwan. Pages 393-403 Oceanography of Asian marginal seas. 1991 Taiwan Discharges; Fishing Sector
Acevedo, R. 1991. Preliminary observations on effects of pesticides carbaryl, naphthol, and chlorpyrifos on planulae of the hermatypic coral Pocillopora damicornis. Pacific Science 45:287-289. 1991 Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Stony Coral
Dipper, F. and F. Pearce. 1991. Earth, air, fire, water, oil and war. BBC Wildlife 9:190-195. 1991 Kuwait Mangroves; Whales & Dolphins
Susic, M., K. Boto, and P. Isdale. 1991. Fluorescent humic acid bands in coral skeletons originate from terrestrial runoff. Marine Chemistry 33:91-104. 1991 Australia Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Kennard, J. M. 1991. Lower Cambrian archaeocyathan buildups, Todd River Dolomite, northeast Amadeus Basin, central Australia: sedimentology and diagenesis. Bulletin - Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology & Geophysics, Australia 236:195-225. 1991 Australia Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Camp, S. L. 1991. Population, poverty, and pollution. Forum for Applied Research & Public Policy 6:17-May. 1991 Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Frease, R. A. and J. G. Windsor Jr. 1991. Behaviour of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with stabilized oil and coal ash artificial reef. Marine Pollution Bulletin 22:15-19. 1991 Artificial Habitat; Coal Mining
Branan William, V., ZE IT LI N Hale Lynne, and KA SE M Srinian. 1991. What future for Phuket? Pages 1713-1719 in Coastal Zone: Proceedings of the Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management. 1991 Thailand Resource Use Management; Waterborne Discharges; Wetlands
Guzman, H. M., J. B. C. Jackson, and E. Weil. 1991. Short-term ecological consequences of a major oil spill on Panamanian subtidal reef corals. Coral Reefs 10:12-Jan. 1991 South & Central America; Panama; Caribbean Mangroves; Petroleum Spills; Solid Waste Disposal; Stony Coral
Sullivan, P. K. and V. Dayananda. 1991. Engineering management considerations in coastal development. Page 1430 in Oceans Conference Record (IEEE). 1991 Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Beaches & Nature Parks; Chemical Use Regulations; Coastal Development; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Nutrients
Tiffin, D. L. 1991. Marine mineral development activities within the SOPAC region. Page 1474 in Oceans Conference Record (IEEE). 1991 US Pacific & Hawaii Beaches & Nature Parks; Monetary Valuation
Muzik, K. 1991. Coral grief. Technology Review 94:60-67. 1991 Global Agriculture; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish Harvest; Non-point Source Runoff; Petroleum Spills; Sea Temperatures; Tourism & Recreation
LeProvost, M. I. and D. M. Gordon. 1991. Oilfield development and protection of natural resources within the tropical marine environment of the Rowley Shelf, Northwest Australia. Pages 527-540 in SPE Asia Pacific Conference. 1991 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia Review; Field Study & Monitoring Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Mangroves; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Petroleum Spills
Humphery-Smith, I., Y. H. Thong, D. Moorhouse, C. Creevey, M. Gauci, and B. Stone. 1991. Reactions to argasid tick bites by island residents on the Great Barrier Reef. Medical Journal of Australia 155:181-186. 1991 Australia Arthropods; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Light; Marine Birds
Keller, B, D. and J. B. C. Jackson. 1991. Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama interim report, volume I: executive summary. OCS Study MMS 90-0030, U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Gulf of Mexico OCS Regional Office, New Orleans, LA. 1991 Panama Mangroves; Petroleum Spills; Seagrasses
Hanna Rifaat, G. M. 1991. Available data for management of the Egyptian Red Sea coastal areas. Pages 3433-3445 in Coastal Zone: Proceedings of the Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management. 1991 Egypt Mangroves; Mining Policies; Petroleum Spills
Hawker, D. W., and D. W. Connell. 1991. Standards and criteria for pollution control in coral reef areas. Pages 169-188 Pollution in Tropical Aquatic Systems. CRC, Boca Raton, FL. 1991 Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Nutrients; Salinity; Sediment
Ehrhardt, M. G. 1990. Petroleum-derived dissolved organic compounds concentrated from inshore waters in Burmuda. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 138:35-47. 1990 Bermuda
Hay, M. E., J. E. Duffy, V. J. Paul, P. E. Renaud, and W. Fenical. 1990. Specialist herbivores reduce their susceptibility to predation by feeding on the chemically defended seaweed Avrainvillea longicaulis. Limnology and Oceanography 35:1734-1743. 1990 Algae; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp
Woolhiser, D. A., R. E. Smith, and D. C. Goodrich. 1990. KINEROS, A kinematic runoff and erosion model: Documentation and user manual. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, ARS-77. 1990 Model Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes
Peckol, P., S. C. Levings, and S. D. Garrity. 1990. Kelp response following the World Prodigy oil spill. Marine Pollution Bulletin 21:473-476. 1990 Petroleum Spills
Key Jr, M. M. 1990. Intracolony variation in skeletal growth rates in Paleozoic ramose trepostome bryozoans. Paleobiology 16:483-491. 1990
Wolanski, E., Y. Mazda, B. King, and S. Gay. 1990. Dynamics, flushing and trapping in Hinchinbrook channel, a giant mangrove swamp, Australia. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 31:555-579. 1990 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Model Aquaculture; Discharges; Mangroves; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Reichelt, R. E., W. Greve, R. H. Bradbury, and P. J. Moran. 1990. Acanthaster planci outbreak initiation: A starfish-coral site model. Ecological Modelling 49:153-177. 1990 Field Study & Monitoring; Model Non-point Source Runoff; Seastars; Stony Coral
Jokiel, P. L. and S. L. Coles. 1990. Response of Hawaiian and other Indo-Pacific reef corals to elevated temperature. Coral Reefs 8:155-162. 1990 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii Light; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Zooxanthellae
Fairbanks, R. G. 1990. The age and origin of the \Younger Dryas climate event' in Greenland ice cores". Paleoceanography 5:937-948. 1990 Europe Climate; Discharges
Vora, K. H. and F. Almeida. 1990. Submerged reef systems on the central western continental shelf of India. Marine Geology 91:255-262. 1990 India Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Runoff; Water Depth & Sea Level
Foster, M. S., J. A. Tarpley, and S. L. Dearn. 1990. To clean or not to clean: the rationale, methods, and consequences of removing oil from temperate shores. Northwest Environmental Journal 6:105-120. 1990 Review Mangroves; Petroleum Spills; Tourism & Recreation
Tribble, G. W., F. J. Sansone, and S. V. Smith. 1990. Stoichiometric modeling of carbon diagenesis within a coral reef framework. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 54:2439-2449. 1990 US Pacific & Hawaii Model Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Nutrients
Klein, R., Y. Loya, G. Gvirtzman, P. J. Isdale, and M. Susic. 1990. Seasonal rainfall in the Sinai Desert during the late Quaternary inferred from fluorescent bands in fossil corals. Nature 345:145-147. 1990 Climate; Non-point Source Runoff; Stony Coral
McClanahan, T. R. 1990. Kenyan coral reef-associated gastropod assemblages: distribution and diversity patterns. Coral Reefs 9:63-74. 1990 Indian Ocean; Kenya; Tanzania; India Discharges; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Invertivorous Fish; Sea Urchins; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Onizuka, R., K. Inoue, and H. Kamiya. 1990. Red soft coral-induced allergic symptoms observed in spiny lobster fishermen. Japanese Journal of Allergology 39:339-347. 1990 US Pacific & Hawaii Discharges; Finfish Harvest; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Octocoral
Bouma, A. H. and H. H. Roberts. 1990. Northern Gulf of Mexico continental slope. Geo-Marine Letters 10:177-181. 1990 South & Central America; Mexico Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Garrity, S. D. and S. C. Levings. 1990. Effects of an oil spill on the gastropods of a tropical intertidal reef flat. Marine Environmental Research 30:119-153. 1990 South & Central America; Panama; Caribbean Molluscs; Petroleum Spills; Snails & Conch
Shen, G. T. and C. L. Sanford. 1990. Trace element indicators of climate variability in reef-building corals. Pages 255-283 Global ecological consequences of the 1982-83 El Nino-Southern Oscillation. 1990 Global; South & Central America; US Pacific & Hawaii; Pacific Ocean; Caribbean Index or Indicator Climate; Discharges; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Craik, W., J. Glaister, and I. Poiner. 1990. The effects of fishing. The effects of fishing. 1990 Australia; New Caledonia Review Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Discharges; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Sea Turtles; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Davies, P.S. 1990. A rapid method for assessing growth rates of corals in relation to water pollution. Marine Pollution Bulletin 21:346-348. 1990 Stony Coral; Waterborne Discharges
Wylie, C. R. and V. J. Paul. 1989. Chemical defenses in three species of Sinularia (Coelenterata, Alcyonacea): effects against generalist predators and the butterflyfish Chaetodon unimaculatus Bloch. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 129:141-160. 1989 Guam Field Study & Monitoring Corallivorous Fish; Fish; Octocoral
Burns, K. A. and A. H. Knap. 1989. The Bahia las Minas oil spill. Hydrocarbon uptake by reef building corals. Marine Pollution Bulletin 20:391-398. 1989 Petroleum Spills
Purdy, C. B., E. R. M. Druffel, and L. Hugh D. 1989. Anomalous levels of 90Sr and 239,240Pu in Florida corals: Evidence of coastal processes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 53:1401-1410. 1989 Florida; Bermuda Non-point Source Runoff; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Vogel, E. W. 1989. Somatic cell mutagenesis in Drosophila: Recovery of genetic damage in relation to the types of DNA lesions induced in mutationally unstable and stable X-chromosomes. Mutation Research 211:153-170. 1989
Goudie, A. 1989. The nature of the environment. Second edition. The nature of the environment. Second edition. 1989 Mangroves
Fairbanks, R. G. 1989. A 17,000-year glacio-eustatic sea level record: Influence of glacial melting rates on the Younger Dryas event and deep-ocean circulation. Nature 342:637-642. 1989 Global; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Discharges; Water Depth & Sea Level
Maristany, A.E. and Bartel, R.L. 1989. Wetlands and Stormwater Management: A Case Study of Lake Munson, Part I: Long-Term Treatment Efficiencies, in: Fisk, D.W. (Ed.) Proceedings of the Symposium on Wetlands: Concerns and Successes, AWRA, Tampa, FL, pp. 215-229 (1989). 1989 Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wastewater Discharge; Wetlands
Jackson, J. B. C., J. D. Cubit, B. D. Keller, V. Batista, K. Burns, H. M. Caffey, R. L. Caldwell, S. D. Garrity, C. D. Getter, C. Gonzalez, H. M. Guzman, K. W. Kaufmann, A. H. Knap, S. C. Levings, M. J. Marshall, R. Steger, R. C. Thompson, and E. Weil. 1989. Ecological effects of a major oil spill on Panamanian coastal marine communities. Science 243:37-44. 1989 South & Central America; Panama; Caribbean Algae; Mangroves; Petroleum Spills; Seagrasses
Matson, E. A. 1989. Biogeochemistry of Mariana Islands coastal sediments: terrestrial influence on /gd13, Ash, CaCO3, Al, Fe, Si and P. Coral Reefs 7:153-160. 1989 US Pacific & Hawaii; Guam Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Non-point Source Runoff; Salinity; Sediment
Bell, P. R. F., P. F. Greenfield, D. Hawker, and D. Connell. 1989. The impact of waste discharges on coral reef regions. Water Science and Technology 21:121-130. 1989 Discharges; Hotel & Food Services; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Tourism & Recreation
Hinrichsen, D. 1989. Coping with pollution in Indonesia. Earthwatch 35:8-Jun. 1989 Indonesia Aquaculture; Banks, Credit, & Securities; Finfish Harvest; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Microorganisms; Sediment; Special Use Permitting; Wastewater Discharge
Glynn, P. W., A. M. Szmant, E. F. Corcoran, and S. V. Cofer-Shabica. 1989. Conditions of coral reef cnidarians from the Northern Florida Reef tract: Pesticides, heavy metals, and histopathological examination. Marine Pollution Bulletin 20:568-576. 1989 Florida Fertilizer & Pesticide Use
Kotabalavu, J. and D. L. Tiffin. 1989. Ocean minerals: prospects for South Pacific islands. Pacific Viewpoint 30:22-33. 1989 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia; Pacific Ocean
Heigold, P. C. and S. T. Whitaker. 1989. A gravity survey of Marine Field: a case study for Silurian reef exploration. Illinois Petroleum - Illinois State Geological Survey 133. 1989 Field Study & Monitoring; GIS & Maps; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools
Russo, A. R. 1989. Fish community structure on a deep ocean outfall, Barber's Point, Oahu, Hawaii. Internationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie 74:499-506. 1989 US Pacific & Hawaii Discharges; Fish
Meiorin, E.C. 1989. Urban Runoff Treatment in a Fresh/Brackish Water Marsh in Fremont, California, in: Hammer, D.A. (Ed.) Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal, Industrial, and Agricultural, Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, pp. 677-685. 1989 Agriculture; Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sewage Treatment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wastewater Discharge; Wetlands
McKenna, PE TE R. 1989. Application of estimation error studies for decision-making regarding sampling patterns on a South African gold mine. Pages 304-318 in Application of Computers and Operations Research in the Mineral Industry. 1989 South Africa Model Mineral, Rock, & Metal Mining
Ramsay, P. J., J. A. G. Cooper, C. I. Wright, and T. R. Mason. 1989. The occurrence and formation of ladderback ripples in subtidal, shallow-marine sands, Zululand, South Africa. Marine Geology 86:229-235. 1989 South Africa Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment
Pelissonnier, H. 1989. Review of metallogenic concepts and models of lead-zinc deposits in carbonate sedimentary environments [Historique des concepts et modeles metallogeniques pour les gites de plomb-zinc en milieu sedimentaire carbonate. Apport du present colloque]. Chronique de la Recherche Miniere 495:37-45. 1989 Europe Review; Model; GIS & Maps Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Sediment
Rigden, B. 1989. Water and wastewater treatment for a small island resort. Water Science and Technology 21:189-193. 1989 Hotel & Food Services; Sewage Treatment; Wastewater Discharge
Woodley, S. 1989. Management of water quality in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Water Science and Technology 21:31-38. 1989 Australia Discharges; Finfish Harvest; Marine Protected Areas; Tourism & Recreation
Land, L. S., H. J. Lund, and M. L. McCullough. 1989. Dynamic circulation of interstitial seawater in a Jamaican fringing reef. Carbonates & Evaporites 4:7-Jan. 1989 Jamaica Discharges; Water Depth & Sea Level
Esry, D.H., and D.J. Cairns. 1989. Overview of the Lake Jackson Restoration Project with Artificially Created Wetlands for Treatment of Urban Runoff. p. 247-257 m: D.W. Fisk (ed.), Wetlands, Concerns and Successes. Proceedings, American Water Resources Association. 1989 Field Study & Monitoring Microorganisms; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Storms & Hurricanes; Wetlands
Hallock, P. 1988. The role of nutrient availability in bioerosion: Consequences to carbonate buildups. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 63:275-291. 1988 Oman Algae; Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Fleshy Macroalgae; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment
Chansang, H. 1988. Coastal tin mining and marine pollution in Thailand. Ambio 17:223-228. 1988 Thailand; Malaysia; Indonesia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Mining; Sediment; Waterborne Discharges
Gomez, E. D. 1988. Overview of environmental problems in the East Asian Seas Region. Ambio 17:166-169. 1988 Thailand; Malaysia; Southeast Asia; Indonesia; Philippines Review Fishing Sector; Mangroves
McCaslin John, C. 1988. Aggressive hunt seen needed in S. Florida. Oil and Gas Journal 86:70. 1988 Florida Field Study & Monitoring
Samson, G. and R. Popovic. 1988. Use of algal fluorescence for determination of phytotoxicity of heavy metals and presticides as environmental polluntants. Ecotoxicity and Environmental Safety 16:272-278. 1988 Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Toxics
Pitt, R. and R. Field. 1988. An Evaluation of Storm Drainage Inlet Devices for Stormwater Quality Treatment, Water Environment Federation Technical Exposition and Conference, Orlando, FL, 1998. 1988 Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Harris, P. T. 1988. Sediments, bedforms and bedload transport pathways on the continental shelf adjacent to Torres Strait, Australia-Papua New Guinea. Continental Shelf Research 8:979-1003. 1988 Australia; Papua New Guinea; Europe Field Study & Monitoring; Model; GIS & Maps Sediment
Oberts, G; Osgood, R. 1988. The effectiveness of a detention/wetland treatment system and its effect on an urban lake., 8. ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON LAKE AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT., 1988., p. 29. 1988 Field Study & Monitoring Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetlands
Anne Reeckmann, S. 1988. Diagenetic alterations in temperate shelf carbonates from southeastern Australia. Sedimentary Geology 60:209-219. 1988 Australia Algae; Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Climate; Microorganisms; Sediment
Pattenden, G. and S. J. Teague. 1988. Total synthesis of (±)-Δ9(12)-capnellene-8β,10α-diol. Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1 1077-1083. 1988
Hackney, J. M. and P. Sze. 1988. Photorespiration and productivity rates of a coral reef algal turf assemblage. Marine Biology 98:483-492. 1988 Algae; CO2; Primary Production
Dennis, G. D. and T. J. Bright. 1988. Reef fish assemblages on hard banks in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science 43:280-307. 1988 South & Central America; Caribbean; Mexico Discharges; Fish; Sponges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Hopley, D. 1988. Anthropogenic influences on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Australian Geographer 19:26-45. 1988 Global; Australia Non-point Source Runoff
Drew, E. A. and K. M. Abel. 1988. Studies on Halimeda - II. Reproduction, particularly the seasonality of gametangia formation, in a number of species from the Great Barrier Reef Province. Coral Reefs 6:207-218. 1988 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Calcareous Macroalgae; Discharges
Fyvie, D. J. 1988. Sedimentation and diagenesis of the Upper Devonian Kakisa Formation, Trout River area, N.W.T. M.Sc. thesis. in [No source information available]. 1988 Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Bethoux, J. P. 1988. Red Sea geochemical budgets and exchanges with the Indian Ocean. Marine Chemistry 24:83-92. 1988 Global; Indian Ocean; India Discharges; Nutrients; Primary Production
Laur, D. R., A. W. Ebeling, and D. A. Coon. 1988. Effects of sea otter foraging on subtidal reef communities off central California. Pages 151-168 The community ecology of sea otters. 1988 Index or Indicator Algae; Coralline Algae; Littering; Sea Urchins
McMahon Tom, A. 1988. Drought and arid zone hydrology. Civil engineering transactions 4:175-185. 1988 Australia Index or Indicator; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Sandstrom, M. W. 1988. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the North Queensland coast and Great Barrier Reef: Effects of tropical cyclone Winifred. Organic Geochemistry 12:445-454. 1988 Australia Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Plankton; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Hoegh-Guldberg, O. 1988. A method for determining the surface area of corals. Coral Reefs 7:113-116. 1988 Cleaner & Solvent Use; Stony Coral
Carannante, G., M. Esteban, J. D. Milliman, and L. Simone. 1988. Carbonate lithofacies as paleolatitude indicators: problems and limitations. Sedimentary Geology 60:333-346. 1988 Index or Indicator Algae; Coralline Algae; Discharges; Nutrients; Salinity; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Cox, J., McCarron, K. and E. McCarron. 1987. Interim Report, Pre-Construction Stormwater Quality Assessment, Twin Towers Project. 1987 Florida Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Lewis, J. B. 1987. Measurements of groundwater seepage flux onto a coral reef: spatial and temporal variations ( Barbados). Limnology and Oceanography 32:1165-1169. 1987 Model Discharges; Nutrients; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Russell Gary, M., MA RK Stewart, and L. Higer Aaron. 1987. Examples Of Landfill-Generated Plumes In Low-Relief Areas, Southeast Florida. Water Resources Bulletin 23:863-866. 1987 Florida Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Irrigation; Non-point Source Runoff; Solid Waste Disposal
Isdale, P. and V. Kotwicki. 1987. Lake Eyre and the Great Barrier Reef: a paleohydrological ENSO connection. South Australian Geographical Journal 87:44-55. 1987 Australia Model Discharges; Stony Coral
Craik, W. and I. Dutton. 1987. Assessing the effects of sediment discharge on the Cape Tribulation fringing coral reefs. Coastal Management 15:213-228. 1987 Australia Review; Field Study & Monitoring Discharges; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment
Gagan, M. K., M. W. Sandstrom, and A. R. Chivas. 1987. Restricted terrestrial carbon input to the continental shelf during Cyclone Winifred: implications for terrestrial runoff to the Great Barrier Reef Province. Coral Reefs 6:113-119. 1987 Australia Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Ogden John, C. and MA RC Steyaert. 1987. Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity (Caricomp): A Regional Laboratory Network. Pages 2793-2801 in [No source information available]. 1987 South & Central America; Caribbean Lab Study Mangroves; Non-point Source Runoff; Seagrasses
Hosoda, HI DE O, AK IR A Deguchi, HI RO MI Takeuchi, MA SA KA TS U Miura, SA TO RU Suzuki, and TO SH IM AS A Hirama. 1987. Fluidized Bed Combustion Technology Of Oily Sludge. Nenryo Kyokaishi 66:791-797. 1987 Discharges
Striegl, R.G.; Cowan, E.A. 1987. Relations Between Quality of Urban Runoff and Quality of Lake Ellyn at Glen Ellyn, Illinois. Available from Books and Open-File Reports Section, USGS, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225. USGS Water-Supply Paper 2301, 1987. 59p, 27 fig, 20 tab, 60 ref. 1987 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Mann, K. and M. Florence. 1987. Toxicity of oil shale waste waters to marine algae. Fuel 66:404. 1987 Australia Model Algae; Nutrients; Wastewater Discharge
Welborn, C.T.; Veenhuis, J.E. 1987. Effects of Runoff Controls on the Quantity and Quality of Urban Runoff at Two Locations in Austin, Texas, Available from OFSS, USGS, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225. USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 87-4004, 1987. 101p, 51 fig, 14 tab, 13 ref. 1987 Discharges; Housing; Microorganisms; Non-point Source Runoff; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Hutchings, P. A. and B. L. Wu. 1987. Coral reefs of Hainan Island, South China Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin 18:25-26. 1987 China Finfish Harvest; Non-point Source Runoff; Sea Urchins; Skeletal Coral
Yousef, YA; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T; Wanielista, MP; Harper, HH; Hamilton, RS; Harrison, RM. (eds). 1987. Removal of contaminants in highway runoff flowing through swales, SPECIAL ISSUE: HIGHWAY POLLUTION. PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM, LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM, 7-11 JULY 1986., 1987., pp. 391-399, SCI. TOTAL ENVIRON., vol. 59. 1987 Florida; United Kingdom Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Welborn, C.T.; Veenhuis, J.E. 1987. Effects of Runoff Controls on the Quantity and Quality of Urban Runoff at Two Locations in Austin, Texas., Available from OFSS, USGS, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225. USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 87-4004, 1987. 101p, 51 fig, 14 tab, 13 ref. 1987 Discharges; Microorganisms; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Varma, M. M. and J. Alfaro. 1987. Coastal water quality and its effect on beach erosion: A case study. Journal of Environmental Systems 17. 1987 Beaches & Nature Parks; Discharges; Shoreline Protection; Wastewater Discharge
Lewbel, G. S., R. L. Howard, and B. J. Gallaway. 1987. Zonation of dominant fouling organisms on Northern Gulf of Mexico petroleum platforms. Marine Environmental Research 21:199-224. 1987 South & Central America; Mexico Anemones & Zooanthids; Boring Sponges; Discharges; Sponges; Tunicates
Ji, QI AN G. 1987. The boundary between the Devonian and Carboniferous systems of shallow-water facies as viewed in the light of conodont studies. Acta Geologica Sinica 61:20-Oct. 1987 China
Alongi, D. M. 1987. Intertidal zonation and seasonality of meiobenthos in tropical mangrove estuaries. Marine Biology 95:447-458. 1987 Australia Discharges; Mangroves; Microorganisms; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Ballou, T. G., R. E. Dodge, S. C. Hess, A. H. Knap, and T. D. Sleeter. 1987. Effects of a dispersed and undispersed crude oil on mangroves, seagrasses and corals. Prepared for the American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC. 1987 Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Mangroves; Petroleum Spills; Seagrasses
Glynn, P., L. S. Howard, E. Corcoran, and A. D. Freay. 1986. Preliminary investigations into the occurrence and toxicity of commercial herbicide formulations in reef building corals. Pages 473-485 in Paul L. Jokeiel;Robert H. Richmond;Rebecca A. Rogers, editor. Coral Reef Population Biology. Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology Technical Report, Coconut Island, Hawaii. 1986 Fertilizer & Pesticide Use
Slocum, DE AN, RI CH AR D Berlandy, and RO BE RT Wardwell. 1986. Facilities Planning In The Caribbean A Case Study. Pages 1351-1357 in [No source information available]. 1986 South & Central America; Caribbean Improved Technology; Sea Turtles; Sewage Treatment; Wastewater Discharge; Water; Waterborne Discharges
Summons, R. E. and T. G. Powell. 1986. Chlorobiaceae in Palaeozoic seas revealed by biological markers, isotopes and geology. Nature 319:763-765. 1986 Microorganisms; Sediment
Lehmann, P. R. 1986. Geology And Hydrocarbon Potential Of The Ep 104 Permit, Northwest Canning Basin, Western Australia. APEA journal 26. 1986 Australia
Fries, B.M. 1986. Fate of Phosphorus from Residential Stormwater Runoff in a Southern Hardwood Wetland, Thesis, Master of Science in Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL. 1986 Florida Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Seawater Flow; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetlands
Bath, A. H., W. G. Burgess, and J. N. Carney. 1986. The chemistry and hydrology of thermal springs on efate, vanuatu, sw pacific. Geothermics 15:277-294. 1986 US Pacific & Hawaii; Vanuatu Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Prych, E.A.; Ebbert, J.C. 1986. Quantity and Quality of Storm Runoff from Three Urban Catchments in Bellevue, Washington, Available from Books and Open File Report Section, USGS, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225. USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 86-4000, 1986. 85p, 14 fig, 34 tab,. 1986 US Pacific & Hawaii Lab Study Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Coates, M., D. W. Connell, J. Bodero, G. J. Miller, and R. Back. 1986. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in Great Barrier Reef organisms and environment. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 23:99-113. 1986 Australia Algae; Echinoderms; Plankton; Sediment; Stony Coral
Shvedov, V. N. 1986. Influence of lithologo-facies peculiarities of the Oxfordian terrace on the presence of sulphur in overlapping sediments of Gaurdak-Kugitangskii region (Turkmen SSR, USSR). Izvestiya - Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Seriya Geologicheskaya 8:107-115. 1986 Sediment
Anon,. 1986. ORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY 3: A SELECTION OF PAPERS FROM THE 3RD AUSTRALIAN ORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Organic Geochemistry 9:219-273. 1986 Australia Sediment
Rafalska-Bloch, J. and R. Cunningham Jr. 1986. Organic fades in Recent sediments of carbonate platforms: Southwestern Puerto Rico and Northern Belize. Organic Geochemistry 10:717-724. 1986 South & Central America; Puerto Rico; Belize Model; Index or Indicator Mangroves; Sediment
Precht, W. F. 1986. Reservoir development and hydrocarbon potential of Winnipegosis (Middle Devonian) pinnacle reefs, southern Elk Point Basin, North Dakota ( USA). Carbonates & Evaporites 1:83-99. 1986 Water Depth & Sea Level
Artyushkov, E. V. and M. A. Baer. 1986. Mechanism of formation of hydrocarbon basins: the West Siberia, Volga-Urals, Timan-Pechora basins and the Permian Basin of Texas. Tectonophysics 122:247-281. 1986 Field Study & Monitoring Sediment
Smith, J. D., J. Y. Hauser, and J. Bagg. 1985. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the Great Barrier Reef Region, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 16:110-114. 1985 Australia Sediment
Somerville, I. D. and G. L. Jones. 1985. The Courceyan stratigraphy of the Pallaskenry Borehole, County Limerick, Ireland. Geological Journal 20:377-400. 1985 Britain Agriculture
Samiullah, Y. 1985. Biological effects of marine oil pollution. Oil and Petrochemical Pollution 2:235-264. 1985 Global Review Discharges; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Mangroves; Tourism & Recreation; Whales & Dolphins
James, W. 1985. The truth about offshore drilling. AGA MON67:-18. 1985 Artificial Habitat; Oil & Gas Industry; Petroleum Spills
Hidaka, Michio. 1985. Nematocyst discharge, histoincompatability, and the formation of sweeper tentacles in the coral Galaxea fascicularis. Biological Bulletin 168:350-8. 1985 Discharges
Owens, E. H., H. H. Roberts, S. P. Murray, and C. R. Foget. 1985. Containment Strategies For Marine Oil Spills In Nearshore Waters. Pages 113-120 in [No source information available]. 1985 Model Petroleum Spills
Borgne, R. L., Y. Dandonneau, and L. Lemasson. 1985. The problem of the island mass effect on chlorophyll and zooplankton standing crops around Mare ( Loyalty Islands) and New Caledonia. Bulletin of Marine Science 37:450-459. 1985 New Caledonia Non-point Source Runoff; Plankton
Lester, R. T. and R. P. M. Bak. 1985. Effects of environment on regeneration rate of tissue lesions in the reef coral Montastrea annularis (Scleractinia). Marine Ecology Progress Series 24:183-185. 1985 Discharges; Stony Coral
Binet, D. 1985. Essai d'utilisation de la diversite specifique dans l'analyse des communautes de copepodes planctoniques du lagon de Nouvelle-Caledonie. Marine Biology 88:85-99. 1985 New Caledonia Index or Indicator Non-point Source Runoff; Plankton; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Ryan, J. J. 1985. Investigation, design and construction of submarine ocean outfall pipeline off ninety mile beach, Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. Water Science and Technology 17:1465-1467. 1985 Australia Discharges; Forestry; Pipelines; Salinity; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Knap Anthony, H., C. Wyers Sheila, E. Dodge Richard, D. Sleeter Thomas, R. Frith Harold, S. RO BE RT SO N Smith, and B. Cook Clayton. 1985. Effects Of Chemically And Physically Dispersed Oil On The Brain Coral Diploria Strigosa (Dana) - A Summary Review. Pages 547-551 in [No source information available]. 1985 Review; Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Primary Production; Stony Coral; Zooxanthellae
Rose, C. S. and M. J. Risk. 1985. Increase in Cliona delitrix infestation of Montastrea cavernosa heads on an organically polluted portion of the Grand Cayman fringing reef. Marine Ecology 6:345-363. 1985 Boring Sponges; Discharges; Microorganisms; Plankton; Sediment; Sponges; Substrate
Rice, L. G. 1984. Rapid separation of pesticides by high-performance liquid chromatography with 3-μm columns. Journal of Chromatography 0:523-526. 1984 Fertilizer & Pesticide Use
Sammarco, P. W. and H. Crenshaw. 1984. Plankton community dynamics of the central Great Barrier Reef Lagoon: Analysis of data from Ikeda et al. Marine Biology 82:167-180. 1984 Australia Algae; Discharges; Echinoderms; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Marine Worms; Non-point Source Runoff; Octocoral; Plankton; Salinity; Sponges; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Schneider, K. 1984. A new design of high pressure armoured discharge hose. Dredging and Port Construction 11:-12. 1984 Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Coates, M., H. F. Chapman, and D. W. Connell. 1984. Effects of grazing by deposit feeders on biogenic hydrocarbons in coral-reef surface sediments. Marine Biology 81:87-95. 1984 Echinoderms; Sediment
Fillon, R. H. and D. F. Williams. 1984. Dynamics of meltwater discharge from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during the last deglaciation. Nature 310:674-677. 1984 Global; South & Central America; Mexico; Europe Model Discharges; Plankton
Wolanski, E., G. L. Pickard, and D. L. B. Jupp. 1984. River plumes, Coral Reefs and mixing in the Gulf of Papua and the northern Great Barrier Reef. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 18:291-314. 1984 Australia Lab Study Discharges; Fish; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Nelson, S. J. 1984. Geological history of the Interior Plains. Prairie Forum 9:159-180. 1984 Columbia Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Izac, R. R., W. Fenical, and J. M. Wright. 1984. Inflatene, an ichthyotoxic C12 hydrocarbon from the stoloniferan soft coral Clavularia inflata var. luzoniana. Tetrahedron Letters 25:1325-1328. 1984 Octocoral
Isdale, P. 1984. Fluorescent bands in massive corals record centuries of coastal rainfall. Nature 310:578-579. 1984 Australia Agriculture; Civil Engineering & Construction; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Non-point Source Runoff; Stony Coral
Washington, H. G. 1984. Diversity, biotic and siimilarity indices a review with special relevance to aquatic ecosystems. Water Research 18:653-964. 1984 Review; Index or Indicator Waterborne Discharges
Maslowski, AN DY. 1984. Silurian Reefs Retain Their Appeal. Northeast Oil Reporter 4:27-29. 1984
Wilkie, AN N, J. Reynolds Patrick, NO RM A O'Kelly, and EM ER Colleran. 1984. Support Matrix And Packing Effects Anaerobic Filters. Pages 274-295 in [No source information available]. 1984
Glynn, P. W., L. S. Howard, E. Corcoran, and A. D. Freay. 1984. The occurrence and toxicity of herbicides in reef building corals. Marine Pollution Bulletin 15:370-374. 1984 Fertilizer & Pesticide Use
Aldridge, B. N. and J. H. Eychaner. 1984. Floods Of October 1977 In Southern Arizona And March 1978 In Central Arizona. US Geological Survey Water Supply Paper. 1984 South & Central America; Mexico Dam Construction & Maintenance; Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water
Joko, I., S. Sawada, C. Goto, and K. Toyokura. 1984. Phosphorus Removal From Wastewater By Crystallization Method: Preparation And Performance Of Artificial Seed Materials. Pages 431-434 in Industrial Crystallization: Proceedings of the Symposium. 1984 Wastewater Discharge
Lindstadt-Siva, JU NE, H. Albers Peter, KE NN ET H Fucik, and G. Maynard Nancy. 1984. Ecological Considerations For The Use Of Dispersants In Oil Spill Response. Pages 363-377 ASTM Special Technical Publication. 1984 Review Petroleum Spills; Recreational Opportunities
Wilkie, A., M. Barry, P. J. Reynolds, N. O'Kelly, and E. Colleran. 1984. Anaerobic Filter Digestion Of Agricultural Wastes. Pages 306-314 in Solar Energy R&D in the European Community, Series E: Energy from Biomass. 1984 Europe Agriculture; Wastewater Discharge
Moskvich, V. A. 1984. Organogenic structures (buried reefs) in Silhet limestones of West-Bengal basin ( hydrocarbon resources). Izvestiya - Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Seriya Geologicheskaya 9:102-109. 1984 Algae; Sediment
Abu Gideiri, Y. B. 1984. Impacts of mining on Central Red Sea environment. Deep Sea Research Part A, Oceanographic Research Papers 31:823-828. 1984 Discharges; Mining Policies; Plankton; Toxics
Sastri, V. V. 1984. Geoscientific studies for petroleum exploration in India. Pages 217-220 Petroliferous basins of India - II. 1984 India Model; GIS & Maps Sediment
Dicks, B. 1984. Oil pollution in the Red Sea - Environmental monitoring of an oilfield in a coral area, Gulf of Suez. Deep Sea Research Part A, Oceanographic Research Papers 31:833-854. 1984 Egypt Field Study & Monitoring Beaches & Nature Parks; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Petroleum Spills; Recreational Opportunities; Seagrasses; Sediment; Tourism & Recreation; Valuation
Rinkevich, B. and Y. Loya. 1983. Intraspecific competitive networks in the Red Sea coral Stylophora pistillata. Coral Reefs 1:161-172. 1983 Field Study & Monitoring Discharges
Knap, A. H., T. D. Sleeter, and R. E. Dodge. 1983. The effects of oil spills and dispersant use on corals. A review and multidisciplinary experimental approach. Oil and Petrochemical Pollution 1:157-169. 1983 Review; Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Petroleum Spills
Neff Jerry, M., P. Marum James, and J. SC OT T Warner. 1983. Composition And Fate Of Clean Ballast Water Discharged From Crude Oil Tankers. Pages 435-441 in [No source information available]. 1983 Ballast Discharge; Discharges; Oil & Gas Tankers
Morelock, J., K. Grove, and M. L. Hernandez. 1983. Oceanography and patterns of shelf sediments Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 53:371-381. 1983 Puerto Rico Discharges; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Trefry, J. H., R. P. Trocine, and K. C. Yhip. 1983. Drilling mud discharges: minimizing environmental mismatches. Pages Am.Soc.Civ.Engrs.-1983 in IN: COASTAL ZONE'83, PROC. THIRD SYMP. ON COASTAL AND OCEAN MANAGEMENT, (SAN DIEGO, U.S.A.: JUN. 1-4, 1983), O.T. MAGOON; H. 1983 South & Central America; Mexico Field Study & Monitoring Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Discharges; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Salinity; Sediment
Goforth, GF; Diniz, EV; Rauhut, JB. 1983. Stormwater hydrological characteristics of porous and conventional paving systems., NTIS, SPRINGFIELD, VA (USA), 1983., 302 pp. 1983 Review Impervious Surfaces; Littering; Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Duchscherer Jr., W. 1983. Geochemical hydrocarbon exploration - a new/old exploration tool. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 19:335-336. 1983 Field Study & Monitoring; GIS & Maps; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools CO2; Sediment
Pastorok Robert, A. and R. Bilyard Gordon. 1983. Sewage Discharge Impacts On Coral Reef Communities. Pages 900-904 in Oceans Conference Record (IEEE). 1983 Discharges
Bannerman, R.; Baun, K.; Bohn, M.; Hughes, P.; Graczyk, D. 1983. Nationwide Urban Runoff Program, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Evaluation of Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution Management in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin. Volume 2. Feasibility and Application of Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution. 1983 Field Study & Monitoring Civil Engineering & Construction; Climate; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Impervious Surfaces; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waterborne Discharges
Glynn, P. W. 1983. Extensive 'bleaching' and death of reef corals on the Pacific coast of Panama. Environmental Conservation 10:149-154. 1983 US Pacific & Hawaii; Costa Rica; Panama; Pacific Ocean Dam Construction & Maintenance; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Hydrocoral; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Zooxanthellae
Siddiquie, H. N., A. R. Gujar, N. H. Hashimi, and A. B. Valsangkar. 1983. SUPERFICIAL MINERAL RESOURCES OF THE INDIAN OCEAN. Deep Sea Research Part A, Oceanographic Research Papers 31:763-812. 1983 Indian Ocean; India Climate; Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Johnson, K. M., P. G. Davis, and J. M. Sieburth. 1983. Diel variation of TCO2 in the upper layer of oceanic waters reflects microbial composition, variation and possibly methane cycling. Marine Biology 77:10-Jan. 1983 South & Central America; Caribbean CO2; Plankton; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
North Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development, Div. of Environmental Management. 1983. Nationwide Urban Runoff Program, Winston-Salem, North Carolina: An Evaluation of Street Sweeping as a Runoff Pollution Control. Final rept. Sep 79-Oct 83. 1983 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waterborne Discharges
Walker, T. A. 1982. Lack of evidence for evaporation-driven circulation in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 33:717-722. 1982 Australia Non-point Source Runoff; Salinity
Asayama, K. 1982. New flexible joint for dredger discharge lines. Dredging and Port Construction 9:-23. 1982 Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Hollett, K. J. and R. Moberly. 1982. Sedimentation, dredging, and spoil disposal in a subtropical estuarine lagoon. Environmental Geology 4:31-42. 1982 US Pacific & Hawaii Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Military; Non-point Source Runoff; Ports & Harbors; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation
ALESHECHKIN, O. I. and A. M. VEL'KOV. 1982. Prospects Of Search For Hydrocarbon Accumulations In Volga Valley'S Saratov Region, Depending On Oil And Gas Trap Types/ Perspektivy Poiskov Skoplenii Uglevodorodov V Saratovskom Povolzh'E V Zavisimosti Ot Tipov Lovushek Nefti I Gaza. Pages 16-20 IZV VYSSH UCHEBN ZAVED NEFT GAZ. 1982
Shuaib, S. M. 1982. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of offshore Indus basin, Pakistan. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 66:940-946. 1982 India Surface & Groundwater Flow
Curry-Lindahl, K. 1982. A tale of mismanagement at sea. ORYX 16:415-420. 1982 Agriculture; Chemical Use Regulations; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fish; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Bellamy, N. and M. J. Risk. 1982. Coral gas: Oxygen production in Millepora on the great barrier reef. Science 216:1618-1619. 1982 Australia Algae; CO2; Hydrocoral; Nutrients; Substrate
Laws, E. A. and D. G. Redalje. 1982. Sewaged diversion effects on the water column of a subtropical estuary. Marine Environmental Research 6:265-279. 1982 US Pacific & Hawaii Index or Indicator Discharges; Nutrients; Plankton
Brown, B. E. and M. C. Holley. 1982. Metal levels associated with tin dredging and smelting and their effect upon intertidal reef flats at ko phuket, Thailand. Coral Reefs 1:131-137. 1982 Thailand Bivalves; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Metals, Electronics, & Machinery Products; Molluscs; Sediment; Skeletal Coral; Stony Coral
Peters, E. C., P. A. Meyers, P. P. Yevich, and N. J. Blake. 1981. Bioaccumulation and histopathological effects of oil on a stony coral. Marine Pollution Bulletin 12:333-339. 1981 South & Central America; Caribbean Stony Coral; Zooxanthellae
Weydert, P. 1981. (The outer- reef facies of the Turonian of Libreville vicinity ( Gabon): paleoecologic significance during the opening of the Atlantic Ocean). [Les facies peri-recifaux du turonien de Libreville (Gabon): significations paleoecologiques au cours de l'ouver. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, Section II 292:97-101. 1981 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean; Oman Sediment
Ray James, P. 1981. Effects Of Petroleum Hydrocarbons On Corals. Pages 705-726 in [No source information available]. 1981
[No author name available]. 1981. Ecological investigations of petroleum production platforms in the central Gulf of Mexico: volume I part 1, 2, and 3. in [No source information available]. 1981 South & Central America; Mexico Artificial Habitat; Sediment
[No author name available]. 1981. Environmental Effects Of Offshore Oil Production: The Buccaneer Gas And Oil Field Study (Proceeding Of A Symposium), 1981. Marine Science (Plenum) 14. 1981 South & Central America; Mexico Model; Index or Indicator Artificial Habitat; Discharges; Fish; Microorganisms; Sediment
Robertson, A. H. F. 1981. Metallogenesis on a Mesozoic passive continental margin, Antalya Complex, southwest Turkey. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 54:323-345. 1981 Discharges; Sediment
Land, L. S. and D. R. Prezbindowski. 1981. The origin and evolution of saline formation water, Lower Cretaceous carbonates, south-central Texas, U.S.A. Journal of Hydrology 54:51-74. 1981 South & Central America; Mexico Model Discharges; Sediment
Dragastan, O. 1981. Mesozoic Dasycladaceae from Romania: Distribution and biostratigraphical importance. Facies 4:165-195. 1981 Oman Model; Index or Indicator Algae; Sponges
Stefansson, U. and P. Thorsteinsson. 1980. Hvammsfjorthur - its renewal and water budget ( Iceland, Breithafjotthur). Natturufraedingurinn 50:87-98. 1980 Iceland Discharges
Kuberski, T. 1980. Cholera on Nauru. Possible non-point source transmission. Medical Journal of Australia 2:563-564. 1980 US Pacific & Hawaii Non-point Source Runoff; Point Source Discharges
Kashman, Y., M. Bodner, J. S. Finer-Moore, and J. Clardy. 1980. Δ9(15)-Africanene, a new sesquiterpene hydrocarbon from the soft coral Sinularia erecta. Experientia 36:891-892. 1980 Octocoral
Davis, W. P., G. I. Scott, C. D. Getter, M. O. Hayes, and E. R. Gundlach. 1980. Methodology for environmental assessments oil and hazardous substance spills. Helgolander wiss Meeresuntersuchungen 33. 1980 Puerto Rico Index or Indicator Petroleum Spills
Back, W., B. B. Hanshaw, T. E. Pyle, L. N. Plummer, and A. E. Weidie. 1979. Geochemical significance of groundwater discharge and carbonate solution to the formation of Caleta Xel Ha, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Water Resources Research 15:1521-1535. 1979 South & Central America; Mexico Model Beaches & Nature Parks; Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Chong, Y. J., T. Y. Liang, A. C. Yeo, and V. K. Vong. 1979. Remote Sensing Of The Sea Around Singapore. Pages 1807-1814 in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment. 1979 Remote Sensing Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Cook Theodore, D. 1979. Exploration History Of South Texas Lower Cretaceous Carbonate Platform. AAPG Bulletin 63:32-49. 1979 Field Study & Monitoring
Loya, Y. and B. Rinkevich. 1979. Abortion effect in corals induced by oil pollution. Marine Ecology Progress Series 1:77-80. 1979 Iran Lab Study Petroleum Spills
Ayanoglu, E., T. Gebreyesus, C. M. Beechan, and C. Djerassi. 1979. Terpenoids-LXXVI1 1 For paper LXXV, see E. Ayanoglu, T. Gebreyesus, C.M. Beechan, C. Djerassi and M. Kaisin, Tetrahedron Letters 1671 (1978). Precapnelladiene, a possible biosynthetic precursor of the capnellane skeleton. Tetrahedron 35:1035-1039. 1979 Octocoral
Sleeter, T. D., J. N. Butler, and J. E. Barbash. 1979. Hydrocarbons in sediments from the edge of the Bermuda platform. Pages 615-620 in Proc 1979 oil spill conference (prevention, behavior, control, cleanup), Los Angeles, Cal. March 1979, (American Petroleum Institute, Washington DC, Publication 4308). 1979 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Bermuda Model Beaches & Nature Parks; Petroleum Spills; Sediment
Weiss, M. P., D. A. Goddard, and X. Picard. 1978. Marine geology of reefs and inner shelf, Chichiriviche, Estado Falcon, Venezuela. Marine Geology 28:211-244. 1978 Venezuela Algae; Coralline Algae; Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Sabitay, A. 1978. Status Of Hydrocarbon Exploration, Offshore Northeastern Australia And The Gulf Of Papua. APEA journal 18:77-82. 1978 Australia; Papua New Guinea Review Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Sediment
Stewart-Gordon, T. J. 1978. New Pays Develop New Plays In The Permian Basin. World Oil 186. 1978 South & Central America; Mexico CO2
Busch Daniel, A. and AM AD O Govela. 1978. Stratigraphy And Structure Of Chicontepec Turbidites, Southeastern Tampico-Misantla Basin, Mexico. AAPG Bulletin 62:235-246. 1978 South & Central America; Mexico Sediment
Beechan, C. M., C. Djerassi, and H. Eggert. 1978. Terpenoids-LXXIV1 1 Terpenoids LXXIII: C.M. Beechan, C. Djerassi, J.S. Finer and J. Clardy, Tetrahedron Letters 2395 (1977). The sesquiterpenes from the soft coral sinularia mayi. Tetrahedron 34:2503-2508. 1978 Octocoral
Bartram Paul, D. and L. Dugan Gordon. 1978. Sediment Movement In A Small Humid Watershed. Pages 654-661 in [No source information available]. 1978 US Pacific & Hawaii Index or Indicator Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Ayanoglu, E., T. Gebreyesus, C. M. Beechan, C. Djerassi, and M. Kaisin. 1978. Terpenoids LXXV. Δ9(12)-capnellene, a new sesquiterpene hydrocarbon from the soft coral capnella imbricata. Tetrahedron Letters 19:1671-1674. 1978 Octocoral
Thompson, J. H. and T. J. Bright. 1977. Pages 495-498 in Effects of drill mud on sediment clearing rates of certain hermatypic corals. 1977 Petroleum Spills; Sediment; Stony Coral
Droste John, B. and H. Shaver Robert. 1977. Synchronization Of Deposition: Silurian Reef-Bearing Rocks On Wabash Platform With Cyclic Evaporites Of Michigan Basin. AAPG Stud Geol 5:93-109. 1977 India Sediment
Beechan, C. M., C. Djerassi, J. S. Finer, and J. Clardy. 1977. Terpenoids LXXIII. Sinularene, a sesquiterpene hydrocarbon based on a novel skeleton from the soft coral, Sinularia Mayi. Tetrahedron Letters 18:2395-2398. 1977 Octocoral
Hofmann, W. 1977. Waste Disposal In The Rubber Industry [Abfallbeseitigung In Der Gummiindustrie]. VERFAHRENSTECHNIK 11:28-34. 1977 Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fish; Road Construction & Maintenance
Hayes, R. L. and N. I. Goreau. 1977. Intracellular crystal-bearing vesicles in the epidermis of scleractinian corals, Astrangia danae (Agassiz) and Porites porites (Pallas). Biological Bulletin 152:26-40. 1977 Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Special Use Permitting; Stony Coral
Chan Gordon, L. 1977. Five-Year Recruitment Of Marine Life After The 1971 San Francisco Oil Spill. Pages 543-545 in [No source information available]. 1977 Invertebrates; Oil & Gas Tankers; Petroleum Spills
Cohen, Y., A. Nissenbaum, and R. Eisler. 1977. Effects of Iranian Crude Oil on the Red Sea octocoral Heteroxenia Fuscescens. Environmental Pollution 12:173-186. 1977 Iran Octocoral; Salinity
Davis, D. D. and J. B. Coppolino. 1976. Ozone susceptibility of selected woody shrubs and vines. PLANT DIS.REP60:876-878. 1976 India
Hanson, R. B. and K. Gundersen. 1976. Influence of sewage discharge on nitrogen fixation and nitrogen flux from coral reefs in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 31:942-948. 1976 US Pacific & Hawaii Algae; Discharges; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Plankton; Skeletal Coral
[No author name available]. 1975. Power Plus Proteins From The Sea. Energy Dig 4:21-24. 1975 Mauritius; United Kingdom Aquaculture; Discharges; Shoreline Protection
Oremland, R. S. 1975. Methane production in shallow-water, tropical marine sediments. Applied microbiology 30:602-608. 1975 Florida Seagrasses; Sediment
Zillman, N. J. and R. J. Paten. 1975. Seram Offers Good Oil Prospect. Oil and Gas Journal 73. 1975 Indonesia GIS & Maps
Loya, Y. 1975. Possible effects of water pollution on the community structure of Red Sea corals. Marine Biology 29:177-185. 1975 Nutrients; Petroleum Spills; Waterborne Discharges
Abbott, P. L. 1975. On the hydrology of the Edwards Limestone, south-central Texas. Journal of Hydrology 24:251-269. 1975 South & Central America; Mexico Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Hofmann, W. 1975. Some problems relating to the removal of rubber wastes [EINIGE PROBLEME BEI DER BESEITIGUNG VON GUMMIABFALLEN]. GUMMI ASBEST KUNSTSTOFFE 28:38-39. 1975 Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fish; Road Construction & Maintenance
Nedwell, D. B. 1974. Sewage treatment and discharge into tropical coastal waters. Search 5:187-190. 1974 Discharges; Mangroves; Nutrients; Sewage Treatment; Waste Management Policies
Ashworth Joseph, A. 1974. 'Nature'S Cooling Pond' - Thermal Discharges Atlantic Generating Station. Pages 113-129 in [No source information available]. 1974 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Discharges; Shoreline Protection
Engelen, G. B. 1974. Hydrogeology of the sasso Lungo group, a dolomitic reef stock in the alpine dolomites of North Italy. Journal of Hydrology 21:111-130. 1974 GIS & Maps Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Dugan, G. L. and R. H. F. Young. 1973. Effects of coastal water disposal in Hawaii. Pages 691-701 in J.ENVIRONM.ENGN DIV.PROC.ASCE. 1973 US Pacific & Hawaii Agriculture; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Permitting & Zoning; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Sediment
Bouma, A. H., G. L. Huebner, and B. W. Holliday. 1973. Environmental studies on sediment and reef surveys and dredge discharge distribution. in [No source information available]. 1973 Remote Sensing Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Forestry; Sediment
Gundersen, K. and P. Bienfang. 1972. Thermal Pollution: Use Of Deep, Cold, Nutrient Rich Sea Water For Power Plant Cooling And Subsequent Aquaculture In Hawaii [Marine Pollution And Sea Life]. Pages 513-516 FISHING NEWS. 1972 US Pacific & Hawaii Aquaculture; Beaches & Nature Parks; Discharges; Finfish Harvest; Light; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Nutrients; Primary Production; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waterborne Discharges
Johannes, R. E. 1972. Coral Reefs And Pollution [Marine Pollution And Sea Life]. Pages 364-375 FISHING NEWS LTD., SURREY. 1972 Review Algae; Chemical Use Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish Harvest; Landuse Management; Salinity; Seastars; Sediment; Waterborne Discharges
Marshall, Nelson. 1972. Notes on mucus and zooxanthellae discharged from coral reefs. Pages 59-67 in C Mukundan and CS Gopinadha Pillai, editors. Proceedings of the Sym Corals Coral Reefs. Marine Biological Ass'n of India, Cochin. 1972 Discharges; Zooxanthellae
Fournier, J. 1971. La Melioidose. suite et fin. Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses 1. 1971 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia; China Lab Study Pathogens
Bakus, G. J. 1968. Defensive mechanisms and ecology of some tropical holothurians. Marine Biology 2:23-32. 1968 Marshall Islands Algae; Discharges; Echinoderms; Microorganisms; Sediment; Sponges
O'Sullivan, A. J. and A. J. Richardson. 1967. The Torrey Canyon disaster and intertidal marine life. Nature 214:448-542. 1967 Cleaner & Solvent Use
W.F Hunt, J.M Hathaway, R.J Winston, S.J. Jadlocki. Runoff Volume Reduction by a Level Spreader - Vegetated Filter Strip System in Suburban Charlotte, NC. Field Study & Monitoring Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Packett, R., C. Dougall, K. Rohde, and R. Noble. Agricultural lands are hot-spots for annual runoff polluting the southern Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Marine Pollution Bulletin Australia Agriculture; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Becker, E. L., E. E. Cordes, S. A. Macko, and C. R. Fisher. Importance of seep primary production to Lophelia pertusa and associated fauna in the Gulf of Mexico. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers South & Central America; Mexico Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Marine Worms; Nutrients; Primary Production; Snails & Conch
Peddicord, R. K. Impacts of open-water dredged material discharge. in [No source information available]. Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Military; Nutrients
Le Guilloux, E., K. Olu, J. F. Bourillet, B. Savoye, S. P. Iglesias, and M. Sibuet. First observations of deep-sea coral reefs along the Angola margin. Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography GIS & Maps Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Bivalves; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fish; Sediment; Stony Coral
Environmental Protection Agency. ENERGY STAR and Other Climate Protection Partnerships. 2009 Annual Report. US EPA. Global Climate; Energy Policy & Development; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Housing
Snelgrove, P. V. R., R. Petrecca, K. I. Stocks, C. Van Dover, and C. Ann Zimmer. A mosaic of diverse ideas: The ecological legacy of J. Frederick Grassle. Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography Global Review; Index or Indicator; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Infrastructure; Petroleum Spills; Sediment
Mork, E., G. L. Sjoo, N. Kautsky, and T. R. McClanahan. Top-down and bottom-up regulation of macroalgal community structure on a Kenyan reef. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science Kenya Algae; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fish; Large Herbivorous Fish; Nutrients; Sea Urchins; Small Herbivorous Fish; Special Use Permitting
Wolanski, E., G. L. Pickard, and D. L. B. Jupp. River plumes, coral reefs and mixing in the Gulf Papua and the Northern Great Barrier Reef. in [No source information available]. Australia Lab Study Discharges; Fish; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Skinner, R. H. and W. C. Jaap. Trace Metals and Pesticides in Sediments and Organisms in John Penekamp coral Reef State Park and Key Largo National Marine Sanctuary. Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Sediment
Anon,. Colloque International Sur L'Exploitation Des Oceans, 2Nd, 1974, Volume 1: Politiques De Developpement Oceanique, Volume 2: Mise En Valeur Industrielle Des Plateaux Continentaux, Volume 3: Systemes Des Mesures Pour L'Analyse Et La Prevision De L'Environne. in [No source information available]. Index or Indicator; Remote Sensing Artificial Habitat; Coastal Development; Fishing Sector; Microorganisms; Pipelines; Salinity; Shoreline Protection; Tourism & Recreation
Mertz-Kraus, R., T. C. Brachert, M. Reuter, S. J. G. Galer, C. Fassoulas, and G. Iliopoulos. Late Miocene sea surface salinity variability and paleoclimate conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean inferred from coral aragonite δ 18O. Chemical Geology Global; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean; Iceland Field Study & Monitoring Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Climate; Discharges; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Herrera-Silveira, J. A. and S. M. Morales-Ojeda. Evaluation of the health status of a coastal ecosystem in southeast Mexico: Assessment of water quality, phytoplankton and submerged aquatic vegetation. Marine Pollution Bulletin South & Central America; Caribbean; Mexico Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Discharges; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Mangroves; Nutrients; Plankton; Seagrasses; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Andrady, A., P.J. Aucamp, A.F. Bais, C.L. Ballare, L.O. Bjorn, J.F. Bornman, M. Caldwell, T. Callaghan, A.P. Cullen, D.J. Erickson, F. R. de Gruijl, D-P. Hader, M. Ilyas, G. Kulandaivelu, H.D. Kumar, J. Longstreth, R.L. McKenzie, M. Norval, H.H. Redhwi, R.C. Smith, K.R. Solomon, B. Sulzberger, Y. Takizawa, X. Tang, A.H. Teramura, A. Torikai, J.C. van der Leun, S.R. Wilson, R.C. Worrest, R.G. Zepp. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF OZONE DEPLETION AND ITS INTERACTIONS WITH CLIMATE CHANGE: 2004 PROGRESS REPORT. Climate
Herrara Consultants, Inc. Issaquah Stormwater Treatment Continuous Deflective Separation, Performance Monitoring Report, Prepared for City of Issaquah. Field Study & Monitoring Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow

Management Options

Management Option Description Sources Database Topics
Agriculture & Aquaculture: Livestock Waste Storage and Utilization Confined animal facilities often produce large amounts of animal waste. This waste can be stored and disposed of in a variety of ways, and it is important to consider how rainwater may carry these wastes in groundwater. Wastes can be kept in temporary storage ponds, storage structures, or treatment lagoons. Once composted, these wastes may be applied to agricultural land in an environmentally acceptable manner in place of other fertilizers. Site selection, timing of application and rate of application must be properly managed to reduce the potential for degradation of ground water. Additionally, this practice may increase microbial action in the soil surface, which helps keep pesticides and other pollutants in place. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water. 1993. Guidance Specifying Management Measures For Sources Of Nonpoint Pollution In Coastal Waters. EPA/840/B-92/002, US EPA, Washington, DC.

Agriculture; Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Food & Raw Materials; Microorganisms; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Pathogens; Waterborne Discharges
Agriculture & Aquaculture: Pond Sealing Waste treatment ponds and pits are useful methods of treatment, but premature seepage from these storage impoundments would also have negative impacts. Bentonite Liner Treatment, Compacted Clay Treatment, Flexible membrane, and Soil Dispersant Treatment are all options for sealing treatment impoundments, depending on the specific soil suitability and other criteria. Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Agriculture; Discharges; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Remediation; Sewage Treatment; Supporting Services; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
Agriculture & Aquaculture: Contour Farming Contour Farming involves sloping land in such a way that field preparation, planting and cultivating are done on the contour. This includes following established grades of terraces or diversions. During heavy rains the crop rows formed slow water runoff reducing erosion and water runoff of non-point source pollutants such as agricultural herbicides and fertilizers. Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Agriculture; Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Applied Chemicals; Discharge Limitations; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Food & Energy Policies; Food & Raw Materials; Food, Beverage, & Tobacco Products; Landscape Changes; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Toxics; Waterborne Discharges
Agriculture & Aquaculture: Composting Composting involves the controlled aerobic decomposition of manure or other organic material by micro-organisms into a biologically stable organic material that is suitable for use as a soil supplement. Composting should be part of nutrient management plans because it reduces the pollution potential of organic wastes. Smaller scale household composting may reduce the amount of material that enters the waste stream, where again it may have greater pollution potential. Larger volumes of material may require construction of containment facilities to ensure pollutants aren't able to enter runoff water in high concentrations. Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Agriculture; Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Carbon Storage & Cycling; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Landscaping & Household Services; Littering; Microorganisms; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Solid Waste Disposal; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Waterborne Discharges
Agriculture & Aquaculture: Change Agricultural Cover Crop Practices Cover crop outreach entails changing agricultural practices in an area to leave vegetation and cover on the soil while growing other crops (e.g. Coffee). Agricultural practices that encourage leaving soil bare are extremely susceptible to erosion (e.g. sun grown Coffee). Cover crop methods and shade-grown crops (e.g. shade-grown Coffee) would reduce the large amount of sediment that is eroding, particularly from high elevations, and ultimately will reduce the amount of sediment that reaches the coral reefs. Options to encourage transition to cover crop practices include outreach to raise awareness of benefits and cost share programs to help farmers with the burden of the extra expense. Center for Watershed Protection. 2008. Guanica Bay watershed management plan.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2010. Conservation Cover. CODE 327. US Department of Agriculture.

Agriculture; Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Applied Chemicals; Collaboration & Partnering; Cultural Policies; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Environmental Education & Outreach; Food & Energy Policies; Food & Raw Materials; Funding & Donations; Landscape Changes; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Responses; Sediment
Agriculture & Aquaculture: Grazing Land Management This management option protects range, pasture and other types of grazing lands for agricultural animals. Special actions should be taken to protect sensitive areas such as streams, wetlands and estuaries if livestock is to have access to these areas. Grazing management practices can be categorized into four types, vegetative stabilization, grazing management systems, access limitations and alternative water supplies. Vegetative stabilization involves reestablishing the vegetative cover on ranges after it has been removed by grazing to reduce erosion rates. Grazing management systems typically reduce the time livestock spend in each pasture to increase the quantity and quality of vegetation in those pastures. Grazing frequency, timing, duration, area allocation, and livestock distribution kind, class, distribution and stocking rates should all be considered in the management system to ensure adequate pasture rehabilitation. Access limitations, such as fencing and stream crossings are used to herd and control livestock movement. Physical disturbance from livestock can increase erosion, so crossings and watering access points should be hardened. Alternative water supplies are an alternative to more sensitive water sources that may be vulnerable to erosion and discharges from grazing areas. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water. 1993. Guidance Specifying Management Measures For Sources Of Nonpoint Pollution In Coastal Waters. EPA/840/B-92/002, US EPA, Washington, DC.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Agriculture; Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharges; Food & Energy Policies; Food & Raw Materials; Food, Beverage, & Tobacco Products; Landscape Changes; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Sediment; Waterborne Discharges
Agriculture & Aquaculture: Fertilizer Application Management This agricultural best management practice involves the development, implementation and periodic update of nutrient management plans. Nutrient management plans are used to efficiently apply nutrients at appropriate rates so as to still achieve desired crop yields. There are several important measures and considerations that must be taken before developing the nutrient plan. Farm and field maps, yield expectations, nutrient resources, and geologic field limitations are all important. Some crops fix nitrogen, such as legumes, and have a nitrogen credit that must be factored. Field limitations include shallow aquifers, nearby surface water, sinkholes, and highly erodible soils. If the nutrients to be applied arent commercial they must be assessed to determine the nutrient value and the rate of availability of the nutrients. The nutrient plans timing and application methods should use the limiting nutrient concept and avoid applications to frozen soil and during periods of leaching or runoff. Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Jokela, Bill, Peter Kleinman, John Peters, and Ann Wolf,. 2011. Manure Spreader Calibration & Manure Testing.

Agriculture; Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Applied Chemicals; Chemical Use Regulations; Discharge Limitations; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Food & Energy Policies; Food & Raw Materials; Food, Beverage, & Tobacco Products; Landscape Changes; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Waterborne Discharges
Chemical Discharge Controls: Research impacts and alternatives This plan involves researching the impacts of current spraying practices on sanctuary resources and indentifying alternative means of mosquito control. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Agriculture; Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Applied Chemicals; Cleaner & Solvent Use; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Drinking Water Supply; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Food & Energy Policies; Food & Raw Materials; Infrastructure; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Pressures; Responses; Sectors Filling Human Needs; Socio-Economic Drivers; Utilities; Water
Chemical Discharge Controls: Integrated pest Management Modify mosquito control programs/regulations The results of pesticide research program can be used to modify the existing mosquito control program as necessary. (312) NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Agriculture; Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Applied Chemicals; Cleaner & Solvent Use; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Drinking Water Supply; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Food & Energy Policies; Food & Raw Materials; Infrastructure; Non-point Source Controls; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Pressures; Responses; Sectors Filling Human Needs; Socio-Economic Drivers; Utilities; Water
Corporate Response: Develop Outreach with Shipping Businesses This option requires the sanctuary to continue to alert shipping businesses about sanctuary regulations. Such regulations may include vessel waste discharge, ATBA, PSSA, etc. The targeted audiences will include importers, exporters, port authorities, commercial fishing companies, ship insurers. This information can be provided to the audience through NOAA nautical charts, trade publications, newsletters, trade shows, and direct mailings. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Ballast Discharge; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Coastal Engineering; Collaboration & Partnering; Cultural Policies; Decision Support; Docks & Marinas; Environmental Education & Outreach; Finance & Insurance; Infrastructural Policies; Insurance; Manufacturing & Trade; Ports & Harbors; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Transportation; Transportation Policies; Water Resources; Water Transportation; Waterborne Discharges
Damage Assessment, Documentation & Response: Coordinated Oil & Hazardous Spill Response This management option calls for developing unified response protocols to deal with containment and clean-up of oil spills. This is important to protect corals, mangroves, and seagrasses from adverse impacts of hazardous materials. Given the limited number of spills and the importance of responding quickly, interagency coordination of reporting and response is essential for success. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Puerto Rico and USVI Area Planning Committees. 2008. Hazardous Substances Pollution Area Contingency Plan. Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin islands.

Collaboration & Partnering; Decision Support; Discharges; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Energy Policy & Development; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Large Ships; Oil & Gas Industry; Oil & Gas Rigs; Oil & Gas Tankers; Petroleum Spills; Pipelines; Point Source Discharges; Remediation; Resource Use Management; Security & Public Administration Policies; Small Boats; Toxics; Transportation; Water Transportation; Waterborne Discharges
Damage Assessment, Documentation & Response: Respond to Mass Coral Bleaching Events There are several actions managers can take to prepare for and respond to bleaching events. These strategies typically focus on developing and communicating reliable information about the bleaching event and its impacts, rather than providing a "cure." Developing a Bleaching response plan in advance allows managers to respond more effectively during these rapid onset events. Predicting the risk and severity of bleaching events can allow for more timely yet credible information for decision makers. After the bleaching event it is important to quickly access the ecological impacts for further management decisions. Bleached coral are in a vulnerable state, and are therefore less resilient to degraded water quality, physical damage from recreation, or pressure from fishing activities. This heightened sensitivity means that current protections may need to be increased temporarily following a bleaching event. Marshall, P. and H. Schuttenberg. 2006. A reef manager's guide to coral bleaching.

Atmospheric Emissions; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Climate; Climate Regulation; Coral; Decision Support; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Education & Outreach; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Funding & Incentives; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Sea Temperatures
Data Management & Decision Tools: Research and Model Causal Linkage Between Pollutants and Ecological Impact This involves conducting research to identify and document causal linkages between discharge water pollutants and specific, quantifiable ecological problems. The natural environment naturally assimilates some pollutants, but has thresholds for this type of contaminant processing. Different hydrology, biology and spatial/temporal factors are all going to play a roll in the linkage between pollutants and ecological problems, meaning modeling and risk assessment can be beneficial. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Applied Chemicals; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Chemical Variables; Cleaner & Solvent Use; Decision Support; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Petroleum Spills; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Reef Inhabitants; Regulating Services; Sewage Treatment; Stormwater Management; Sunscreen Use; Supporting Services; Toxics; Wastewater Discharge; Water; Waterborne Discharges; Wetlands
Data Management & Decision Tools: Develop a Geographic Information System Incorporating Satellite and Aerial Images This option involves the acquisition of high-resolution, low altitude photos of management areas and grounding hotspots. These photos can then be used for baseline documentation for natural resource litigation, research, and management decisions. If these images are to be incorporated into larger geodatabase, such as that proposed in # 166, a standardized protocol should be developed in advance, as suggested in management option #166. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Cultural Services; Decision Support; Discharges; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Ecosystem Services; Educational & Research Opportunities; Landscape Changes; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Physical Damage; Resource Use Management; Security & Public Administration Policies
Develop & Distribute Educational Materials: Print Marine Etiquette on Marine-Related Products Packaging Printing information on marine-related products regarding proper marine etiquette could be a possibility for raising awareness and improving public stewardship. Partnerships will be explored to help print etiquette information on materials such as bait boxes, ice bags, water buckets, etc. that are commonly used by stakeholders. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Collaboration & Partnering; Corporate Responses; Environmental Education & Outreach; Littering; Manufacturing & Trade; Marine Debris; Recreational Fishing; Wholesale & Retail Trade
Develop & Distribute Educational Materials: Establish VHF Radio Stations The local sanctuary staff should work to secure a VHF radio station dedicated to provide information about local boating and water activities in multiple languages. Broadcast messages can include, but are not limited to information about regulations, navigation, resources, weather, and reef conditions. This will help prevent boaters, divers, and fishermen from negatively affecting the ecosystem. Assessments regarding cost and target audience areas must be conducted and external funding pursued to supplement the expense. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Ballast Discharge; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Decision Support; Designated Uses; Environmental Education & Outreach; Fisheries & Hunting Policies; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Security & Public Administration Policies; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Discharge Controls: Point Source Effluent Toxicity Standards Effluent Toxicity is considered the aggregate toxic effect to aquatic organisms from all pollutants contained in a facility's wastewater (effluent). It is one part of the Water Quality Standards (#22) that prohibits the discharge of toxic pollutants in toxic amounts. Numerical criteria can be adopted from the Clean Water Act of based on scientifically-defensible methods. In addition to setting this numerical criteria, enforcement of the standards requires inspection programs and monitoring. Center for Watershed Protection. 2008. Guanica Bay watershed management plan.

Chemical Variables; Decision Support; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Food, Beverage, & Tobacco Products; Improved Technology; Manufacturing & Trade; Metals, Electronics, & Machinery Products; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Nutrients; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Sewage Treatment; Toxics; Utilities; Utility Policies; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Waterborne Discharges; Wood, Plastics, & Chemical Products
Discharge Controls: Air Filtration & Scrubbing The management option reduces emissions of air contaminants from structures through interception and/or collection. These filters and scrubbers can be implemented on ventilation emitting particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, ammonia, odorous sulfur compounds, methane or other greenhouse gasses. There are many alternative filters and scrubbers depending on the ventilation system and the characteristics of the emissions. Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Agriculture; Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Atmospheric Emissions; Carbon Storage & Cycling; Chemical Variables; Climate Regulation; CO2; Construction Codes & Projects; Discharges; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Energy Policy & Development; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Food & Energy Policies; Food & Raw Materials; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Improved Technology; Infrastructural Policies; Manufacturing & Trade; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Non-Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Ocean Acidity; Regulating Services; Solid Waste Disposal; Supporting Services; Toxics; Utilities; Utility Policies
Discharge Controls: Carbon Sequestration Carbon sequestration is the process through which practices remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. The term "sink" is also used to describe agricultural and forestry lands that absorb CO2, the major global warming gas emitted by human activities. Agricultural and forestry practices can also release CO2 and other greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. In the ocean, phytoplankton are another major carbon sink. Houghton, R.A. 2002. Magnitude, distribution and causes of terrestrial carbon sinks and some implications for policy. Climate Policy 2:71-88.

Agriculture; Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Algae; CO2; Deforestation & Devegetation; Forestry; Funding & Incentives; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Infrastructure; Landuse Management; Plankton; Political Pressure; Solid Waste Disposal
Discharge Controls: Survey and Manage Household Chemical Use This management option targets household indoor and outdoor chemical use (pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, cleaners, detergents, solvents, etc). Though these chemicals are typically used in small amounts, many make their way into the watershed because of improper use. Before designing a plan to manage these chemicals, data must be gathered from the local community through surveys. An ideal survey would gather information on what chemicals are being used, how they are used, and how they are disposed of. Enforcing proper use and disposal is very difficult, making a strong education program in response to findings from the study essential. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Applied Chemicals; Building & Home Construction; Chemical Use Regulations; Chemical Variables; Cleaner & Solvent Use; Culture; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Environmental Education & Outreach; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Food & Energy Policies; Housing; Improved Technology; Landscaping & Household Services; Non-point Source Controls; Shelter; Textiles & Apparel; Toxics
Energy Policy & Development: Oil and Gas Rig Maintenance and Use Regulations There are regulated procedures and documentation required during production operations to prevent major incidents that may harm workers or the environment. A major part of incident prevention is inspection and maintenance. Cultural Services; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Energy Policy & Development; Infrastructural Policies; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Oil & Gas Industry; Oil & Gas Rigs; Petroleum Spills; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Provisioning Services; Toxics; Utilities; Utility Policies
Energy Policy & Development: Oil and Gas Rig End of Life As oil production at a given offshore site decreases it becomes necessary to decommission the rigs that were drilling them. It is very expensive to dismantle and transport the rigs back to shore. One such well know case was Shell's Brent Spar 1995. Regulations on the end of life for oil rigs differ by country and even state within the US. The Minerals Management Service has a Rigs-to-Reefs program which supports and encourages the reuse of oil and gas structures for offshore artificial reef developments. If these structures are to be sunk as artificial reefs the normal permit requirements for artificial reefs still apply to ensure the structure will not interfere with navigation channels or degrade the environment. Dauterive, L. 1999. Rigs-to reefs policy, progress, and perspective. Pages 313-318 in SPE/EPA Exploration & Production Environmental Conference.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Artificial Habitat; Biological Addition; Chemical Variables; Civil Engineering & Construction; Construction Codes & Projects; Cultural Services; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Infrastructural Policies; Infrastructure; Littering; Manufacturing & Trade; Marine Debris; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Oil & Gas Industry; Permitting & Zoning; Petroleum Spills; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Provisioning Services; Solid Waste Disposal; Toxics; Utilities; Utility Policies; Waste Management; Water Depth & Sea Level; Water Resources
Energy Policy & Development: Cable and Pipeline Construction Assessments Pre-assessments must be conducted to ensure pipelines and cables buried on the ocean floor will not disrupt or destroy natural or cultural resources. Reach Networks Hong Kong Ltd. 2007. Project Profile: Asia-America Gateway (AAG) Cable Network, South Lantau. Wanchai, Hong Kong SAR.

Construction Codes & Projects; Cultural Services; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Energy Policy & Development; Infrastructural Policies; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Oil & Gas Industry; Permitting & Zoning; Petroleum Spills; Pipelines; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Provisioning Services; Utilities; Utility Policies
Energy Policy & Development: Develop Offshore Wind and Hydrokinetic Alternative Energies Policies encouraging or authorizing construction of offshore facilities are evolving, and there are many sides to the issue of how to best manage them. Alternative energies are desirable and would reduce the dependence on fossil fuel resources. However, hydrokinetic technologies are just becoming viable, meaning long term impacts are still unknown. Facilitative policies reduce barriers for alternative energy development or increase barriers or costs for incumbent technologies. These include research and innovation policies, technology improvement subsidies, market based policies that internalize externalities, and regulatory changes that simplify the permitting process. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. 2009. Report to Congress on the Potential Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies. Department of Energy.

Portman, M.E. 2010. Marine Renewable Energy Policy: Some US and International Perspectices Compared. Oceanography 23:98-105.

Artificial Habitat; Biological Addition; Construction Codes & Projects; Economic Markets & Policies; Energy Policy & Development; Funding & Incentives; Infrastructural Policies; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Oil & Gas Industry; Permitting & Zoning; Petroleum Spills; Physical Variables; Point Source Discharges; Provisioning Services; Seawater Flow; Utilities; Utility Line Construction & Maintenance; Utility Policies
Energy Policy & Development: Pipeline Maintenance Requirements The best way to ensure a high level of safety and reliability in operation of pipelines is to have a maintenance and inspection plan in place that targets damage, degradation or defects before they lead to failures. Economically, expenditures for maintenance and inspection are significantly less than those for emergency service in reaction to unforeseen situations. However, legislative requirements for plans, procedures and documentation ensures compliance with these best management practices. Environmental Protection Agency. 2008. Pipeline Maintenance Best Practices: Lessons Learned from the Natural Gas STAR Program. Charlotte (North Carolina).

United Kingdom Onshore Pipeline Operators Association. 2006. UKOPA Recommendations for Pipeline Maintenance and Inspection. UKOPA/06/0032,

Chemical Use Regulations; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Energy Policy & Development; Infrastructural Policies; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Oil & Gas Industry; Petroleum Spills; Pipelines; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Provisioning Services; Toxics; Utilities; Utility Policies
Energy Policy & Development: Oil and Gas Rig Construction Regulations The Minerals Management Service (MMS) has several requirements for leasing and permits for construction of new drilling rigs and platforms. Placement is very important so as to not interfere with other uses or the environment. These permits also cover exploratory structures for research and test sites. Minerals Management Service. 2006. Leasing Oil and Natural Gas Resources. U.S. Department of the Interior.

Civil Engineering & Construction; Construction Codes & Projects; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Economic Markets & Policies; Energy Policy & Development; Infrastructural Policies; Infrastructure; Manufacturing & Trade Policies; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Oil & Gas Industry; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Oil & Gas Rigs; Permitting & Zoning; Petroleum Spills; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Provisioning Services; Toxics; Utilities; Utility Policies
Energy Policy & Development: Develop Energy Efficiency Initiatives Energy efficiency is one of the lowest cost strategies for reducing greenhouse gases. Energy efficiency is also one of the few options that actually reduce user costs as well, since using less energy should reduce energy bills. Energy efficiency can be promoted across the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. In the US, the ENERGY STAR program has served as a trusted source of information to help consumers and organizations throughout the nation adopt energy-efficient products and practices. Other ways to incentivize energy improvements include subsidizing (e.g. tax exemption) or issuing lower interest loans for investments in energy use reduction technologies and infrastructure (e.g. more efficient heating/cooling systems). Environmental Protection Agency. ENERGY STAR and Other Climate Protection Partnerships. 2009 Annual Report. US EPA.

Atmospheric Emissions; City Planning; Climate Regulation; CO2; Coal Mining; Construction Codes & Projects; Corporate Responses; Discharges; Economic Markets & Policies; Energy Policy & Development; Food, Beverage, & Tobacco Products; Funding & Incentives; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Housing; Improved Technology; Landuse Management; Manufacturing & Trade; Metals, Electronics, & Machinery Products; Oil & Gas Industry; Shelter; Utilities; Utility Policies; Wholesale & Retail Trade; Wood, Plastics, & Chemical Products
Environmental Education: Deliver Non-Enforcement Resource Eductaion at the Resource Site Voluntary compliance (#50) is the most desirable form of site protection. Lack of compliance often occurs unintentionally, due to a lack of knowledge and understanding. Law enforcement plays a role by ensuring rules are appropriately followed, but often the preventative component of this enforcement becomes secondary, especially on high use days/areas. Volunteers can assist by answering questions and talking to people recreating about the reef, reef resources, and how to appropriately recreate. Volunteers can watch to ensure people are acting appropriately, that boaters do not go too close to shallow reefs, and that groundings do not occur. Programs such as Team OCEAN have contributed over 15,000 hours to such activities. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Beaches & Nature Parks; Boat Movement; Boating Activities; Collaboration & Partnering; Cultural Policies; Culture; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Education & Information; Environmental Education & Outreach; Finfish Harvest; Invertebrate Harvest; Marine Debris; Recreational Fishing; Recreational Opportunities; Resource Use Management; Social Organizations; Sunscreen Use; Tourism & Recreation; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Trampling
Fishing & Harvesting Management: Derelict Fishing Gear & Ghost Fishing The term "ghost fishing" is used to describe the capture of marine organisms by lost or abandoned fishing gear. This is particularly a problem with gillnets, trammel nets and pots. Gear is usually lost because it becomes stuck on rough bottoms containing corals and stones, causing the buoy line to break during retrieval. Nets or pots may continue to fish for years, with captured fish and crustaceans dying and serving as attracting bait for more fish and organisms. Ghost fishing may therefore represent a serious problem in many areas, causing hidden fishing mortality over a long period of time. This management option co-insides with (#63) Respond to Natural Resource Injuries form Derelict Vessels. Cochrane, K.L., editor. 2002. A Fishery Manager's Guidebook. Management Measures and their application. Fisheries Technical Paper 424, FAO, Rome.

Seas At Risk. 2009. Moving Towards Low Impact Fisheries In Europe Policy Hurdles & Actions.

Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Apex Fish Predators; Aquaculture; Arthropods; Artificial Habitat; Artisanal Fishing; Biological Addition; Biological Harvest; Commercial Fisheries; Corallivorous Fish; Discharges; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Invertivorous Fish; Large Herbivorous Fish; Littering; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Marine Debris; Piscivorous Fish; Planktivorous Fish; Provisioning Services; Recreational Fishing; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Forestry Policy: Forest Chemical Management Pesticides and fertilizers are commonly used in forestry to reduce mortality of desired trees, improve forest production, and ease harvest/extraction. The rate of application is typically very low, but given the overall area covered, pesticides can still accumulate within watersheds. Some forest management chemical use considerations to reduce nonpoint source pollution impacts include: Develop an effective spill contingency plan to contain spills, and immediately report accidental spills into surface waters to the appropriate State agency. Prior to application, inspect the mixing and loading process and the calibration of equipment, and identify the appropriate weather conditions, the spray area, and buffer areas for surface waters. Buffer areas for surface waters are especially important for aerial applications. Carefully prescribe the type and amount of pesticides appropriate for the insect, fungus, or herbaceous species. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water. 1993. Guidance Specifying Management Measures For Sources Of Nonpoint Pollution In Coastal Waters. EPA/840/B-92/002, US EPA, Washington, DC.

Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Applied Chemicals; Chemical Use Regulations; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Forestry; Non-point Source Controls; Nutrients; Provisioning Services; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Toxics; Water Resources; Wood, Plastics, & Chemical Products
Forestry Policy: Forestry Management Planning There are many aspects to properly managing forestry sites to reduce point source and non-point source pollutants. Forestry activities can degrade water quality with several types of pollutants and impacts, including: sediment, nutrients, forest chemicals like pesticides, organic debris from tree litter, increased water temperature and increased streamflow. The Forestry management plan and practices include, but are not limited to: pre-harvest planning, road construction and use, prescribed burning and fire management, brush management, timber harvest, regeneration, and application of forest chemicals. Wetlands Forest Management has additional best practices. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water. 1993. Guidance Specifying Management Measures For Sources Of Nonpoint Pollution In Coastal Waters. EPA/840/B-92/002, US EPA, Washington, DC.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Applied Chemicals; Biological Harvest; Chemical Use Regulations; Civil Engineering & Construction; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharge Limitations; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Food & Raw Materials; Forestry; Landscape Changes; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landuse Management; Manufacturing & Trade; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Regulating Services; Resource Use Management; Sediment; Supporting Services; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Toxics; Waterborne Discharges; Wetlands; Wood, Plastics, & Chemical Products
Forestry Policy: Forestry Streamside Management Areas There are often surface waters, such as streams and lakes, within forestry areas that require special protection. This management option involves establishing and maintaining management areas (35 to 50 feet) around these surface waters to buffer against changes in temperature, increases in sediments and nutrients, and to provide bank stability. Canopy species in these areas also provide woody debris needed for instream channel structure and aquatic species habitat. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water. 1993. Guidance Specifying Management Measures For Sources Of Nonpoint Pollution In Coastal Waters. EPA/840/B-92/002, US EPA, Washington, DC.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Carbon Storage & Cycling; Civil Engineering & Construction; Construction Codes & Projects; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Food & Raw Materials; Forestry; Impervious Surfaces; Infrastructural Policies; Landscape Changes; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Runoff; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Primary Production; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waterborne Discharges; Wood, Plastics, & Chemical Products
Injury Prevention: Foster Reef Resilience Resilience relates to how well the reef ecosystem is able to maintain key functions and processes while under abnormal pressure or stress. Two ways of supporting coral reef resilience are: incorporating known resilient areas into management design and by implementing strategies to either reinstate or protect factors that contribute to resilience, such as good environmental conditions, biological diversity, and connectivity. Marshall, P. and H. Schuttenberg. 2006. A reef manager's guide to coral bleaching.

Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Contact Uses; Coral; Decision Support; Discharges; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Landscape Changes; Marine Protected Areas; Pressures; Resource Use Management
Landuse Management: Temporary Road Planning and Construction This management option involves minimizing sediment discharges from forestry and other temporary roads through their planning and construction. Since these roads are seasonal or temporary, less time and effort is normally invested in construction. Road construction has four main phases, clearing, leveling, construction and surfacing. Construction timing should be targeted to avoid sensitive spawning periods and during low stream flow at water passes. Road surface drainage shaping requires proper moisture content, surfacing, and grading. Drainage should be installed to reduce the volume and velocity of runoff water passing over sensitive areas. Methods for road surface drainage include: broad-based dip construction, pole culverts, ditch relief culverts, road outsloping and grading, ditch and turnout construction. Roadway runoff should be prevented from flowing directly into watercourses by using turnouts, wing ditches and dips. Brush barriers, silt fences, riprap and filter strips can be used to trap sediment in runoff water. Where roads cross streams it is important to guard against erosion, as such erosion may necessitate road repairs. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water. 1993. Guidance Specifying Management Measures For Sources Of Nonpoint Pollution In Coastal Waters. EPA/840/B-92/002, US EPA, Washington, DC.

Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Civil Engineering & Construction; Construction Codes & Projects; Decision Support; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Food & Raw Materials; Forestry; Hydrologic Management; Impervious Surfaces; Infrastructural Policies; Infrastructure; Land & Air Transportation; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Landscape Changes; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landuse Management; Mining; Mining Policies; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Road Construction & Maintenance; Sediment; Transportation; Transportation Policies
Landuse Management: Household Landscaping Best Management Practices Homeowners manipulate the visible features of the land surrounding their home through landscaping. This includes flora, fauna, and terrain. Best Management Practices (BMPs) for landscaping include selection of indigenous flora and fauna, landscape irrigation (sprinkler systems etc), stormwater runoff BMPs, reducing water use, integrated pest management, composting, and incorporation of permeable surfaces. Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Irrigation Association. 2010. Turf and Landscape Irrigation Best Management Practices.

Applied Chemicals; Biological Addition; Building & Home Construction; Chemical Variables; City Planning; Discharge Limitations; Environmental Education & Outreach; Escape & Release of Non-natives; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Impervious Surfaces; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landscaping & Household Services; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Shelter; Supplemental Feeding; Toxics; Waterborne Discharges
Landuse Management: Mine Reclamation Lands disturbed by mining must be reclaimed to their Approximate Original Contour (AOC). Mine operators must backfill, compact, and grade in order to restore the AOC of the land with all highwalls, spoil piles, and depressions eliminated. Spoil material is prone to erosion, and may carry various disturbed toxics into groundwater if not properly managed. Temporary roads and impervious surfaces may have also been constructed for mining purposes. Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement. POSTMINING LAND USE: Exceptions to Approximate Original Contour Requirements for Mountaintop Removal Operations and steep Slope Mining Operations. Washington, DC.

Chemical Use Regulations; Civil Engineering & Construction; Coal Mining; Construction Codes & Projects; Decision Support; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Food & Raw Materials; Hydrologic Management; Impervious Surfaces; Infrastructural Policies; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Landscape Changes; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landuse Management; Manufacturing & Trade; Manufacturing & Trade Policies; Mineral, Rock, & Metal Mining; Mining; Mining Policies; Mitigation; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Political Pressure; Remediation; Resource Use Management; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Toxics; Valuation; Waterborne Discharges
Marine Zoning: Permitting Application & Award This management approach is important because permits assure protection and conservation of coral resources from harmful activities and practices. Within sanctuary waters, special use permits (#157) can be used to allow scientists and others to conduct necessary work while following permitting regulations to reduce the impact of that work. General permits are often required for altering land-use, construction projects and certain discharges. To be eligible for a permit, the operator may be required to conduct impact assessments, institute best management practices and conduct monitoring of the project. Though permits are a necessary precaution, the process can be streamlined through ensuring clear submittal requirements, and reducing redundancy. Redundancy often occurs when multiple agencies must approve a permit, a single point of contact and standard, inter-agency protocols can reduce unnecessary redundancy. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Biological Addition; Biological Harvest; Building & Home Construction; Coastal Development; Collaboration & Partnering; Cultural Policies; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Impervious Surfaces; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Landscape Changes; Landuse Management; Permitting & Zoning; Physical Damage; Point Source Discharges; Public Administration; Resource Use Management; Scientific Research; Security & Public Administration Policies; Special Use Permitting
Marine Zoning: Utilize Marine Protected Areas for Research and Monitoring Research and monitoring of marine protected areas determine the degree to which the zones meet goals and objectives for protecting natural resources, as well as human-use patterns, attitudes and compliance. Once data is gathered from within the protected zone it can than be compared to comprable data from outside the protected zone, as a control. It is necessary to compile and review data on use patterns to determine where additional Special-Use Areas would be appropriate. Research in the protected area should be non-invasive. It is important to make the protected area available for external research as well. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Biological Harvest; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Collaboration & Partnering; Contact Uses; Decision Support; Designated Uses; Discharges; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Educational & Research Opportunities; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Fish; Invasive Species; Invertebrates; Landscape Changes; Marine Protected Areas; Marine Vertebrates; Permitting & Zoning; Physical Damage; Resource Use Management; Special Use Permitting; Wetlands
Monitor & Research: Research Historical Hydrology This activity involves a historical assessment of the hydrology of the surrounding water area around the sanctuary as it has affected water quality and biological communities within the sanctuary. It will clarify the role of freshwater inflows and water quality from local freshwater bodies. Also, this activity will examine the effects of structural modification and changes in quality, quantity, timing and distribution of freshwater releases from existing structures and will examine land-based practices affecting the water quality of runoff. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Applied Chemicals; Chemical Variables; Coastal Development; Coastal Engineering; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Hydrologic Management; Impervious Surfaces; Infrastructural Policies; Landscape Changes; Landuse Management; Physical Variables; Salinity; Seawater Flow; Shoreline Armoring; Stormwater Management; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water; Water Depth & Sea Level; Water Transportation; Waterborne Discharges
Monitor & Research: Research Queen Conch Reproduction and Restoration Inshore Queen Conch may be experiencing reproductive failure. Research on various snails in other parts of the world has shown that snails are susceptible to endocrine disruption caused by various anthropogenic contaminants. This activity will determine the cause of reproductive failure, possibly by endocrine disruption, of queen conch in reef areas. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Applied Chemicals; Artisanal Fishing; Biological Harvest; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Commercial Fisheries; Designate Protected Species; Discharges; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Fishing Sector; Invertebrates; Molluscs; Recreational Fishing; Reef Inhabitants; Snails & Conch; Waterborne Discharges
Monitor & Research: Research Global Change This management option involves research to examine the effects of stresses associated with global change on the ecosystem. Stresses can include changes in temperature, hydrology, salinity, frequency and intensity of storms, turbidity, sea level change, and ultra violet and visible radiation. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Atmospheric Emissions; Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Carbon Storage & Cycling; Chemical Variables; Climate; Climate Regulation; CO2; Discharges; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Ocean Acidity; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Physical Variables; Regulating Services; Salinity; Sea Temperatures; Seawater Flow; Shoreline Protection; Storms & Hurricanes; Supporting Services; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Monitor & Research: Monitor Water Temperature Extreme water temperature fluctuations can lead to bleaching and disease in corals and mass mortality of seagrass. Recording thermographs are deployed throughout the sanctuary area to monitor seawater temperatures. Temperatures fluctuate greatly, meaning monitoring should be continued long term, and that historic data must be considered to discern trends. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Atmospheric Emissions; Climate; Climate Regulation; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Physical & Chemical Environment; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Physical Variables; Regulating Services; Sea Temperatures
Monitor & Research: Water Quality Status and Trends Monitoring This activity produces long-term, comprehensive information on sanctuary-wide status and trends of water quality parameters. Parameters that should be measured include temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, relative fluorescence, light attenuation, nutrients, chlorophyll, and alkaline phosphatase activity. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Applied Chemicals; Atmospheric Emissions; Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Carbon Storage & Cycling; Chemical Variables; Climate; Climate Regulation; CO2; Discharges; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Light; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Ocean Acidity; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Physical Variables; Regulating Services; Salinity; Sea Temperatures; Sediment; Supporting Services; Toxics; Waterborne Discharges
Monitor & Research: Develop Innovative Monitoring Tools This management option calls for identifying and evaluating monitoring tools and methodologies used to detect pollutants and identify cause-and-effect relationships among water quality and biological resources. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Chemical Variables; Contact Uses; Decision Support; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Educational & Research Opportunities; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Landscape Changes; Nutrients; Physical Variables; Reef Habitat; Reef Inhabitants; Scientific Research; Toxics
Monitor & Research: Research and Monitor Wetlands This management option involves monitoring and research of mangroves, both for biotic and abiotic factors. Some biotic factors include disease, species, invasive species, abundance, age and leaf litter. Important abiotic factors include sedimentation rates, types and causes of turbidity, and soil chemistry. The activity would document changes to the extent of mangrove vegetation by using historical aerial photography and other records. Wetland nutrient and contaminant processing productivity depends on maintaining a balance and not exceeding thresholds. There remain many unknowns in wetland restoration as to optimal capacity and how to achieve this. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Carbon Storage & Cycling; Chemical Variables; Climate Regulation; Complex Habitat & Resources; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharges; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Educational & Research Opportunities; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Invasive Species; Mangroves; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Physical Variables; Primary Production; Regulating Services; Scientific Research; Seawater Flow; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Substrate; Supporting Services; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetland & Reef Restoration; Wetlands
Regulatory Review and Development: Evaluate Artificial Reef Regulations Discharge/depositing of materials and constructions on the seabed are both prohibited without permits, regulating the construction of new artificial reefs. Likewise, existing artificial reefs are protected through permit requirements for any alternation of the seabed. There are still further considerations for protecting artificial reefs. Artificial reef materials and construction choices are very important and may change based on the specific location and desired impacts. An artificial reef to attract recreational fishing differs from one for recreational divers or shoreline storm protection. Many artificial reefs were formally large ships, oil rigs or other types of waste that have been decommissioned and would be too large and expensive to dismantle on land. In these cases it is important to put restrictions on the sinking process to ensure there wont be any type of chemical leakage and that the structure is stable on the seabed. (#189) (#190) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2007. National Artificial Reef Plan: Guidelines for Siting, Construction, Development, and Assessment of Artificial Reefs. US Department of Commerce.

NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Artificial Habitat; Coastal Defense; Contact Uses; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Dredging Regulations; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Large Ships; Oil & Gas Industry; Permitting & Zoning; Physical Damage; Recreational Fishing; Solid Waste Disposal; Special Use Permitting; Tourism & Recreation; Waste Management; Waterborne Discharges
Regulatory Review and Development: Evaluate Dredging Regulations Dredging is oftentimes prohibited with certain exceptions. Dredging regulation often falls under other controls over the alteration of the seabed, discharging or depositing materials. At times dredging is necessary for navigation or other activities, necessitating .permitting mechanisms for allowing otherwise prohibited activities. Revising the regulations to help eliminate negative dredge-and-fill activities within a certain distance of corals would be beneficial because it would help promote the reestablishment of sensitive benthic communities. Reservoirs may require periodic dredging to remove sediment that may have collected. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Beach & Land Formation; Beaches & Nature Parks; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Coastal Engineering; Construction Codes & Projects; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Decision Support; Discharge Limitations; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Hydrologic Management; Mining; Mining Policies; Physical Damage; Point Source Discharges; Ports & Harbors; Provisioning Services; Resource Use Management; Sand & Rock Production; Security & Public Administration Policies; Special Use Permitting; Substrate; Transportation; Utility Line Construction & Maintenance; Water Transportation
Regulatory Review and Development: Evaluate Exotic Species Regulations The release of exotic species is already prohibited in many areas. Often these regulations do not consider exotic species released in ballast water. Regulations on discharge of ship ballast water containing exotic or non-indigenous species is therefore an area for regulatory improvement. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Ballast Discharge; Biocriteria; Biological Addition; Boating Regulations; Discharge Limitations; Escape & Release of Non-natives; Invasive Species; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Transportation Policies; Water Transportation; Waterborne Discharges
Regulatory Review and Development: Develop Mobile Source Discharge Controls Pollution discharge controls regulate where different types of discharges are allowed and what acceptable quantities released are. Typically discharge controls target point sources in the form of effluent pipes (#280), but discharges also occur from mobile sources such as boats and ships. There may need to be revisions on where depositing fish, fish parts, bait, cooling water, engine exhaust, deck wash, and effluent can be released. In many areas, these items are often excluded as prohibited, and they should possibly be included. Pollution discharge controls are different from Water Quality Standards (#22) which set acceptable environmental limits and leave it up to the manager to meet those criteria. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Artisanal Fishing; Ballast Discharge; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Chemical Variables; Coastal Engineering; Commercial Fisheries; Commercial Fishing Boats; Cruise Ships; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Docks & Marinas; Finfish Harvest; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Food & Energy Policies; Large Ships; Littering; Oil & Gas Tankers; Physical Damage; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Ports & Harbors; Recreational Fishing; Small Boats; Tourism & Recreation; Wastewater Discharge; Water Transportation; Waterborne Discharges
Researching Other Pollutants and Water Quality Issues: Estimate other pollutant loadings This activity involves documenting the locations and magnitude of pollution impact other than wastewater. Sources can be from inside and outside of the Sanctuary. Pollutants can include hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and pesticides. Water Quality standards (#22) Waste water (#21) NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Applied Chemicals; Chemical Variables; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Physical & Chemical Environment; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Pressures; Responses; Toxics; Waterborne Discharges
Resource Use Management: Prevent Introduction of Invasive Species Preventing the introduction of invasive species involves public awareness of the invasive species, minimizing modes and prone areas for invasion, and detecting small populations for early eradication. Some common modes of terrestrial transportation include livestock and domestic animals, mowing equipment, and firewood. Clean equipment before transport to a new location. Remove soil from plants, and plant bare-root. Use high grade seed and weed free livestock feeds. Reduce opportunities for invasive plants by keeping native plant populations strong and healthy and seeding in cover crops to reduce barren soil. Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Aquarium & Pet Trade; Ballast Discharge; Biological Addition; Construction Codes & Projects; Discharge Limitations; Environmental Education & Outreach; Escape & Release of Non-natives; Invasive Species; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landscaping & Household Services; Manufacturing & Trade; Transportation; Water Transportation
Resource Use Management: Develop Water Efficiency Initiatives Reducing water use through cost effective water efficiency improvements can be beneficial as it reduces pressure on water as a finite resource and saves money. There are several ways water efficiency can be promoted. Some Water Efficiency BMPs recommended by the EPA include: Water Management Planning; Information and Education Programs; Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection and Repair; Water-Efficient Landscaping, Water-Efficient Irrigation; Toilets and Urinals; Faucets and Showerheads; Boiler/Steam Systems; Single-Pass Cooling Equipment; Cooling Tower Management; Commercial Kitchen Equipment; Laboratory/ Medical Equipment; Other Water Intensive Processes; Alternative Water Sources. One of the ways the US government has promoted Water Efficiency Initiatives is through Executive order 13123 which places certain water use reduction requirements on Federal Agencies. There are also existing funding and incentives for non-government sectors. Project funding comes in many forms, such as appropriations, energy savings performance contract (ESPC) and Utility Energy Service Contract (UESCs) programs; ratepayer incentive programs such as rebates from public benefit funds or utilities; and the retention of energy and water cost savings. US Department of Energy. 2008. Establishing Baseline and Meeting Water Conservation Goals of Executive Order 13423.

Environmental Protection Agency. Federal Water Efficiency Best Management Practices. Federal Energy Management Program Accessed 7/12/2011.

Agriculture; Collaboration & Partnering; Designated Uses; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Drinking Water Supply; Environmental Education & Outreach; Funding & Donations; Funding & Incentives; Hydrologic Management; Irrigation; Landscaping & Household Services; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Resource Use Management; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Textiles & Apparel; Utilities; Utility Policies; Water; Water Resources; Water Utilities Policies; Waterborne Discharges
Restoration: Environmental Remediation Environmental Remediation is a type of restoration that's focus ranges from Brownfields to Oil Spills to Hazardous Waste Sites. These restoration activities aim to restore the site to a previous condition, or to a condition that is not a threat to human health or other forms of life. Several standards can be used to determine when remediation is necessary and to what extent the environment should be restores. Biocriteria can be used to determine the degree of degradation to biological components of the site. Often it is the presence of a particular pollutant in the soil, water or air, which is above acceptable limits and will not degrade fast enough over a short period of time and therefore must be removed. Physical and chemical water quality criteria can be used to set maximum acceptable limits of water quality parameters. Air quality criteria can be used to set acceptable maximum and minimum air standards for remediation. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. 2005. Contaminated Sediment Remediation Guidance for Hazardous Waste Sites. EPA-540-R-05-012, US Environmental Protection Agency.

Environment Protection Authority. EPA Guidelines for Environmental management of on-site remediation. Environment Protection Authority, Adelaide, Australia.

Applied Chemicals; Biocriteria; City Planning; Decision Support; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Food, Beverage, & Tobacco Products; Health; Health Policies; Landuse Management; Littering; Manufacturing & Trade; Metals, Electronics, & Machinery Products; Military; Mining; Mining Policies; Mitigation; Monetary Valuation; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Oil & Gas Industry; Oil & Gas Rigs; Oil & Gas Tankers; Petroleum Spills; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Pipelines; Point Source Discharges; Public Administration; Remediation; Security; Solid Waste Disposal; Supporting Services; Toxics; Valuation; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Waterborne Discharges; Wood, Plastics, & Chemical Products
Restoration: Land Reclamation Integrating Landslide Treatments This management option is exercised to prevent down slope movement of earthen materials, including natural soils, and spoil/waste from mining or forestry activities. Extreme caution and planning must be exercised before permitting any personnel, equipment or other machinery into the slide area. An experienced engineer should analyze the stability of the site both before and after alterations are made to evaluate stability. Water Control: sources of water that enter the area can be controlled to keep the material dry, as it is typically more stable when dry. Loading Control: where appropriate, consider removing excess material from upper portions of the slide area to reduce slide mass. Slope Reduction: where practice, use grading to reduce the slope of the slide area. Increasing Internal Strength: consider the impact of removing and recompacting of material at designed levels of moisture and with biotechnical slope stabilization practices. External Restraints: external restraints can be used where slope movements must be limited due to surrounding valued improvements (e.g. structures), where manipulation of the material may not achieve desired improvements. External restraints must be designed to prevent overturning, sliding at or below the base, and bearing failure of the foundation. Vegetative Treatment: deep rooted grasses and shrubs with proven performance in soil bioengineering applications can be planted using selected soil bioengineering or biotechnical slope stabilization techniques appropriate to the site. Transpiration and infiltration should be considered when choosing vegetation. Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Construction Codes & Projects; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Forestry; Infrastructure; Insurance; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Mining; Mining Policies; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment
Restoration: Land Reclamation Integrating Toxic Discharge Controls This option aims to eliminate unsightly residues, reduce erosion and control acid or otherwise toxic aqueous discharges from abandoned coal mines, coalmine waste or other types of land change. For toxic mine drainage, preventative actions include mine sealing, infiltration control, day lighting, and neutralization with alkaline material such as hydrated lime. Which action to take relies heavily on groundwater and runoff in the region of the mine. Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Aquaculture; Coal Mining; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Hydrologic Management; Mineral, Rock, & Metal Mining; Mining; Mining Policies; Non-point Source Controls; Ocean Acidity; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Toxics; Waterborne Discharges
Restoration: Beach Renourishment and Nourishment Beaches are subject to natural accretion and erosion. Tourism is often best supported by wide, accessible, public sandy beaches. Beaches can be restored to counteract natural erosion by transporting large quantities of sand onto the beach. This sand often comes from nearby dredging. Caution should be used when restoring long sections of beaches, as often the area above the mean high tide line is littoral, or privately owned, and restoration of these beaches can impact these property rights, see "Stop the Beach Renourishment, Inc. v. Florida Department of Environmental Protection (2010) U.S. Supreme Court decision." Beach protection or nourishment offers an alternative to this often expensive and abrupt type of renourishment, nourishment involves practices which encourage coastal accretion and discourage erosional forces. See "Florida's Beach and Shore Preservation Act" for some restrictions on this. NOAA Coastal Services Center. Beach Nourishment: A Guide for Local Government Officials. Coastal Services Center Accessed 6/17/2011.

Beach & Land Formation; Beaches & Nature Parks; Culture; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Recreational Opportunities; Shoreline Armoring; Shoreline Protection; Sunscreen Use; Tourism & Recreation
Stormwater BMPs: Sustained Reservoir Minimum Release of Minimum Baseflow to Sustain Aquatic Habitat In some regions, even high intensity rivers (e.g. Rio Loco, Puerto Rico) are seasonal, drying for long enough to kill aquatic vegetation. Creating a constant baseflow would help sustain aquatic life and ultimately help to process nutrients. High intensity rivers are already prone to extreme channel erosion from the high flow rates, this erosion is even greater without any benthic biota to hold sediment on the river bottom. Restricting the release of reservoir water to that required to maintain aquatic biota would reduce the intensity of flow, stabilize the river bottom, create habitat and naturally process nutrients that could potentially contribute to eutrophication out on the coral reef. Center for Watershed Protection. 2008. Guanica Bay watershed management plan.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Algae; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Climate; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Drinking Water Supply; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Hydrologic Management; Infrastructural Policies; Infrastructure; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Landscape Changes; Landuse Management; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Physical Variables; Point Source Discharges; Pressures; Primary Production; Reef Habitat; Reef Life; Regulating Services; Storms & Hurricanes; Stormwater Management; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Utilities; Waste Management; Water; Waterborne Discharges; Wetland & Reef Restoration; Wetlands
Stormwater BMPs: Structural Stormwater Infiltration This management option attempts to reduce the negative impacts of stormwater runoff through implementation of engineering structures that control the volume of surface water, facilitating faster absorption of the stormwater into the ground. Often these structures are able to infiltrate larger amounts of water faster while reducing exposure to surface sediments and pollutants. Natural Resources Conservation Service. Combined Infiltration/Detention Basin. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Leisenring, M., Clary, J., Stephenson, J., and Hobson, P. 2010. International Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Database Pollutant Category Summary: Nutrients. Geosyntec Consultants, Inc.

Poresky, A., Clary, J., Strecker, E., and Earles, A. 2011. International Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Database. Technical Summary: Volume Reduction. Geosyntec Consultants.

US EPA. EPA Infiltration BMPs. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Menu of BMPs Accessed 3/25/2011.

Applied Chemicals; Chemical Variables; City Planning; Civil Engineering & Construction; Climate; Coastal Development; Construction Codes & Projects; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Drinking Water Supply; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Hydrologic Management; Impervious Surfaces; Infrastructural Policies; Irrigation; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Landscape Changes; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Point Source Discharges; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Stormwater Management; Substrate; Supporting Services; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Water; Waterborne Discharges
Stormwater BMPs: Structural Stormwater Filtration This method attempts to reduce the negative impacts of stormwater runoff through implementation of engineering structures that trap or filter impurities out of runoff water. These include but are not limited to, using swales, filter strips, oil/water separators, oil/grit separators, and sand filters. Often structural retrofitting is coupled with biological filters/controls to direct water as desired and to fully reap the benefits of both systems. Structural filters are often incorporated into retention/detention and infiltration systems as well. One disadvantage of structural filters is that they are often higher maintenance as sand and chambers fill and clog with pollutants over time. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Compost Filter System. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Dry Swale. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Median Strip Infiltration Trench. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Montgomery County Water Quality Inlet. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Off-Line Infiltration Basin. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Oil/Water Separators. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Organic Sand Filter. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Peat Sand Filter. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Perimeter Sand Filter. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Pocket Sand Filter. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Rockville Water Quality Inlet. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Sediment Basin (Water Quality Enhancement). Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Side-by-Side Infiltration Basin. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Surface Sand Filter. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Underground Sand Filter. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Underground Trench with Oil/Grit Chamber. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Under-the-Swale Infiltration Trench. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Water Quality Volume (WQV) Storage Tank. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Water Environment Research Foundation, American Society of Civil Engineers, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Highway Administration, American Public Works Association, editor. 2008. Overview of Performance by BMP Category and Common Pollutant Type. International Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Database [1999-2008].

Leisenring, M., Clary, J., Stephenson, J., and Hobson, P. 2010. International Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Database Pollutant Category Summary: Nutrients. Geosyntec Consultants, Inc.

US EPA. EPA Filtration BMPs. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Menu of BMPs Accessed 3/25/2011.

US EPA. Manufactured Products for Stormwater Inlets. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Menu of BMPs Accessed 3/25/2011.

US EPA. Alum Injection. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Menu of BMPs Accessed 3/25/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2010. Stormwater Runoff Controls. U.S. Depatrment of Agriculture.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2005. Solid/liquid Waste Separation Facility. U.S. Depatrment of Agriculture.

Applied Chemicals; Chemical Variables; City Planning; Civil Engineering & Construction; Coastal Engineering; Construction Codes & Projects; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Food & Energy Policies; Hydrologic Management; Impervious Surfaces; Improved Technology; Infrastructural Policies; Infrastructure; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Landscape Changes; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Physical Variables; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Road Construction & Maintenance; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Stormwater Management; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Toxics; Utilities; Utility Policies; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Waterborne Discharges
Stormwater BMPs: Biological Stormwater Filtration This method attempts to reduce the negative impacts of stormwater runoff through implementing engineering techniques that allow natural processes and plants to act as filters. Such techniques would include using grass parking and turf covered swales. Many of these techniques, such as reversed elevations for planted areas in parking lots, can demonstrate benefits both as natural filters and for the vegetation that are used since it eliminates the need to water them with irrigation systems. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Basic Biofiltration Swale. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Bioretention System. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Constructed Wetland. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Filter Strips. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Reversed Elevations System for Parking Lots and Planting Areas. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Riparian Forest Buffer. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Roadway Landscape Treatment System. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Wet Biofiltration Swale. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Wet Pond Design. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Wet Swale. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Water Environment Research Foundation, American Society of Civil Engineers, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Highway Administration, American Public Works Association, editor. 2008. Overview of Performance by BMP Category and Common Pollutant Type. International Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Database [1999-2008].

Leisenring, M., Clary, J., Stephenson, J., and Hobson, P. 2010. International Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Database Pollutant Category Summary: Nutrients. Geosyntec Consultants, Inc.

Applied Chemicals; Building & Home Construction; Chemical Variables; City Planning; Civil Engineering & Construction; Climate; Construction Codes & Projects; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Golf Course Operations; Impervious Surfaces; Infrastructure; Irrigation; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Landscape Changes; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landscaping & Household Services; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Physical Variables; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Primary Production; Road Construction & Maintenance; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Stormwater Management; Substrate; Supporting Services; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Toxics; Utilities; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Water; Waterborne Discharges
Stormwater BMPs: Stormwater Pollution Reduction Through Instituting Preventitive Best Management Practices This method focuses on reducing the amount of harmful contaminants in stormwater runoff by establishing Best Management Practices that prevent the generation of the pollutant to begin with. These BMPs include educational programs, infrastructure improvements and agricultural BMPs. Examples of educational programs would be programs that educate the public on the importance of, and how to avoid depositing hazardous wastes, such as oil, into storm drains, or how to use landscape management controls to limit the chemical and debris that from enter stormwater runoff from their personal lawns. Infrastructure improvement could include the use of alternative turnarounds and street cleaning. Agricultural practices such as roofs and covers for pesticides and equipment, or use of bedding are both preventative stormwater practices. Some additional specific practices include: controlling fertilizer application, properly using and disposing of fertilizers, pesticides, motor oil, and other harmful chemicals, debris removal, exposure reduction, minimization of pollutants, parking lot cleaning, stormwater catch basin insert, eliminate curbs and gutters, green parking, green roofs, street design and patterns, bedding. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

US EPA. Alternative Turnarounds. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Menu of BMPs Accessed 3/25/2011.

US EPA. Eliminate Curbs and Gutters. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Menu of BMPs Accessed 3/25/2011.

US EPA. Green Parking. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Menu of BMPs Accessed 3/25/2011.

US EPA. Green Roofs. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Menu of BMPs Accessed 3/25/2011.

US EPA. Street Design and Patterns. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Menu of BMPs Accessed 3/25/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/25/2011.

Irrigation Association. 2010. Turf and Landscape Irrigation Best Management Practices.

Agriculture; Applied Chemicals; Chemical Use Regulations; Chemical Variables; City Planning; Construction Codes & Projects; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Environmental Education & Outreach; Food & Energy Policies; Food & Raw Materials; Forestry; Housing; Hydrologic Management; Infrastructural Policies; Infrastructure; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Landscape Changes; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landscaping & Household Services; Landuse Management; Mining; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Oil & Gas Industry; Road Construction & Maintenance; Security & Public Administration Policies; Shelter; Solid Waste Disposal; Storms & Hurricanes; Stormwater Management; Supporting Services; Toxics; Utilities; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Waterborne Discharges
Stormwater BMPs: Biological Stormwater Retention/Detention This method attempts to reduce the negative impacts of stormwater runoff through implementation of natural structures that retain runoff water for further treatment or controlled release. These structures are typically characterized as retention ponds and incorporate natural vegetation such as grass. These ponds may be dry, or may drain into nearby wetlands. Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Dry Extended Detention Ponds. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Poresky, A., Clary, J., Strecker, E., and Earles, A. 2011. International Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Database. Technical Summary: Volume Reduction. Geosyntec Consultants.

Applied Chemicals; Chemical Variables; City Planning; Civil Engineering & Construction; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Hydrologic Management; Infrastructural Policies; Irrigation; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Landscape Changes; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Physical Variables; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Primary Production; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Stormwater Management; Substrate; Supporting Services; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Toxics; Utilities; Utility Policies; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Water; Waterborne Discharges
Stormwater BMPs: Rainwater Collection Systems Creating a rainwater collection system (either through policy change or the initiative of homeowners) would help in many ways. These systems would utilize water in an efficient manner. It would reduce the pressure of water as a finite resource. Water would be collected and utilized before it reaches the ground. Once rain falls to the ground, it picks up nutrients, chemicals, and pathogens on the ground and transports them in the form of runoff. Eventually this contaminated stormwater runoff enters water resources through the drainage basin. Collecting a considerable amount of water would prevent contamination of that water, and allow for it to be usable. Also, it would reduce the amount of water that is lost when it is contaminated as runoff. An overall reduced amount of stormwater runoff would reduce the amount of contaminants that would harm corals. Center for Watershed Protection. 2008. Guanica Bay watershed management plan.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Cisterns used for water harvesting. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/18/2011.

Leisenring, M., Clary, J., Stephenson, J., and Hobson, P. 2010. International Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Database Pollutant Category Summary: Nutrients. Geosyntec Consultants, Inc.

Applied Chemicals; Building & Home Construction; Chemical Variables; City Planning; Civil Engineering & Construction; Cleaner & Solvent Use; Climate; Construction Codes & Projects; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Drinking Water Supply; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Food & Energy Policies; Impervious Surfaces; Infrastructural Policies; Infrastructure; Irrigation; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Landscape Changes; Landscaping & Household Services; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Physical Variables; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Sediment; Shelter; Storms & Hurricanes; Stormwater Management; Substrate; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Toxics; Utilities; Utility Policies; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Water; Water Utilities Policies; Waterborne Discharges
Stormwater BMPs: Structural Stormwater Retention/Detention This method attempts to reduce the negative impacts of stormwater runoff through implementation of engineering structures that retain runoff water for further treatment or controlled release. Water collection can be selective, targeting the first flush of water, which is typically the most polluted. Water retention has the additional benefit of later release at a place and time when the water is needed (e.g. for irrigation). Rainwater Collection Systems (#11) can be an important water resource in areas where freshwater is limited. Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Combined Infiltration/Detention Basin. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Detention Devices for Dry/Wet Ponds. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Dry Extended Detention Ponds. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/23/2011.

Leisenring, M., Clary, J., Stephenson, J., and Hobson, P. 2010. International Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Database Pollutant Category Summary: Nutrients. Geosyntec Consultants, Inc.

Poresky, A., Clary, J., Strecker, E., and Earles, A. 2011. International Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Database. Technical Summary: Volume Reduction. Geosyntec Consultants.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2010. Stormwater Runoff Controls. U.S. Depatrment of Agriculture.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2008. Water and Sediment Control Basin. CODE 638. U.S. Depatrment of Agriculture.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Water Volume Management. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/25/2011.

Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Applied Chemicals; Chemical Variables; City Planning; Civil Engineering & Construction; Climate; Coastal Development; Construction Codes & Projects; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Hydrologic Management; Impervious Surfaces; Infrastructural Policies; Infrastructure; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Landscape Changes; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Physical Variables; Point Source Discharges; Sediment; Shoreline Armoring; Storms & Hurricanes; Stormwater Management; Substrate; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Utilities; Utility Policies; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Water; Waterborne Discharges
Transportation Policy: Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards The purpose of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAF) standards is to reduce fuel consumption by increasing the fuel economy of cars and light trucks. NHTSA sets fuel economy standards for cars and light trucks sold in the US while EPA calculates the average fuel economy for each manufacturer. Since the standard only dictates the average fuel economy, manufacturers can sell vehicles with higher or lower fuel economy than the standard. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE). Accessed 8/11/2011.

Atmospheric Emissions; Carbon Storage & Cycling; Climate; Climate Regulation; CO2; Energy Policy & Development; Food & Energy Policies; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Land & Air Transportation; Manufacturing & Trade; Manufacturing & Trade Policies; Non-Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Ocean Acidity; Oil & Gas Industry; Provisioning Services; Regulating Services; Resource Use Management; Supporting Services; Transportation; Transportation Policies
Transportation Policy: Dust Control Application This action is taken to control dust from unpaved roads and other surfaces, which is generated by traffic and/or wind. Some dust control products (palliatives) for application include: water, hydroscopic palliatives, adhesive, petroleum emulsion, polymer emulsion, clay additive, and bituminous. There are specific considerations for application of each, including seasons and when to use which. For example, hygroscopic palliatives (control dust by absorbing water from the air) shall not be used in arid and semi-arid environments. Calcium chloride and magnesium chloride shall not be used in locations where the daily summertime relative humidity averages below 30%. Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Agriculture; Construction Codes & Projects; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Food & Raw Materials; Forestry; Impervious Surfaces; Infrastructural Policies; Land & Air Transportation; Mining; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Transportation; Transportation Policies
Transportation Policy: Airline Carbon Policy Civil aviation is a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions, and this contribution has grown as the industry has grown. Some regions are implementing policies such as cap and trade that apply to the airline industry. Bruce Duguid. 2009. Fasten Your Seat Belt: Airlines and cap-and-trade. CTC764, Carbon Trust, United Kingdom.

Atmospheric Emissions; Carbon Storage & Cycling; Climate Regulation; CO2; Economic Markets & Policies; Energy Policy & Development; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Land & Air Transportation; Political Pressure; Provisioning Services; Regulating Services; Supporting Services; Transportation; Transportation Policies
Wastewater Pollutants Impacts: Wastewater Pollutant Monitoring and Impact Studies Potential approaches to this management option include experimental studies, eutrophication gradient studies, comparative studies of impacted and non-impacted sites, historical studies, geography comparison, use of biochemical and ecological indicators, use of sewage tracers, and high-frequency and spatially intensive water quality sampling. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Chemical Variables; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Drinking Water Supply; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Health Policies; Infrastructure; Non-point Source Controls; Nutrients; Physical & Chemical Environment; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Pressures; Public Administration; Responses; Sectors Filling Human Needs; Security; Socio-Economic Drivers; Utilities; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Water; Waterborne Discharges
Water Quality Management: Landfill & Solid Waste Disposal Site Assessment Strategy This option seeks to reduce/eliminate pollution from leaching at landfill sites. High risk, old landfill sites that may have hazardous waste must be identified. Once identified, monitoring at these landfills should be intensified to insure leaching does not occur into marine systems. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Chemical Variables; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Health; Health Policies; Littering; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Public Administration; Remediation; Security; Security & Public Administration Policies; Solid Waste Disposal; Toxics; Utilities; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies
Water Quality Management: Pet Waste Cleanup Ordinance & Education In residential areas, pet waste can contributes to the large amount of nutrients and pathogens that enter the water through stormwater runoff. This is especially useful in regions such as Gunica, Puerto Rico where there are a lot of stray dogs. Education for pet-owners and possible ordinance would help decrease harmful pathogens reaching corals through stormwater runoff and reduce eutrophication. Center for Watershed Protection. 2008. Guanica Bay watershed management plan.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. Animal Waste Collection. Urban BMP's - Water Runoff Management Accessed 3/18/2011.

Clary, J., Leisenring, M., and Jeray, J. 2010. International Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Database. Pollutant Category Summary: Fecal Indicator Bacteria. Wright Water Engineers.

Aquarium & Pet Trade; Biological Addition; Chemical Variables; Cultural Policies; Cultural Services; Culture; Cyanobacteria; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Domestic Animal Waste; Environmental Education & Outreach; Health; Health Policies; Invasive Species; Landscaping & Household Services; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Pathogens; Shelter; Solid Waste Disposal; Stormwater Management; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Water; Water Resources; Water Utilities Policies; Waterborne Discharges
Water Quality Management: Protection of Resources from Hazardous Materials & Spills Wherever possible, take actions to decrease the likelihood of hazardous materials spills near corals. Even when risks are reduced significantly, spills may still occur, necessitating contingency plans (#56). In order for reef managers to stay informed of the latest spills/updates, a spill-reporting system should be established along with a geo-referenced database that keeps track of all spills within a certain distance of reefs. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Puerto Rico and USVI Area Planning Committees. 2008. Hazardous Substances Pollution Area Contingency Plan. Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin islands.

USCG. 2007. Hazardous Substances Pollution Area Contingency Plan. Florida Keys.

Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Energy Policy & Development; Food & Energy Policies; Food & Raw Materials; Large Ships; Oil & Gas Industry; Oil & Gas Rigs; Oil & Gas Tankers; Petroleum Spills; Pipelines; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Small Boats; Toxics; Transportation; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Water Transportation; Waterborne Discharges
Water Quality Management: Reduce Pollution & Discharges from Marinas & Live-Aboards This management option strives to reduce and eliminate the discharge of wastewater and pollution within zones near corals. In many instances, "no-discharge" zones already exist and are simply poorly enforced. In other instances the discharge limits are not stringent enough. Successful regulation requires marinas to be equipped with the proper infrastructure to support transfer of wastewater from vessels to shore-side for treatment. This infrastructure includes: pump-out facilities and mobile pump-out services. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Biological Addition; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Coastal Engineering; Cyanobacteria; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Docks & Marinas; Health; Health Policies; Marine Debris; Microorganisms; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Pathogens; Physical Damage; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Ports & Harbors; Resource Use Management; Sewage Treatment; Solid Waste Disposal; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Waterborne Discharges
Water Quality Management: Refine Pest Spraying Program This strategy aims to reduce the amount of pesticides that could potentially enter the water from spraying for pests such as mosquitoes. A site-specific combination of pest prevention, pest avoidance, pest monitoring, and pest suppression strategies (PAMs) should be used. Aerial spraying is often used only when the mosquito concentration reaches a specific threshold. The mosquito spraying strategy would review the aerial spraying threshold to see if it could be raised, to reduce frequency of use. Refining spraying technologies would be advocated to see if newer techniques/technologies would possibly reduce the amount of pesticides released over water. For identified water quality concerns related to pesticide leaching, solution runoff and adsorbed runoff, the current version of the USDA-NRCS WIN-PST program should be used to evaluate potential risks to humans and/or fish, as appropriate, for each pesticide to be used. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2010. Integrated Pest Management (IPM). CODE 595. U.S. Depatrment of Agriculture.

Agriculture; Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Applied Chemicals; Chemical Use Regulations; Chemical Variables; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Food & Energy Policies; Food & Raw Materials; Landscaping & Household Services; Non-point Source Controls; Sectors Filling Human Needs; Security & Public Administration Policies; Shelter; Toxics
Water Quality Management: Treating Effluent Water Through Wetlands Additional treatment of sewage is often a necessary management option because secondary treatment alone leaves 20,000 times more nutrients in the water than the safe limit for corals. High concentrations of nutrients in the water leads to eutrophication, and coral reefs are more sensitive to nutrient enrichment than any other coastal system. Wetlands are extremely successful at reducing nitrogen levels in water. Using natural wetlands or "living machines" to perform this task can actually be more cost effective than further sewage treatment. Each successive wetland treatment cell of the series can provide incredible levels of denitrification, and thus protect corals from nutrient enrichment. Center for Watershed Protection. 2008. Guanica Bay watershed management plan.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2003. Waste Treatment Lagoon. CODE 359. U.S. Depatrment of Agriculture.

Building & Home Construction; Chemical Variables; City Planning; Civil Engineering & Construction; Coastal Development; Coastal Engineering; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Infrastructural Policies; Infrastructure; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Landscape Changes; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landuse Management; Mangroves; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Physical Variables; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Primary Production; Security & Public Administration Policies; Sewage Treatment; Supporting Services; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Toxics; Utilities; Utility Policies; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Waterborne Discharges; Wetlands
Water Quality Management: Wastewater Management System Standards This management option involves reducing the amount of pollutants entering groundwater by enforcing existing standards. Inspection and compliance programs for cesspits, Onsite Sewage Treatment and Disposal Systems (OSTDS) and septic tanks are necessary to do this. Municipal sewage treatment plants have a variety of means to meet these standards, including improving management of current treatment systems or upgrading treatment systems with newer technology. Some of these technologies include: Continuous-Flow, Suspended-Growth Aerobic Systems (CFSGAS), Fixed-film, Sequencing batch reactor systems, Stabilization ponds, FWS constructed wetlands, and other aquatic systems (#2), Enhanced nutrient removal: phosphorus & nitrogen, Recirculating sand/media filters and Land treatment systems. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Center for Watershed Protection. 2004. Illicit Discharge Detection and Elimination. US EPA.

US Environmental Protection Agency. 2002. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual. EPA/625/R-00/008, US EPA.

Chemical Variables; City Planning; Decision Support; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Improved Technology; Landuse Management; Nutrients; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Sewage Treatment; Supporting Services; Utilities; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Waterborne Discharges
Water Quality Plans: Reducing Pollution Discharges from Marinas and Live-Aboards This plan strives to reduced pollution discharges through more strictly enforcing already-existing regulations for discharging. This includes enforcing regulations that restrict boaters from releasing sewage into state waters and requiring connecting toilets to shore-side plumbing. Also, this entails enforcing "no-discharge" zones where live-aboard vessels congregate or where there is history of violation issues with sewage release. The third component to this plan would be to develop and education plan to educate boaters on how/why to reduce pollution from their vessels. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

US EPA. 2011. Vessel General Permit Fact Sheet.

2005. Brightwork: Best Management Practices Manual for Maine's Boatyards and Marinas.

Biological Addition; Contact Uses; Cultural Policies; Culture; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Entertainment & Accommodation Services; Environmental Education & Outreach; Fishing Sector; Food & Raw Materials; Health; Health Policies; Infrastructure; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Pressures; Recreational Fishing; Resource Use Management; Responses; Sectors Filling Human Needs; Sewage Treatment; Socio-Economic Drivers; Tourism & Recreation; Utilities; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Waterborne Discharges
Water Quality Plans: Resource Monitoring of Surface Discharges This strategy will identify the impacts of point-source discharges by requiring all National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System dischargers to develop monitoring programs. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Decision Support; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Health; Health Policies; Infrastructure; Physical & Chemical Environment; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Pressures; Public Administration; Responses; Sectors Filling Human Needs; Security; Security & Public Administration Policies; Socio-Economic Drivers; Utilities; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Waterborne Discharges
Waterway Management: Control River Volume Using Dams and Resevoirs Constructing dams and creating reservoirs can have many affects, both positive and negative. Like smaller scale structural stormwater retention (#263), this management option retains groundwater for later controlled release. On this scale, the creation of a reservoir may require flooding of an area behind the dam that had other uses (e.g. agriculture). Proper vegetation can be used in and around the reservoir to incorporate biological filtration (#261). Slowing the release of water into rivers reduces the intensity of flow, reducing channel erosion. However, water should still be released consistently to allow for aquatic habitat to be maintained on the river bottom (#8). Lastly, with the correct infrastructure, a dam can be used as a sustainable hydroelectric energy source. Morris, G.L., Fan, J. 1998. Reservoir Sedimentation Handbook: Design and management of dams, reservoirs, and watersheds for sustainable use. Ver. 1.04 edition. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

Environmental Protection Agency. 2007. National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Hydromodification. EPA 841-B-07-002, Office of Water, Washington, DC.

Civil Engineering & Construction; Climate; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Energy Policy & Development; Hydrologic Management; Improved Technology; Infrastructural Policies; Infrastructure; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Physical Variables; Point Source Discharges; Storms & Hurricanes; Stormwater Management; Utilities; Utility Policies; Waste Management; Water; Waterborne Discharges; Wetlands
Waterway Management: Collaborate with Projects Changing Water-Flow Other organizations may be performing restorative freshwater projects (Everglades Restoration) or other flow altering projects (e.g. canals for small boats, agricultural irrigation etc) that affect the downstream marine management area (Florida Bay). Projects on the coast that involve hydrologic modifications (such as changing salinity) must be closely monitored in order to protect reef quality. Reefs are very sensitive systems and can only survive in a narrow salinity range. By taking an active role and monitoring freshwater flow projects, management staff can better ensure proper consideration of the impact on coastal marine environments. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. 2010. Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan: 2009 System Status Report.

Collaboration & Partnering; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Decision Support; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Hydrologic Management; Landscape Changes; Point Source Discharges; Public Administration; Salinity; Security & Public Administration Policies; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Transportation; Waterborne Discharges
Waterway Management: Remove Previous Canal and Irrigation Infrastructure Canal and irrigation infrastructure typically includes concrete structures to control the flow of water. These low head dams, bulkheads, concrete footers, and other structures act as constricting forces in channels. This constriction leads to debris becoming lodged and thus changing the erosive forces. In turn, banks become destabilized. Channel erosion then increases along with bed scour and sediment transport. Removing these structures and making banks more gradual has the added benefit of allowing for riparian vegetation to be planted, which acts as a natural buffer. Center for Watershed Protection. 2008. Guanica Bay watershed management plan.

Agriculture; Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Boat Movement; Boating Activities; City Planning; Civil Engineering & Construction; Coastal Engineering; Construction Codes & Projects; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Food & Raw Materials; Hydrologic Management; Impervious Surfaces; Infrastructural Policies; Irrigation; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Landscape Changes; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Controls; Physical Damage; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Small Boats; Substrate; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Transportation; Water; Water Resources; Water Transportation; Waterborne Discharges
Waterway Management: Starting slower releases for longer durations from high-intensity rivers in coastal watershed and other methods of reducing sediment transport Slower releases with longer durations would be an advantage to short, intense releases. This is because current short, high intensity releases from rivers that are in the coastal watershed (like Rio Loco into Lagos Loco and Lucchetti) contributes to additional channel erosion and increase of suspending sediments in the water. Center for Watershed Protection. 2008. Guanica Bay watershed management plan.

Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Drinking Water Supply; Hydrologic Management; Infrastructure; Irrigation; Light; Point Source Discharges; Pressures; Primary Production; Water; Waterborne Discharges
Waterway Management: Stream Bank Riparian Plantings Planting native vegetation and trees in riparian zones helps to reduce erosion within channels. Such vegetation helps anchor the soil and sediment in place. Planting in riparian zones goes in hand with Remove Previous Canal and Irrigation Infrastructure (#274). This management option can be exercised in streams, canals used for boat passage, stormwater drainage ditches, or in agricultural irrigation channels. Center for Watershed Protection. 2008. Guanica Bay watershed management plan.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Agriculture; Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Boat Movement; Boating Activities; Carbon Storage & Cycling; City Planning; Civil Engineering & Construction; Coastal Development; Construction Codes & Projects; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Food & Energy Policies; Forestry; Hydrologic Management; Infrastructural Policies; Infrastructure; Irrigation; Landscape Changes; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landuse Management; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Primary Production; Provisioning Services; Sediment; Stormwater Management; Supporting Services; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Transportation; Utilities; Water; Water Resources; Water Transportation; Waterborne Discharges
Waterway Management: Manage Canal Water Quality This management option addresses water quality issues that may arise from nearshore, confined areas, specifically dead-end canals. This management response does not focus on wastewater discharges into canals, but instead on the hydrologic structure and orientation of the canal itself. Physical problems with canal orientation can lead to such problems as low flushing and build-up of weed wrack. This is a problem because the build-up of weed wrack consumes oxygen and releases nutrients as it decays. When combined with low flushing and circulation, dead end canals have decreased oxygen concentrations, accelerated eutrophication, and accumulate organic materials, pollutants and sediment. To improve the current canal system, management can inventory and map canals to identify high risk hotspots and candidates for future canal restoration projects. Canals are typically constructed to best suit the water access needs of local homes and businesses. Preventing high risk canals from being constructed, or placing certain requirements on their construction through permitting is one way to reduce future problem spots. Some design strategies include: Construct non-linear canals without right-angles and flared inlets oriented to prevailing winds. Instead of dead-ends, canals should include a flow through water exchange system or install mechanical pumps. Canals should be as wide as possible in relation to depth and length. Canal depth should be uniform or progressively shallower away from the parent waterbody, with sloping banks (eliminate requirements for navigable depths to shoreline). Some canal improvement strategies include: Implement weed gates, air curtains, and aeration systems. Direct all stormwater and effluent away from canal systems. Reduce bulkheading and restore native vegetative buffers (#1). Promote diversity of substrates and habitats. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Applied Chemicals; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Boat Movement; Boating Activities; Building & Home Construction; Chemical Variables; City Planning; Civil Engineering & Construction; Coastal Development; Coastal Engineering; Construction Codes & Projects; Decision Support; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Docks & Marinas; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Fishing Sector; Food & Energy Policies; Hydrologic Management; Improved Technology; Infrastructural Policies; Infrastructure; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Landscape Changes; Landscaping & Household Services; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Physical Damage; Physical Variables; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Ports & Harbors; Provisioning Services; Regulating Services; Seawater Flow; Shoreline Armoring; Shoreline Protection; Small Boats; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation; Transportation; Transportation Policies; Utilities; Utility Policies; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Water; Water Depth & Sea Level; Water Resources; Water Transportation; Waterborne Discharges; Wetland & Reef Restoration; Wetlands

Laws

Legal Citation Purpose of Law Management Organization Database Topics
25-Year Permits for Maintenance Dredging in Deepwater Ports; Deepwater Ports Maintenance Dredging and Disposal Manual, 62-045 Florida Administrative Code. 62-45.001 Authority, Intent and Policy. (1) This chapter is promulgated under the authority of Sections 403.061(26) and 403.816(1), F.S. (2) It is the intent of this chapter to establish a permitting system for maintenance dredging in deep water commercial navigation areas of the ports listed in Rule 62-45.020, F.A.C. This chapter incorporates standards and criteria which recognize the present most beneficial use of these waters for deep water commercial navigation. Since the implementation of a comprehensive maintenance dredging management plan is a major factor in determining the adequacy of a long-term maintenance dredging program, it is the further intent of this chapter to give a position of prominence to such a plan within this permit system. (3) It is the policy of the Department to provide a regulatory process which will enable the ports to conduct maintenance dredging in an environmentally sound, expeditious and efficient manner.62-45.020 Scope. (1) The permit system established by this chapter applies only to the ports of Ft. Pierce, Jacksonville, Miami, Palm Beach, Panama City, Pensacola, Port Canaveral, Port Everglades, Port Manatee, Port St. Joe, St. Petersburg, and Tampa. (2) The activities which may be included within a permit issued under this chapter are limited to maintenance dredging and disposal of the maintenance dredged material. (3) Applicants for permits under this chapter are limited to the port authorities or private interests using the port for deep water commercial shipping and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The Department shall not issue separate permits to the port authority or private interests and the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers when the responsibility of maintenance dredging or the disposal of the maintenance dredged material from the port is shared by any of the parties. The permit, if issued, shall clearly specify the duties and responsibilities of each party. (4) A permit may be issued for any length of time up to 25 years. There shall be no more than one such permit for each of the ports listed in subsection (1). (5) The area within which work under this permit system may take place is limited to the federally maintained, port authority maintained, or private interest maintained navigation channels, turning basins, or harbor berths associated with deep water commercial navigation and associated dredged material disposal sites. Eligible port maintenance dredging areas are depicted on NOS Charts Nos. 11491 (Port of Jacksonville), 11478 (Port Canaveral), 11475 (Fort Pierce Harbor), 11466 (Port of Palm Beach), 11468 (Port of Miami), 11470 (Port Everglades), 11413 (Tampa Bay, Northern Part), 11414 (Tampa Bay, Southern Part), 11393 (Port St. Joe), 11391 (Panama City), and 11383 (Port of Pensacola) on file with the Department and adopted here by reference. Copies are available at cost upon request from the Office of Beaches and Coastal Systems, 3900 Commonwealth Boulevard, MS 300, Tallahassee, Florida 32399-3000.

Application to Coral Reefs:Proper, environmentally sound, dredging and disposal of dredged material, as reviewed by permit processers, will limit the amount of sediment and nutrients released to open water. The process will be particularly applicable to coral reefs for the dredging and disposal of Miiami harbor.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
US State Waters
Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Large Ships; Nutrients; Oil & Gas Tankers; Ports & Harbors; Resource Use Management; Sediment
Administrative fines for damaging State Lands of products thereof, 18-14 Florida Administrative Code. 18-14.003 Violations. It shall be a violation of this rule for any person or the agent of any person to knowingly refuse to comply with any provision of Chapter 253, F.S., willfully violate any provision of Chapter 253, F.S., or to willfully damage state land (the ownership or boundaries of which have been established by the state) or products thereof, by doing any of the following: (1) Fill, excavate, or dredge, including prop dredging in a manner which produces a defined channel, on state land without the lease, license, easement or other form of consent required by the Board. (2) Remove, in violation of state or federal law, any product from state land without written approval or specific exemption from the Board or Department. (3) Discharge contaminants, wastes, effluents, sewage or any other pollutant as defined in Chapter 376 or Chapter 403, F.S., on, under or over state land; when such discharge is in violation of Chapter 403 or conditions of a permit issued pursuant to that chapter, or conditions of a lease or easement issued pursuant to Chapter 253, F.S. - 37 (4) Maintain, place or build permanent or temporary structures, including, but not limited to, additions to existing structures; all structures whose use is not water-dependent; sanitary septic systems; fences, docks and pilings; houses; oil rigs; and utility installations on or over state land without consent or authority from the Board or Department. (5) Place garbage, refuse, or debris on or over state land without approval by the Board or Department. (6) Any other willful act that causes damage to state land, or products thereof, when such activity occurs without the required approval by the Board or Department.

Application to Coral Reefs:Controlling and limiting excavation and dredging, as well as discharge of contaminants, wastes, sewage, and other pollutants will assist in keeping sediment and pollutants from reaching the coral reefs and causing degradation of reef organisms..

Legislative Actions:

Comments:Administrative Fines for Damaging State Lands or Products Thereof
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
US State Waters
Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Ballast Discharge; Coastal Engineering; Commercial Fisheries; Construction Codes & Projects; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Educational & Research Opportunities; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Petroleum Spills; Recreational Opportunities; Resource Use Management; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Substrate; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
Air Pollution Control, 62-204 Florida Administrative Code (1996). 62-204.100 Purpose and Scope. (1) This chapter establishes maximum allowable levels of pollutants in the ambient air, or ambient air quality standards, necessary to protect human health and public welfare. This chapter also establishes maximum allowable increases in ambient concentrations for subject pollutants to prevent significant deterioration of air quality in areas where ambient air quality standards are being met. It further specifies approved air quality monitoring and modeling methods. (2) In addition, this chapter designates all areas of the state as attainment, nonattainment, or unclassifiable with respect to each pollutant for which ambient air quality standards have been adopted; further designates certain attainment and unclassifiable areas of the state as air quality maintenance areas for particular pollutants; classifies all areas of the state as Class I, Class II, or Class III for determining which set of prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) increments apply; and designates all attainment and unclassifiable areas of the state as one or more PSD areas for determining which pollutant-specific PSD baseline dates apply. This chapter also sets forth procedures for redesignating and reclassifying areas as above. (3) The Department of Environmental Protection adopts this chapter to identify the Florida State Implementation Plan (SIP) required by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency pursuant to 40 C.F.R. Part 51; to set forth the public notice and hearing requirements that the Department will adhere to for making SIP revisions; and to set forth the definitions, criteria, and procedures that the Department will use to review a federal agencys general conformity determination, made pursuant to 40 C.F.R. Part 51, Subpart W; and to adopt by reference an interagency memorandum of agreement that the Department will comply with to review any transportation conformity determination, made pursuant to 40 C.F.R. Part 51, Subpart T. The provisions to 40 C.F.R. 51.853 require that a federal agency make a general conformity determination for any federal agency action in a nonattainment or maintenance area, to ensure that such action is consistent with the SIP and that such federal conformity determination be reviewed by the affected state. The provisions of 40 C.F.R. 51.394 require that a transportation conformity determination be made for the adoption, acceptance, approval, or support of certain transportation plans, transportation improvement programs, and transportation projects in nonattainment and maintenance areas for transportation-related criteria pollutants to ensure that such actions are consistent with the SIP. (4) Finally, this chapter adopts and incorporates by reference federal air pollution control regulations which are referenced in whole or in part throughout the Departments air pollution control rules.

Application to Coral Reefs:By reducing emmissions to air, particularly carbon dioxide, the pH of ocean waters will not be reduced and that is a direct benefit to coral reefs, since a reduction in pH is believed to be detrimental to corals.

Legislative Actions:The Chapter designates all areas of the state as attainment, nonattainment, or unclassified with respect to each pollutant for which ambient air quality standards have benn adopted.

Comments:This chapter establishes maximum allowable levels of pollutants in the ambient air, or ambient air quality standards, necessary to protect human health and public welfare. This chapter also establishes maximum allowable increases in ambient concentrations for subject pollutants to prevent significant deterioration of air quality in areas where ambient air quality standards are being met. It further specifies approved air quality monitoring and modeling methods.
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
Atmospheric Emissions; Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Carbon Storage & Cycling; Chemical Use Regulations; CO2; Commercial Fishing Boats; Cruise Ships; Energy Policy & Development; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Land & Air Transportation; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Non-Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Nutrients; Ocean Acidity; Oil & Gas Tankers; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Primary Production; Resource Use Management; Transportation Policies; Wetlands; Wood, Plastics, & Chemical Products
Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserve, 18-18 Florida Administrative Code. 18-18.001 Intent. (1) The Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserve, the boundaries of which are fully described in Rule 18-18.002, F.A.C., was established for the purpose of preserving and enhancing Biscayne Bay and all natural waterways tidally connected to the bay in an essentially natural condition so that its biological and aesthetic values may endure for the enjoyment of future generations. (2) These rules shall apply to all lands public and private within the boundaries of the preserve. However, privately owned uplands shall be excluded from these rules except as otherwise provided for herein. (3) In promulgating and implementing these rules, it is the intent of the Department to construe the provisions of Sections 258.397 and 258.35 through 258.46, F.S., together and to apply the more stringent statutory provisions for the maintenance of the preserve. (4) The preserve shall be administered and managed in accordance with the following goals: (a) To preserve, protect, and enhance Biscayne Bay and all natural waterways tidally connected to the bay by reasonable regulation of human activity within the preserve through the development and implementation of a comprehensive management program; (b) To protect and enhance the waters of the preserve so that the public may continue to enjoy the traditional recreational uses of those waters such as swimming, boating and fishing; (c) To coordinate with federal, state, and local agencies to aid in carrying out the intent of the legislature in creating the preserve; (d) To use applicable federal, state, and local management programs, which are compatible with the intent and provisions of the Act and these rules, to assist in managing the preserve; (e) To encourage activities that protect or enhance the biological and aesthetic values of the preserve, including but not limited to the modification of existing manmade conditions towards their natural condition, when reviewing applications or developing and implementing management plans for the preserve; (f) To preserve and promote indigenous life forms and habitats including but not limited to sponges, soft corals, hard corals, seagrasses, mangroves, mud flats, marine reptiles, game and non-game fish species, marine mammals, tropical marine invertebrates, birds and shellfish; (g) To acquire additional title interests in land wherever such acquisitions would serve to protect or enhance the biological or aesthetic values of the preserve.

Application to Coral Reefs:Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserve protection of water quality will contribute to a lowering of contaminants leaving the preserve on tides and thus limiting the contaminants that reach off-shore ecosystems including the FKNMS and the reef system within the sanctuary.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:This chapter establishes the rules to protect the Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserve, which was established for the purpose of preserving and enhancing Biscayne Bay and all natural waterways tidally connected to the bay in an essentially natural condition so that its biological and aesthetic values may endure for the enjoyment of future generations.
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
Designated Marine Areas
Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Ballast Discharge; Boat Movement; Coastal Development; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Education & Outreach; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Finfish Harvest; Hydrologic Management; Landuse Management; Mangroves; Marine Birds; Marine Debris; Nutrients; Point Source Discharges; Recreational Opportunities; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Seawater Flow; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Small Boats; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
Chapter 17: Oil soil prevention and pollution control, 12 Virgin Islands Code. Prohibits the discharge of oil, petroleum products or their by-products, and other pollutants into or upon any coastal waters, estuaries, tidal flats, beaches, and land adjoining the seacoast of the Territory. Requires prompt containment and removal of petroleum.

Application to Coral Reefs:Protects ecosystems, including coral reefs, from petroleum spills and provides for cleanup.

Legislative Actions:Established the Virgin Island Coastal Protection Fund of $1,000,000 for cleanup response. Prohibits derilict vessels upon any public waters or ports. Provides for civil penaltiesup to $50,000per day. Requires a National Contingency Plan.

Comments:Because it is the intent of this chapter to provide the means for rapid and effective cleanup and to minimize damages, any licensee and its agents or servants, including vessels destined for or leaving a licensee's terminal facility, who permits or suffers a prohibited discharge or other polluting condition to take place within territorial boundaries shall be liable to the territory for all costs of cleanup or other damage incurred by the territory and for damages resulting from injury to others. The territory shall have an absolute maritime lien which shall attach to any vessel and its freight on behalf of the territory or any person injured, for all costs of cleanup and other damages incurred as a result of a prohibited discharge. In any suit to enforce claims of the territory under this chapter, it shall not be necessary for the territory to plead or prove negligence in any form or manner on the part of the licensee or any vessel. If the territory is damaged by a discharge prohibited by this chapter it need only plead and prove the fact of the prohibited discharge or other polluting condition and that it occurred. In addition to the civil penalty, the pilot and the master of any vessel or person in charge of any licensee's terminal facility who fails to give immediate notification of a discharge to the harbor master and nearest U.S. Coast Guard station shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and fined not less than $5,000 nor more than $10,000. The Department shall, by rules and regulations, require that the licensee designate a person at the terminal facility who shall be the person in charge of that facility for the purposes specified by this section.
US Virgin Islands, Department of Planning and Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
US Virgin Islands
Collaboration & Partnering; Mangroves; Oil & Gas Tankers; Petroleum Spills; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Water Resources
Chapter 7: Water pollution control, 12 Virgin Islands Code. In coordination with EPA through Section 401 of the Clean Water Act, establishes controls for the discharge of wastewater and other pollutants to waters of the USVI, sets water quality standards. The Commissioner sets water quality standards applicable to he United States Virgin Islands to protect the public health and welfare and the present and future usa of such waters for public water supplies, propagation of fish, aquatic life and wildlife , recreational purposes and other legitamate uses. The standards are to be reviewed every three years.

Application to Coral Reefs:Water of polluted quality is detrimental to propagation and survival of coral reef organisms. Setting appropriate water quality standards will play a major role in protecting coral reefs.

Legislative Actions:The Commissioner or any USVI resident can commence a civil action. Civil penalties for violators are not to exceed $50,000 per day. Any knowingly or negligently discharging polluants can be crimimnally punished with a fine of not less than $5,000 nor more than $75,000 per day of violation. A second conviction can be punishable up to a fine of $100,000, six years in jail, or both.

Comments:
US Virgin Islands, Department of Planning and Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
US Virgin Islands
Biocriteria; Discharges; Health Policies; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Reef Life; Resource Use Management; Sewage Treatment; Waste Management Policies
Clean Air Act, 42 United States Code §§ 7400 et seq. To ensure Americans have clean air to breath, and to protect the environment from air pollution. Regulates air emmissions from area, stationary and mobile sources. Charges federal land managers with direct responsibility to protect the "air quality and related values" of land under their control. The "related values" include fish and widlife and their habitats. The Clean Air Act is the law that defines EPA's responsibility for protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer.

Application to Coral Reefs:The Act would decrease carbon dioxide emissions from sources in the United States, thereby making a contribution toward reducing ocean acidification, which is one of the problems contributing to coral reef decline.

Legislative Actions:Response will differ from State to State because many Sates have been delegated to administer the Clean Air Act. However, States cannot have air quality standards less stringent then the federal standards. State air pollution agencies hold permit hearings and fines industries that violate air quality limits. States must develop state implementation plans that require approval by EPA.

Comments:The 1990 amendments authorized the Acid Deposition Control Program, a program to control 189 toxic pollutants, established permit program requirements, expanded and modified the attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, and expanded and modified enforcement authority.
United States Environmntal Protection Agency

Jurisdiction:
United States
Carbon Storage & Cycling; Climate Regulation; CO2; Energy Policy & Development; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Improved Technology; Mineral, Rock, & Metal Mining; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Non-Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Oil & Gas Rigs; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Political Pressure; Transportation Policies; Wood, Plastics, & Chemical Products
Clean Water Act of 1974, 33 United States Code § 1252. To restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters

Application to Coral Reefs:The Act can be used to establish water quality standards for the disharge of pollutants into surface waters. Section 101 (3) stated that it will be the national policy that the discharge of toxic pollutants in toxic amounts will be prohibited. The legislation employs a variety of regulatory and nonregulatory tools to reduce direct pollutant discharges into waterways, finance wastewater treatment facilities, and manage polluted runoff. The tools are employed to achieve the broad goal of restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation's waters so they can support "the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and recreation in and on the water."

Legislative Actions:During the late 1980's, the program shifted from program-by-program, source by source, pollutant-by-pollutant approach to more holistic water-shed strategies. Under the watershed approach equal emphasis is placed on protecting healthy waters and restoring impaired waters. Also during the 1980's, voluntary programs for nonpoint runoff and regulatory programs for wet weather point sources began to be addressed.

Comments:The Federal Water Pollution Contrl Act Amendments of 1972, PL 92-500, replaced the previous language of the Act entirely, including the Water Quality Act of 1965, the Clean Water Restoration Act of 1965, and the Water Quality Improvement Act of 1970, all of which had been amendments of the Water Pollution Control Act first passed in 1956. The 1977 amendments, PL 95-217, further amended PL 92-500.
US Environmental Protection Agency

Jurisdiction:
United States; US Territories
Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Biocriteria; Collaboration & Partnering; Construction Codes & Projects; Corporate Responses; Drinking Water Supply; Economic Markets & Policies; Energy Policy & Development; Hydrologic Management; Improved Technology; Mangroves; Microorganisms; Non-point Source Controls; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Political Pressure; Public Administration; Remediation; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Sewage Treatment; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
Coastal Barrier Resources Act of 1982 (CBRA), 16 United States Code §§ 3501 et seq. Promote more appropriate use and conservation of coastal barriers along the Atlantic, Gulf and Great Lakes coastlines. Minimize the loss of human life; reduce wasteful expenditures on shoreline development; minimize damage to wildlife, marine life, and other natural services, and establish a coastal barrier resources system.

Application to Coral Reefs:Development of coastal barrier islands can cause sedimentation, through runoff and construction activities, that could reach inshore coral reefs.

Legislative Actions:Restrict most federal expenditures and financial assistance that encourage development including federal flood insurance.

Comments:Recognized coastal barriers as essential habitat for many fish, water fowl and other aquatic animals.
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service

Jurisdiction:
United States
Building & Home Construction; Coastal Development; Coral; Funding & Incentives; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Public Administration; Resource Use Management; Sediment; Wetlands
Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, 16 United States Code §§ 1451-1456. Preserve, protect, develop, and where possible, to restore or enhance the resources of the Nation's coastal zone for this and succeeding generations.

Application to Coral Reefs:Protection of coastal areas can have an indirect influence on coral reef preservation and conservation by the use of environmentally sound construction and development by limiting runoff of contaminants and sediment that could have an adverse effect on inshore coral reefs if present.

Legislative Actions:In addition, the Act authorized a national system of estuarine sanctuaries and the establishment of national field laboratories with a 50/50 cost-sharing grants with coastal states.

Comments:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/US Fish and Wildlife Service

Jurisdiction:
United States; State Coastal Waters
City Planning; Coastal Development; Collaboration & Partnering; Construction Codes & Projects; Corporate Responses; Designated Uses; Economic Markets & Policies; Environmental Education & Outreach; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Funding & Incentives; Hydrologic Management; Landscape Changes; Landuse Management; Marine Debris; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Controls; Nutrients; Permitting & Zoning; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Political Pressure; Public Administration; Resource Use Management; Sediment; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Transportation Policies; Waste Management Policies; Waterborne Discharges; Wetlands
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, "Superfund", 42 United States Code §§ 9601-9675. Provides Liability, compensation, cleanup, and emergency response for hazardous substances released into the environment.

Application to Coral Reefs:If a hazardous waste is spilled or discaharge illegally at or near a coral reef, the CERCLA could be used for rapid response and cleanup of the spill or discharge.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:
United States Environmntal Protection Agency

Jurisdiction:
United States
Collaboration & Partnering; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Improved Technology; Metals, Electronics, & Machinery Products; Non-point Source Controls; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Political Pressure; Remediation; Waste Management Policies; Wood, Plastics, & Chemical Products
Delegation of the Environmental Resource Program to Local Governments, 62-344 Florida Administrative Code. (1) This chapter guides the participation of counties, municipalities and local pollution control programs in an efficient, streamlined permitting system by setting forth the procedures and requirements for delegations of all or a part of the environmental resource permit program from the Department and water management districts to local governments in accordance with the provisions of Sections 373.103(8) and 373.441, F.S. This chapter also constitutes the Departments authorization, in accordance with Section 373.103(8), F.S., for delegations of the environmental resource permit program from the water management districts to local governments provided that the procedures for delegation contained in this chapter are followed by the Districts. Delegations from the Department and Districts shall be for the respective environmental resource permit program responsibilities of the Department and the Suwannee River, St. Johns River, Southwest Florida and South Florida Water Management Districts, as set forth in operating agreements listed in Chapter 62-113, F.A.C. Delegation agreements between the Department and local governments shall be listed in Chapter 62-113, F.A.C., and delegation agreements between the Districts and local governments shall be listed in Chapters 40B-1, 40C-1, 40D-1, and 40E-1, F.A.C. (2) Nothing in this chapter shall preclude the Department, Districts, and local governments from entering into contracts or interagency agreements as provided by law. (3) Except as specifically provided in this chapter, nothing herein shall prevent a local government from adopting and implementing an environmental regulatory program pursuant to its own authority. (4) It is an objective of the Department and Districts to protect the functions of entire ecological systems, as defined and developed in the programs, rules and plans of the Department and water management districts. It is the intent of the Department and Districts that any local government receiving delegation of all or a portion of the environmental resource program carry out that program in a manner consistent with this objective. This paragraph shall not be construed or applied as additional permitting criteria beyond those adopted by the reviewing agency or the local government.

Application to Coral Reefs:In theory, delegating stormwater pond construction and wetland functional determinations, as well as most otrher issues related to stormwater and wetlands, to local government will produce more efficient permitting and oversight. Therefore, treated water that is discharged and reaches any ecosystem should contain less contamination than the same water if it had not treated.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:Guides the participation of counties, municipalities and local pollution control programs in an efficient, streamlined permitting system by setting forth the procedures and requirements for delegations of all or a part of the environmental resource permit program from the Department and water management districts to local governments
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters
Applied Chemicals; Building & Home Construction; Construction Codes & Projects; Manufacturing & Trade; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Point Source Discharges; Road Construction & Maintenance; Sediment; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
Domestic Wastewater Facilities, 62-600 Florida Administrative Code. (1) Section 403.021(2), Florida Statutes, as amended, the Florida Air and Water Pollution Control Act, established that no wastes are to be discharged to any waters of the state without first being given the degree of treatment necessary to protect the beneficial uses of such water. Toward this end, Sections 403.085 and 403.086, Florida Statutes, set forth requirements for the treatment and reuse or disposal of domestic wastewater. Section 403.051(2)(a), Florida Statutes, requires that any Department planning, design, construction, modification, or operating standards, criteria, and requirements for wastewater facilities be developed as a rule. This chapter is promulgated to implement the provisions and requirements of Sections 120.53(1), 120.55, 403.021, 403.051, 403.061, 403.062, 403.064, 403.085, 403.086, 403.087, 403.088, 403.0881, 403.101, 403.131, 403.161, 403.182, 403.859, and 403.918, Florida Statutes, concerning domestic wastewater facilities. - 442 (2) The requirements of this chapter represent the specific requirements of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and of Local Pollution Control Programs approved and established pursuant to Section 403.182, Florida Statutes, where such authority has been delegated to those programs. It may be necessary for domestic wastewater facilities to conform with requirements of other agencies, established via interagency agreements (e.g., for mosquito control); the absence of reference to such arrangements in this chapter does not negate the need for compliance with those requirements. (3) The purpose of Chapter 62-600, F.A.C., is to provide minimum standards for the design of domestic wastewater facilities and to establish minimum treatment and disinfection requirements for the operation of domestic wastewater facilities. All systems shall be designed in accordance with sound engineering practice. Supported by moderating provisions, it is intended that Chapter 62-600, F.A.C., establish a framework whereby design flexibility and sound engineering practice can be used in developing systems with which to manage domestic wastewater in an environmentally sound manner. (4) As appropriate, Chapter 62-600, F.A.C., shall be used in conjunction with other Department rules relating to the design and operation and maintenance of domestic wastewater facilities. (5) Standards and requirements in this chapter shall apply only to domestic wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal facilities (including residuals management facilities). (a) Standards and requirements shall apply to all new facilities and modifications or expansions of existing facilities that submit complete permit applications to the Department after July 1, 1991. (b) Standards and requirements shall apply to all existing facilities that submit complete applications for permit renewal after July 1, 1991. (6) Domestic wastewater facilities that submit complete permit applications on or before July 1, 1991, may: (a) Continue to comply with the rule requirements that were in effect at the time the permit was issued and with the conditions of the existing construction or operation permit until the expiration of such permit, or (b) Opt to comply with the requirements of this revised chapter. (7) The standards and requirements of Part II of Chapter 62-600, F.A.C., and Rules 62-600.500 and 62-600.530, F.A.C., shall be applicable to septic tank drainfield systems and other on-site waste treatment systems with subsurface disposal regulated by this chapter. The reliability requirements of paragraph 62-600.400(1)(b), F.A.C., shall not apply to such septic tank drainfield systems and other on-site waste treatment systems. (8) The discharge limitation of subsection 62-600.510(4), F.A.C., shall not be applicable to facilities permitted on or before January 1, 1982, that discharge into Class II waters or Class III waters which are subsequently reclassified as Class II waters. (9) This chapter provides for exemptions, allowances for existing facilities and variations from standards and requirements. Unless specifically provided otherwise, no wastewater permit shall be issued or renewed unless the permit applicant demonstrates that the subject facility is in compliance with the applicable provisions of this chapter.

Application to Coral Reefs:Setting construction and treatment water quality criteria for wastewater facilities will provide a system of less contaminated water being discharged to surface waters. The environmental impact of the wastewater will be less harmful to ecosystems.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:Establishes the processes for planning, design, construction, modification, or operating standards, criteria, and requirements for wastewater facilities
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters
Biocriteria; Building & Home Construction; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Sewage Treatment; Toxics; Waste Management Policies
Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant monitoring, 62-601 Florida Administrative Code. (1) Section 403.051(2)(a), Florida Statutes, as amended, part of the Florida Air and Water Pollution Control Act, requires that any Department operating standards, criteria, and requirements for wastewater facilities be developed as a rule. This rule is promulgated to implement the provisions and requirements of the Act concerning domestic wastewater treatment plant monitoring. (2) The purpose of Chapter 62-601, F.A.C., is to ensure that owners and operators of domestic wastewater treatment facilities maintain accurate records and submit reports required by this Chapter in a timely, accurate, cost-effective and uniform manner. (3) Standards and requirements in this chapter shall apply only to domestic wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal facilities (including residuals management facilities). The standards and requirements are not applicable to facilities described in Rules 62-600.120(1) and (2), F.A.C. (a) Standards and requirements shall apply to all new facilities and modifications or expansions of existing facilities that submit complete permit applications to the Department after July 1, 1991. (b) Standards and requirements shall apply to all existing facilities that submit complete applications for permit renewal after July 1, 1991. (4) Domestic wastewater facilities that submit complete permit applications on or before July 1, 1991 may: (a) Continue to comply with the rule requirements that were in effect at the time the permit was issued and with the conditions of the existing construction or operation permit until the expiration of such permit, or (b) Opt to comply with the requirements of this revised chapter.

Application to Coral Reefs:Setting monitoring requirements and treatment water quality criteria for wastewater facilities will provide a system of less contaminated water being discharged to surface waters. The environmental impact of the wastewater will be less harmful to ecosystems.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:to implement the provisions and requirements concerning domestic wastewater treatment plant monitoring
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters
Biocriteria; Building & Home Construction; Discharge Limitations; Manufacturing & Trade; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Point Source Discharges; Sewage Treatment; Toxics; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
Emergency Wetlands Resources Act of 1986, 16 United States Code §§ 3501 et seq. Promote the conservations of wetlands for public benefit and to assist in the compliance with international obligations under various treaties and conventions for migratory birds.

Application to Coral Reefs:Indirect application to protection of coral reefs through wetland functions of nutrient (particularly nitrogen) and sediment removal from land-based discharges prior to their entrance into open coastal waters.

Legislative Actions:Authorizied the purchase of wetlands from the land and Water Conservation Fund monies. Required States to include wetlands in their Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plans.

Comments:Secretary of Interior was required to establish a National Wetland Priority Conservation Plan to identify the locations and types of wetlands that should be priorities for state and federal acquisition. The Act established various fee schedules for entering national wildlife refuges.  
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service

Jurisdiction:
United States
Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Discharge Limitations; Funding & Incentives; Hydrologic Management; Landuse Management; Marine Birds; Non-point Source Controls; Nutrients; Permitting & Zoning; Public Administration; Resource Use Management; Sediment; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Waste Management Policies; Waterborne Discharges; Wetlands
Environmental resource permitting procedures, 62-343 Florida Administrative Code Annotated (2003). The rule provides the procedural requirements for processing environmental resource permits and obtaining formal determinations of the landward extent of wetlands and surface waters.

Application to Coral Reefs:Requiring permits for projects related to environmental resources will indirectly protect environmental habitats. The permits are related to stormwater managemnt systems including discharges to wetlands. The permit conditions can limit toxics, nutrients and sediment that would be discharged to the environment if the rule were not in place.

Legislative Actions:The rule is procedural and does not have fines or penalties.

Comments:
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters
Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Building & Home Construction; Construction Codes & Projects; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Landuse Management; Mangroves; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Permitting & Zoning; Point Source Discharges; Ports & Harbors; Road Construction & Maintenance; Seagrasses; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Wetlands
Environmental Resource Permitting, 62-330 Florida Administrative Code Annotated (2005). Under the Chapter, DEP exercises its independent authority under Part IV, Chapter 373, F.S., to regulate surface water management systems, including activities in, on or over wetlands or other surface waters. The term "surface water management system" or "system" include stormwater mangement systems, dams, impoundments, reservoirs, appurtenant works, or works, or any combination thereof, and includes dredging and filling. "Dredging" means excavation, by any means, in surface waters or wetlands

Application to Coral Reefs:Regulating stormwater management systems, dams, reservoirs and dredging will contribute to controlling contaminates from entering estuarine and marine environments and protect ecosystems including coral reefs.,

Legislative Actions:Individual permits will contain the conditions for environmental protection.

Comments:
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters; Designated Marine Areas
City Planning; Construction Codes & Projects; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Mangroves; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Pipelines; Ports & Harbors; Resource Use Management; Road Construction & Maintenance; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Utility Line Construction & Maintenance; Wastewater Discharge
Estuaries and Clean Waters Act of 2000, 33 United States Code §§ 2901 et seq. Creates a federal interagency council that includes the Director of the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Secretary of Army for Civil Works, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The council is charged with developing a national estuary habitat restoration strategy and providing grants to entities to restore and protect estuary habitat to promote the strategy.

Application to Coral Reefs:Protecting water quality in estuaries will help mitigate the impacts of water pollution which inturn would help mitigate ocean acidification.

Legislative Actions:The Act authorized the formation of the Estuary Habitat Restoration Council that was responsible for developing a National Habitat Restoration Strategy.

Comments:
US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Army Corps of Engineers, Department of Agriculture, US Environmental Protection Agency, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Jurisdiction:
United States
Ballast Discharge; Building & Home Construction; Collaboration & Partnering; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Educational & Research Opportunities; Environmental Education & Outreach; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Finfish Harvest; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Forestry; Funding & Donations; Mangroves; Marine Birds; Mining; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Remediation; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Solid Waste Disposal; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
Estuaries Protection Act of 1968, 16 United States Code §§ 1221-1226. Authorizes the Secretary of Interior in cooperation with other federal agencies and the states, to study and inventory estuaries of the united states, including land and water of the Great Lakes, and to determine whether such areas should be acquired for protection. The Secretary is also requied to encourage state and local governments to consider the importance of estuaries in their planning activities relative to federal natural resources grants.

Application to Coral Reefs:Established the congressional policy on the values of wetlands and the need to conserve their natural resources. Protection of wetlands provide coral reefs with an indirect benefit as the wetland serves the functions of nutrient removal and sediment containment

Legislative Actions:

Comments:
Secretary of Interior in conjunction with other federal agencies and States

Jurisdiction:
United States
Building & Home Construction; Collaboration & Partnering; Discharges; Docks & Marinas; Environmental Education & Outreach; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Hydrologic Management; Landscape Changes; Mangroves; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Ports & Harbors; Recreational Opportunities; Seagrasses; Waterborne Discharges; Wetlands
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Regulations; Final Rule, Code of Federal Regulations § Parts 922, 929, 937 (1997). NOAA developed the comprehensive Final Management Plan for the FKNMS and issued the Plan on January 30, 1997. Congress and the Governer of Florida were provided a 45-day period to provide certification of unacceptable regulations that needed amendments. NOAA incorporated the certified changes provided and issued the final regulations and management plan for the Sanctuary that went into effect with the publication of the final rule, including waters within the State of Florida in the Sanctuary.

Application to Coral Reefs:The Sanctuary sets aside the coral reef system that is the third largest barrier coral reef in the world. Included in the FKNMS are the Key Largo Marine Sanctuary containing 103 square nautical miles of coral reefs and Looe Key National Marine Sanctuary containing 5.32 square nautical miles of coral reefs. The Act protects the reefs from anchoring directly into the coral formation and taking coral dead or alive. The Act protects mangrove islands and submerged aquatic vegetation, both potential buffers for the reef system against eutrophication and sediment deposition. The Act prohibits oil and hydrocarbon exploration, mining or altering the seabed, restricts large shipping traffic, and restricts the discharge of pollutants, further protecting coral, mangroves, and submerged aquatic vegetation.

Legislative Actions:The Act requires the preparation of a comprehensive management plan and implementing regulations to protect Sanctuary resources.

Comments:The final rule codifies the Act and further defines boundaries of the Sanctuary as well as providing a list of species protected in the Sanctuary.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric and Administration

Jurisdiction:
US Coral Reefs; US Territorial Waters; State Coastal Waters; US State Waters; Designated Marine Areas
Ballast Discharge; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Boating Regulations; Collaboration & Partnering; Commercial Fishing Boats; Cruise Ships; Cultural Protections; Designate Protected Species; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Educational & Research Opportunities; Environmental Education & Outreach; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Finfish Harvest; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Invertebrate Harvest; Invertebrates; Large Ships; Live Collection; Mangroves; Marine Debris; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Oil & Gas Tankers; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Recreational Fishing; Recreational Opportunities; Reef Inhabitants; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Small Boats; Tourism & Recreation; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Transportation Policies; Waste Management Policies; Wetlands
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction, 62-285 Florida Administrative Code. Florida LEV Program. The Department of Environmental Protection (Department) adopts this rule to establish a Florida low emission vehicle (LEV) program that implements California motor vehicle emission standards pursuant to s. 177 of the Clean Air Act. This rule refers to many sections of chapter 1, division 3, title 13 of the California Code of Regulations (CCR), adopted and incorporated by reference at subsection 62-285.400(9), F.A.C. This rule also includes provisions specific to implementation in Florida.

Application to Coral Reefs:Reducing greenhouse gases will contibute to a decrease in ocean acidification.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:To protect air quality, this rule applies to any heavy-duty diesel engine powered motor vehicle.
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
Climate Regulation; CO2; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Land & Air Transportation; Nutrients; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Transportation Policies
Ground Water Classes, Standards, and Exemptions, 62-520 Florida Administrative Code. (1) Purpose. (a) Article II, Section 7 of the Florida Constitution requires abatement of water pollution and conservation and protection of Floridas natural resources. (b) The present and future most beneficial uses of all ground waters of the state have been designated by the Department by means of the classification system set forth in this chapter in accordance with Section 403.061(10), F.S. Water quality standards are established by the Department to protect these designated uses. (c) Because activities outside the state sometimes cause pollution of Floridas waters, the Department will make every reasonable effort to have such pollution abated. (d) Water quality standards apply equally to and shall be uniformly enforced in both the public and private sector. (e) Public interest shall not be construed to mean only those activities conducted solely to provide facilities or benefits to the general public. Private activities conducted for private purposes may also be in the public interest. (f) The Commission requests the Secretary to seek and use the best environmental information available when making decisions on the effects of chronically and acutely toxic substances and carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic substances. Additionally, the Secretary is requested to seek and encourage innovative research and development in waste treatment alternatives that might better preserve environmental quality and at the same time reduce the energy and dollar costs of operation. (g) The present and future most beneficial uses of ground waters of the state shall be protected to ensure the availability and utility of this invaluable resource. To achieve such protection, the ground waters of the state are classified and appropriate water quality criteria for those classes are set forth in this chapter. (h) The criteria set forth in this chapter are minimum levels which are necessary to protect the designated use of ground waters. It is the intent of the Commission that permit applicants should not be penalized because of a low detection limit associated with any specific criterion.

Application to Coral Reefs:Groundwater flow will eventually bring the groundwater to an area where by intrusion it will enter waterbodies such as lakes, streams, estuaries, and the ocean. If the groundwater is contaminated, the contamination then enters the waterbody. The contaminants will affect the open water environment and degrade that system.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
US State Waters
Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Waste Management Policies
Identification of impaired surface waters, 62-303 Florida Administrative Code Annotated (2002). The Chapter established a methodology to identify surface waters of the state that will be included on the state's planning list of waters that will be assessed pursuant to subsections 403.067(2) and (3), Florida Statutes. It also establishes a methodology to identify impaired waters based on representative data that will be included on the state's verified list of impaired waters, for which the Department will calculate Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDLs), pursuant to subsection 403.067(4), F.S., and which will be submitted to the United States Environmental Protection Agency pursuant to paragraph 303(d)(1) of the Clean Water Act (CWA).

Application to Coral Reefs:By regulating the amount of pollutants that will be allowed to be discharged into major waterbodies of the state, the amount of pollutants reaching estuarine and then marine environments, and eventually coral reefs, will assist in protecting the reefs and other habitats.

Legislative Actions:The planning list of impaired water bodies has been completed. Data on each water bodies has been collected. DEP is in the process of calculating TMDLs for each water body.

Comments:
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters
Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Construction Codes & Projects; Corporate Responses; Designated Uses; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Forestry; Irrigation; Landscaping & Household Services; Landuse Management; Metals, Electronics, & Machinery Products; Microorganisms; Mining; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Point Source Discharges; Sewage Treatment; Solid Waste Disposal; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Wood, Plastics, & Chemical Products
Mangrove Trimming and Preservation Act, 403.9321-403.9333 Florida Administrative Code Annotated (1996). It is the intent of the Legislature to protect and preserve mangrove resources valuable to our environmentand economy from unregulated removal, defoliation, and destruction.

Application to Coral Reefs:Protection and preservation of wetland systems, including mangroves, allow the systems to act as buffers to remove nutrients and sediment that could reach coral reefs and cause damage.

Legislative Actions:Permits are required prior to any trimming. A Professional Mangrove Trimmer must be present when work is being performed. Penalties can include restoration and/or mitigation.

Comments:
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters; US State Waters; Designated Marine Areas
Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Apex Fish Predators; Building & Home Construction; Coastal Development; Construction Codes & Projects; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Landuse Management; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Marine Birds; Non-Monetary Valuation; Nutrients; Ports & Harbors; Resource Use Management; Sediment; Shoreline Protection
Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, 33 United States Code § 1401. To regulate the dumping of all types of materials into ocean waters and to prevent or strictly limit the dumping into ocean waters of any material which would adversely affect human health, welfare, or amenities, or the marine environment, ecological systems, or economic potentialities. To regulate (1) the transportation by any person of material from the United States and, in the case of United States vessels, aircraft, or agencies, the transportation of material from a location outside the United States, when in either case the transportation is for the purpose of dumping the material into ocean waters, and (2) the dumping of material transported by any person from a location outside the United States, if the dumping occurs in the territorial sea or the contiguous zone of the United States.

Application to Coral Reefs:The Act has been historically used to regulate dumping of dredged materials and sewage sludge into the marine environment. The law intends to improve the conservation, understanding, management, and wise and sustainable use of marine resources, enhance public awareness, understanding, and appreciation of the marine environment, and to maintain for future generations the habitat, and ecologigal services, of the natural assemblage of living resources that inhabit those areas. Because permits are required, it can be assumed that dumping would not be allowed if the material would be dispersed into a sensitive habitat such as coral reefs.

Legislative Actions:EPA may assess an administrative civil penalty up to $50,000 per person. Higher penalties can be assessed for dumping medical waste (up to $125,000). Each day in violation constitutes a separate offense. Continuing violations can suffer criminal penalties with fines and up to five years imprisionment possible.

Comments:The Act has played a major role in regulating the disposal of dredged material into the ocean environment. However, medical and radioactive wastes, industrial wastes, as well as sewage sludge, are also regulated in the law.
United States Environmntal Protection Agency

Jurisdiction:
US Territorial Waters; US Federal Waters; Designated Marine Areas
Ballast Discharge; Biocriteria; Boating Regulations; Complex Habitat & Resources; Designate Protected Species; Designated Uses; Environmental Education & Outreach; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Mangroves; Marine Debris; Marine Protected Areas; Microorganisms; Non-point Source Controls; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Political Pressure; Remediation; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Solid Waste Disposal; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Transportation Policies; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs); Regulations to establish a No Discharge Zone (NDZ) for State waters within the boundary of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary,Code of Federal Regulations § 40 CFR Part 140, 67 FR 35735. US EPA established a no discharge zone within the boundaies of the FKNMS pursuant to section 312 (f) (4) (a) of the Clean Water Act.

Application to Coral Reefs:Prohibition of waste discharges protects reefs system from eutrophication by the nutrients in waste (particularly nitrogen and phosphorus) as well as the debris and sediment in the waste.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:
US Environmental Protection Agency

Jurisdiction:
US Coral Reefs; US Federal Waters; State Coastal Waters; Designated Marine Areas
Algae; Ballast Discharge; Commercial Fishing Boats; Cruise Ships; Large Ships; Marine Debris; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Oil & Gas Tankers; Pathogens; Petroleum Spills; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Small Boats; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
Motor Vehicle Emissions Standards and Test Procedures, 62-242 Florida Administrative Code. (1) The Department of Environmental Protection adopts this chapter pursuant to the Florida Clean Outdoor Air Law, Section 325.201, F.S., and in order to provide the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles with the necessary rules, standards, and criteria to administer the Florida Motor Vehicle Inspection Program. (2) The Legislature has directed that in order to implement the Motor Vehicle Inspection Program, the Department of Environmental Protection will set the standards and criteria listed below. (a) Designation of program area (Section 325.204, F.S.). (b) Emissions testing and inspection procedures (Section 325.206, F.S.). (c) Inspection pass/fail criteria (Section 325.206, F.S.). (d) Test equipment performance specifications (Sections 325.206, .212, and .213, F.S.). (e) Definition of low emission adjustment (Section 325.209, F.S.). (f) Inspection personnel training criteria (Section 325.213(1)(d), F.S.). (3) The Department has set the vehicle in-use emission standards at levels that are achievable with proper operation and maintenance of the various model year vehicles, if they have not been tampered with, and which will result in a significant reduction in ozone-causing air pollutant emissions from automobiles and light duty trucks. It is the Departments intent that eligibility for emission control system performance warranty repairs of these vehicles be protected by reference to 40 CFR 85.2201 (Subpart W) Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests. (4) This chapter, and the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles rules it references, are intended as an integral part of the Departments program to achieve and maintain the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter; and to control nuisance exhaust.

Application to Coral Reefs:Regulation and stanards for air emissions will contribute to lower greenhouse gasses and assist in combating ocean acidification.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
Climate Regulation; CO2; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Land & Air Transportation; Nutrients; Transportation Policies
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 as amended through 1982,. Declared a national policy that will encourage productive and enjoyable harmony between man and his environment : promote efforts that will prevent or eliminate damage to the environment and biosphere: stimulate the health and welfare of resources important to the Nation and establish a Council on Environmental Quality.

Application to Coral Reefs:Re-athorizes NEPA of 1969. Provides additional funding.

Legislative Actions:The Act potentially could protect coral reefs if the proposed federal project could have a significant impact on the reef.

Comments:The amendments did not add regulations to the Act
Federal Agencies

Jurisdiction:
United States
Atmospheric Emissions; Chemical Variables; Collaboration & Partnering; Complex Habitat & Resources; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Educational & Research Opportunities; Energy Policy & Development; Environmental Education & Outreach; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Infrastructural Policies; Landuse Management; Manufacturing & Trade; Mining; Oil & Gas Industry; Recreational Opportunities; Resource Use Management; Security; Toxics; Transportation; Waterborne Discharges
Ocean Acidification and Marine pH Water Quality Criteria, 74 Federal Register § 17484 (2009). The publication is a Notice of Data Availability. EPA was making data submitted from various sources available to the public. They also were requesting additon data from the public on ocean acidification and marine pH. The data was to be reviewed to determine if a revision of the Clean Water Act (Section 304) (a) (1) was warranted.

Application to Coral Reefs:Coral reefs would be protected if ocean acidification could be controlled because it is a major detrimental parameter of living cora, contributing to their dying.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:
EPA

Jurisdiction:
US Coral Reefs
Collaboration & Partnering; Coral; Environmental Education & Outreach; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Ocean Acidity; Point Source Discharges
Oil Pollution Act of 1990, 33 United States Code §§ 2701 et seq. Established limitations on liability for damages resulting from oil pollution, established a fund for the payment of compensation for such damages, mandated the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Contingency Plan to provide organizational structure and procedures for responding to spills.

Application to Coral Reefs:In the event of an oil spill that contaminates a coral reef, the Act could be used to determine liability and provide funds for rapid cleanup.

Legislative Actions:Can provide fines for failing to notify the appropriate federal agency of a maximum of $250,000 per day for an individual and a maximum of $500,000 for an organization. Civil penalties are authorized at $25,000 per day of violation or $1,000 per barrel of oil discharged. Prison sentences up to a maximum of fifteen years can be imposed on violators.

Comments:The Act was signed in 1990, largely in response to rising public concern following the Exxon Valdex incident. The Act improved the nation's ability to prevent and respond to oil spills by establishing provisions that expand the federal government's ability, and and provided the money and resources necessary, to respond to oil spills. The Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund was established and provided up to one billion dollars per spill incident.
US Coast Guard/US Environmental Protection Agency

Jurisdiction:
US Territorial Waters; State Coastal Waters
Chemical Variables; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Funding & Incentives; Mangroves; Non-point Source Controls; Petroleum Spills; Physical & Chemical Environment; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Political Pressure; Public Administration; Reef Habitat; Reef Life; Remediation; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Sectors Filling Human Needs; Security; Socio-Economic Drivers; Toxics; Wetlands
Proposed Coral Reef Conservation Act Amendments of 2005, 2007 and 2009,. To preserve, sustain, and restore the condition of coral reef ecosystems, to promote the wise management and sustainable use of coral reef ecosystems, to benefit local communities and the Nation, to develop sound scientific information on the condition of coral reef ecosystems and threats to the ecosystems, to assist in the preservation of coral reefs by supporting and financing conservation programs including local and non-governmental programs, establish a formal mechanism for collecting and allocating monetary donations from the private sector to be used for coral reef conservation projects

Application to Coral Reefs:When passed, the Amendments, among other issues, would reauthorize the Coral Reef Conservation Act of 2000 and authorize appropriations through fiscal 2012 for the coral reef conservation program and community- based planning grants. Will authorize activities designed to minimize the likelihood of vessel impacts or other physical dammage to coral reefs, including activities to identify certain at-risk coral reefs. Promote international cooperation, codify the US Coral Reef Task Force.

Legislative Actions:Provided funding for matching grants, encouraged education and outreach, encouaged cooperative conservation and management through partnerships with other federal, state, regional and local partners including citizen groups.

Comments:The amendments would not add regulations to the Act.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Jurisdiction:
US Coral Reefs
Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Ballast Discharge; Boat Movement; CO2; Coral; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Educational & Research Opportunities; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Recreational Opportunities; Reef Habitat; Reef Inhabitants; Sediment; Tourism & Recreation; Water Transportation
Regulation of stormwater discharge, 62-25 Florida Administrative Code Annotated (1988). The discharge of untreated stormwater may reasonably be expected to be a source of pollution of waters of the state and is, therefore, subject to Department regulation. The Departmnet shall prevent pollution of waters of the state by discharges of stormwater, to ensure that the designated most beneficial uses of waters, as prescribed by Chapter 62-302, F.A.C., are protected. A permit under this chapter will be required only for new stormwater discharge facilities as defined herein. This provision shall not affect the Department's authority to require appropriate corrective action, pursuant to Sections 403.121-.161.F.S., whenever existing facilities cause or contribute to violations of state water quality standards. Stormwater discharges to groundwaters shall be regulated under the provisions of Chapters 62-520 and 62-522, F.A.C., and other applicable rules of the Department. The Department intends that, to the greatest extent practicable, the provisions of this chapter be delegated to either local governments or water management districts seeking such delegation.

Application to Coral Reefs:Limiting the contaminants and their concentrations in stormwater discharge will reduce the contamination reaching various habitats, including coral reefs.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:
Floridfa Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
US State Waters
Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Building & Home Construction; Construction Codes & Projects; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Impervious Surfaces; Landuse Management; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Sediment; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
Renewable Energy Technologies and Energy Efficiency, 62-016 Florida Administrative Code. This chapter implements the Florida Renewable Energy Technologies and Energy Efficiency Act, providing for grants for renewable energy technologies and rebates for solar energy systems. This chapter also implements applications for corporate tax credits for renewable energy technologies provided for in Section 220.192, F.S. Specific Authority 377.804(3), 377.806(7), 220.192(3) FS. Law Implemented 377.801, 377.802, 377.803, 377.804, 377.806, 220.192 FS. History New 10-22-07.

Application to Coral Reefs:The regulation could reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal fired electric generating plants and thus reduce ocean acidification.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:This chapter implements the Florida Renewable Energy Technologies and Energy Efficiency Act, providing for grants for renewable energy technologies and rebates for solar energy systems. This chapter also implements applications for corporate tax credits for renewable energy technologies
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
CO2; Energy Policy & Development; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Nutrients; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration
Requirements for Sources Subject to the Federal Acid Rain Program, 62-214 Florida Administrative Code. This chapter outlines the additional permitting requirements for Title V sources that are subject to the Federal Acid Rain Program. The rules under this chapter set forth requirements for the Acid Rain Part of an operation permit for a Title V source which is subject to the Federal Acid Rain Program. The Department intends that this chapter shall implement and be consistent with the federal requirements of 40 C.F.R. Part 72. Words and phrases used in this chapter, unless clearly indicated otherwise, are defined at either 40 CFR 72.2 or 76.2 or Rule 62-210.200, F.A.C. The provisions of 40 CFR Parts 72, 73, 74, 75, and 76 referenced in this rule are adopted and incorporated by reference at Rule 62-204.800, F.A.C.

Application to Coral Reefs:Controlling toxic air emissions will contribute to a decrease in greenhouse gasses and assist in reducing ocean acidification.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:This chapter outlines the additional permitting requirements for Title V sources that are subject to the Federal Acid Rain Program. The rules under this chapter set forth requirements for the Acid Rain Part of an operation permit for a Title V source which is subject to the Federal Acid Rain Program. The Department intends that this chapter shall implement and be consistent with the federal requirements of 40 CFR. Part 72.
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
Atmospheric Emissions; Climate Regulation; CO2; Energy Policy & Development; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Ocean Acidity
Revised Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Management Plan §§ Public Law 101-605 (HR 5909, Public Law (2007). The document is a report on the results of NOAA's five year review of strategies and activities detailed in the 1996 Final Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary.

Application to Coral Reefs:The plan specifically addresses preserving and enhancing Sanctuary resources including four national wildlife refuges, six state parks, three state aquatic preserves, Key Largo Marine Sanctuary, Looe Key Marine Sanctuary and a total of 2,900 square nautical miles of coastal waters and numerous coral reefs. The sanctuary ecosystems are facing specific threats including direct human impacts such as vessel groundidngs, pollution and overfishing.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission as Co-trustees

Jurisdiction:
US Federal Waters; Designated Marine Areas
Anemones & Zooanthids; Apex Fish Predators; Ballast Discharge; Coastal Development; Commercial Fishing Boats; Complex Habitat & Resources; Coral; Cruise Ships; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Economic Markets & Policies; Educational & Research Opportunities; Environmental Education & Outreach; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Littering; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Marine Debris; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Ocean Acidity; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Oil & Gas Rigs; Recreational Opportunities; Reef Habitat; Reef Inhabitants; Seastars; Sediment; Sponges; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Waterborne Discharges
Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, 33 United States Code § 1252. This law prohibits the discharge of any type of refuse matter in U.S. waters without permission (section 13). In addition, the excavation, fill, or alteration of the course, condition, or capacity of any port, channel, river, or other areas within the limits of this law is prohibited. This law prohibits the construction or alteration of a structure in wetlands of the U.S. (sections 9 and 10). Construction in wetlands and waters of the U.S. requires a permit from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Application to Coral Reefs:Under section 10, excavation or fill within navigable waters requires approval of the Chief of Engineers and concerns about contaminated sediments with dredge and fill projects in navigable waters is addressed within the permitting process. Indirect protection of coral reefs is offered by the Act and its prohibition of dumping refuse into navigable waters and the process of anaylzing sediment in proposed dredge and fill operations.

Legislative Actions:Violations of the law are punished under section 309 of the Clean Water Act and section 205 of National Fishing Enhancement Act. Fines imposed for violation will not be less than $10,000 per violation or more than $25,000 per violation.

Comments:Many states, including Florida, require additional permits for constuction of docks, piers, wharfs, jetties and other structures in navigable waters and wetlands in addition to the Corps of Engineers permit. Authority to issue permits for discharge of refuse matter under section 13 was modified by the amendments to Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and established the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit process. The Act was initially established to protect interstate commerce in navigable waters. The permit review process involves factors including economics, aethetics, general envitonmental concerns, historical values, water quality, and fish and wildlife impact before project approval is granted.
US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and US Coast Guard

Jurisdiction:
United States
Coastal Development; Coastal Engineering; Construction Codes & Projects; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Landuse Management; Large Ships; Marine Debris; Marine Protected Areas; Oil & Gas Tankers; Permitting & Zoning; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Political Pressure; Ports & Harbors; Resource Use Management; Sediment; Transportation Policies; Waste Management Policies
Significant amendments to the National Marine Sanctuaries Act of 1972. Amendments of 1980 were PL 96-332, 1984 were PL98-498, 1988 were Title II of PL 100-627, 1992 were PL 102-587, 1996 were PL 104-283 and for 2000 were PL106-513,. Title III of the Marine Protection, Reseach and Sanctuaries Act was amended to create the National Marine Sanctuaries Program. The amendments of 1980 mandated the terms of designation to include the geographic area included within the sanctuary and the characteristics of the area that give it conservation, recreational, ecological, or esthetic value, and the types of activities that would be subject to regulation to protect those characteristics. The 1984 amendments required a Resource Assessment Report documenting present and potential use of the area. 1998 amendments established a special use permit for commercial operations, added a section that a vessel or person causing damage to the resources of a sanctuary would be liable for both response and cleanup costs as well as damages for any sanctuary resource destroyed. Amendments of 1992 provided that Title III may be cited as 'The National Marine Sanctuaries Act." Also, federal agencies had to be consistent with the National Environmental Policy Act in commenting on proposed designations.

Application to Coral Reefs:Strenghtened the protectinon of marine sanctuaries and their resources. Some specific purposes of the Act that add to coral reef protection include; to identify and designate national marine sanctuaries of the marine environment, to maintain the natural b

Legislative Actions:

Comments:
National Oceanic Aatmospheric Administration

Jurisdiction:
Designated Marine Areas
Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Ballast Discharge; Boating Activities; Collaboration & Partnering; Commercial Fisheries; Commercial Fishing Boats; Construction Codes & Projects; Coral; Cruise Ships; Deforestation & Devegetation; Economic Markets & Policies; Educational & Research Opportunities; Environmental Education & Outreach; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Large Ships; Mangroves; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Oil & Gas Tankers; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Recreational Fishing; Recreational Opportunities; Reef Habitat; Reef Inhabitants; Reef Life; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Wetland & Reef Restoration
Small Community Wastewater Construction Grants Program, 62-505 Florida Administrative Code. (1) Floridas Small Community Wastewater Facilities Grants Program is authorized by Sections 403.1835 and 403.1838, F.S. These statutes authorize the Department to fund the planning, design, and construction of wastewater management systems for qualifying small municipalities. (2) This chapter sets forth the Departments program management procedures and the requirements for obtaining financial assistance from the Small Community Wastewater Facilities Grants Program. (3) Highest priority is given to projects that address the most serious risks to public health, are necessary to achieve compliance, or assist systems most in need based on an affordability index. Specific Authority 403.1835(10) FS. Law Implemented 403.1835(3)(d), 403.1838 FS. History New 1-25-07.

Application to Coral Reefs:Providing financial assistance to parties interested in building wastewater treatment palnts and best available standards for construction will result in higher treatment of wastewater prior to discharge to waters of the state. Less contaminated water will reach the marine environment where it would have the potential to adversely effect ecosystems.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:sets forth the program management procedures and the requirements for obtaining financial assistance from the Small
Community Wastewater Facilities Grants Program.
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
US State Waters
Building & Home Construction; Environmental Education & Outreach; Nutrients; Point Source Discharges; Toxics; Waste Management Policies
Sovereign submerged lands management, 18-21 Florida Administrative Code Annotated (2006). To manage, protect, and enhance sovereignty lands so that the public may continue to enjoy traditional uses, including, but not limited to, navigation, fishing and swimming, public drinking water supply, shellfish harvesting, public recreation, and fish and wildlife propagation and management.

Application to Coral Reefs:Permitting activities on submerged lands owned by Florida will improve water quality which will indirectly protect reef systems.

Legislative Actions:These rules are to implement the administration and management responsibilities of the board and department regarding sovereign submerged lands. Responsibility for environmental permitting of activities and water quality protection on sovereign lands is vested with the Department of Environmental Protection. These rules are considered cumulative.

Comments:
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters
Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Aquaculture; Beach & Land Formation; Coastal Defense; Commercial Fisheries; Construction Codes & Projects; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Energy Policy & Development; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Pipelines; Point Source Discharges; Ports & Harbors; Recreational Fishing; Recreational Opportunities; Resource Use Management; Seawater Flow; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
State Revolving Fund Loan Program, 62-503 Florida Administrative Code. (1) Floridas water pollution control revolving loan program is authorized by Section 403.1835, F.S. This statute establishes the Wastewater Treatment and Stormwater Management Revolving Loan Trust Fund, which meets federal requirements for a State Revolving Fund. The statute authorizes the Department to fund the planning, design, construction, and implementation of wastewater management systems and stormwater management systems. The Act also authorizes financial assistance for a wide range of services, equipment, and construction associated with nonpoint source pollution control. Project examples include brownfield remediation, wetland restoration, septic tank problem correction, best management practices (especially those for agricultural operations) for controlling leaching and runoff, animal waste management, boat discharge elimination, or other needs identified by the Departments nonpoint source management program. National estuary program projects also may be eligible. (2) The federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, commonly called the Clean Water Act, authorizes federal appropriations for grants to the Department to capitalize the State Revolving Fund. The Act requires that the state contribute matching funds of 20% to qualify for federal capitalization grants. The State Revolving Fund must be operated in perpetuity by the Department. (3) This rule sets forth the Departments program management procedures and the requirements for obtaining financial assistance. Specific Authority 403.1835(5)(a) FS. Law Implemented 403.1835 FS. History - New 7-29-04.

Application to Coral Reefs:Providing financial assistance to parties interested in building wastewater treatment palnts and best available standards for construction will result in higher treatment of wastewater prior to discharge to waters of the state. Less contaminated water will reach the marine environment where it would have the potential to adversely effect ecosystems.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:Establishes the Wastewater Treatment and Stormwater Management Revolving Loan Trust Fund to fund the planning, design, construction, and implementation of wastewater management systems and stormwater management systems and to provide financial assistance for a wide range of services, equipment, and construction associated with nonpoint source pollution control.
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
US State Waters
Building & Home Construction; Environmental Education & Outreach; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Point Source Discharges; Sewage Treatment; Toxics; Waste Management Policies
Stationary Sources - Emission Standards, 62-296 Florida Administrative Code. (1) The Department of Environmental Protection adopts this chapter to establish emission limiting standards and compliance requirements for stationary sources of air pollutant emissions. (2) The chapter includes emission limitations for specific categories of facilities and emissions units, and it establishes reasonably available control technology requirements. Where work practice standards, including requirements for specific types of pollution control equipment, are provided for in this chapter, such standards shall be of the same force and effect as emission limiting standards. The emission limiting and work practice standards of Rule 62-296.320, F.A.C., and Rules 62-296.401 through 62-296.480, F.A.C., are applicable statewide. The reasonably available control technology requirements are established for specific areas of the state as set forth in Rules 62-296.500, 62-296.600, and 62-296.700, F.A.C. (3) A facility or emissions unit subject to any standard or requirement of 40 CFR. Part 60, 61, 63 or 65, adopted and incorporated by reference at Rule 62-204.800, F.A.C., shall comply with such standard or requirement. Nothing in this chapter shall relieve a facility or emissions unit from complying with such standard or requirement, provided, however, that where a facility or emissions unit is subject to a standard established in this chapter, such standard shall also apply. (4) Words and phrases used in this chapter, unless clearly indicated otherwise, are defined at Rule 62-210.200, F.A.C.

Application to Coral Reefs:Controlling air emission pollutants can assist in controlling ocean acid acidification and the damaging effect of ocean water acidification on coral reefs.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:To protect air quality, the chapter includes emission limitations for specific categories of facilities and emissions units, and it establishes reasonably available control technology requirements.
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
Atmospheric Emissions; Chemical Use Regulations; Climate Regulation; CO2; Corporate Responses; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Nutrients
Surface water quality standards, 62-302 Florida Administrative Code Annotated (2008). The Chapter establishes the minimum concentrations of contamination that are allowable to protect the designated uses of a waterbody. Designated uses include public drinking water supplies, propagation of fish and wildlife, agricultural, recreation, industrial, and navigation.

Application to Coral Reefs:Protecting surface waters by limiting the concentration of pollutants that can be present will control the concentrations of those pollutants that will reach estuarine and marine environments, thus protecting the associated ecosystems, including coral reefs.

Legislative Actions:Penalties are not presented in the Rule. Specific requirements and penalties are addrressed in individual permits. The Rule relies heavily on biocriteria including acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, Shannon-Weaver Diversity Index. Section 400 presents the classes of Florida waters; Class I potable water supplies, Class II shellfish propagation or harvesting, Class III recreation, propagation and maintenance of a healthy, well-balanced population of fish and wildlife, Class IV agricultural water supplies, Class V navigation, utility and industrial use.

Comments:
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters; US State Waters; Designated Marine Areas
Biocriteria; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Civil Engineering & Construction; Coastal Development; Commercial Fisheries; Complex Habitat & Resources; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Deforestation & Devegetation; Designate Protected Species; Discharge Limitations; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Drinking Water Supply; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Impervious Surfaces; Invertebrates; Irrigation; Landuse Management; Molluscs; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Pipelines; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Ports & Harbors; Recreational Fishing; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Shoreline Armoring; Small Boats; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Toxics; Waste Management Policies
Surface waters of the State, Florida Administrative Code Annotated §§ Chapter 62-301 (1996). It is the intent of this Chapter to define the landward externt of surface waters of the state. Te findings, declarations, and intentfor this Chapter are the same as those for Chapter 62-302 F. A. C.

Application to Coral Reefs:By defining the landward extent of surface waters of the State using dominant plant species, the guidance in the Chapter will include wetlands and transitional zones on many occasions. Through the protection of these areas, filtration of sediment and nutrients will be maintained and two of the harmful parameters for coral reefs will be reduced.

Legislative Actions:The Chapter is a guidance document and does not contain penalties. The Chapter provides a list of plant species for use with the guidance as well as the methods of calculating the areas of state waters.

Comments:
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters; US State Waters; Designated Marine Areas
Arthropods; Ballast Discharge; Beaches & Nature Parks; Biotechnology Research & Development; Building & Home Construction; Coastal Development; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Forestry; Invertebrates; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landuse Management; Mangroves; Marine Birds; Marine Vertebrates; Molluscs; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Petroleum Spills; Pipelines; Ports & Harbors; Recreational Fishing; Resource Use Management; Sea Turtles; Seagrasses; Sediment; Shoreline Armoring; Small Boats; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Utility Line Construction & Maintenance; Wastewater Discharge; Wetlands; Whales & Dolphins
Tampering with Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Equipment, 62-243 Florida Administrative Code. The Department of Environmental Protection adopts this chapter to establish procedures to determine compliance with those parts of Section 316.2935, F.S., which provide that no person shall operate on the public roads or streets of this state any motor vehicle that has been tampered with and that no person or motor vehicle dealer as defined in Section 320.27, F.S., shall offer or display for retail sale or lease, sell, lease or transfer title to a motor vehicle in Florida that has been tampered with. Specific Authority: 316.2935, F.S. Law Implemented: 316.2935, 316.6105, 318.18, 325.209, F.S. History.: New 2-21-90, Amended 5-29-90, Formerly 17-243.100.

Application to Coral Reefs:Vehicles with properly operating air pollution control equipment will dischage less air polllutants and will contribute to a decrease in ocean acidification.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:To achieve and maintain the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter; and to control nuisance exhaust by ensuring that that the air pollution control equipment of the motor
vehicle has not been tampered with.
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
Atmospheric Emissions; CO2; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Land & Air Transportation; Non-Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Transportation Policies
The Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Protection Act, Public Law 101-605 (H.R. 5909 United States Code (1990). To protect the resources of the area delineated in section 5(b) of the Act, to educate and interpret for the public regarding the Florida Keys marine environment, and to manage such human uses of the Sanctuary consistent with the Act. Nothing in the Act is intended to restrict activities that do not cause adverse effects to the resources or property of the Sanctuary or that do not pose harm to the users of the Sanctuary.

Application to Coral Reefs:The Sanctuary sets aside the coral reef system that is the thrid largest coral reef barrier in the world. Included in the FKNMS are Key Largo Marine Sanctuary containing 103 square nautical miles of coral reefs and Looe Key National Marine Sanctuary containing 5.32 squared nautical miles of coral reefs.The Act protects the reefs from anchoring directly into the coral formation and taking coral dead or alive in the Sanctuary. From Miami to the Marquesas Keys there are over 6000 patch reefs. The Act also protects mangrove islands and submerged aquatic vegetation, both potential buffers for the reef system against eutrophication and sediment deposition. The Act prohibits oil and hydrocarbon exploration, mining or altering the seabed, restricts large shipping traffic, and restricts the discharge of pollutants, futher protecting mangroves, and submerged aquatic vegetation.

Legislative Actions:The Act required the preparation of a comprehensive mangement plan and implementing regulations to protect Sanctuary resources.

Comments:Large vessel groundings on coral reefs in the Florida Keys was a major driver for the designation of the Sanctuary. In 1989, there were three groundings of large commercial vessels on the coral reef tract within an eighteen day period.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration as lead agency and Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission, and Monroe County as Co-Trustees

Jurisdiction:
US Coral Reefs; US Federal Waters; US State Waters; Designated Marine Areas
Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Ballast Discharge; Boating Regulations; Complex Habitat & Resources; Coral; Economic Markets & Policies; Educational & Research Opportunities; Environmental Education & Outreach; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Invertebrate Harvest; Large Ships; Marine Debris; Marine Protected Areas; Recreational Opportunities; Reef Habitat; Reef Inhabitants; Reef Life; Shoreline Protection; Substrate; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Water Transportation
Total maximum daily loads, 62-304 Florida Administrative Code Annotated (2006). The Chapter establishes Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs), and their allocations, for waters that have been verified to be impaired by a pollutant pursuant to Chapter 62-303. F.A.C.

Application to Coral Reefs:By regulating the amount of pollutants that will be allowed to be discharged into major waterbodies of the state, the amount of pollutants reaching estuarine and then marine environments, and eventually coral reefs, will assist in protecting the reefs and other habitats.

Legislative Actions:The planning list of impaired water bodies has been completed. Data on each water bodies has been collected. DEP is in the process of calculating TMDLs for each water body.

Comments:
Florida Department of Envitonmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
United States; State Coastal Waters
Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Aquaculture; Ballast Discharge; Biomedical Research Policies; Coastal Development; Deforestation & Devegetation; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Dredging Regulations; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Impervious Surfaces; Irrigation; Landuse Management; Metals, Electronics, & Machinery Products; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Point Source Discharges; Resource Use Management; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Shoreline Armoring; Solid Waste Disposal; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Wetland & Reef Restoration; Wood, Plastics, & Chemical Products
Water quality based effluent limitations, 62-650 Florida Administrative Code Annotated (1996). To implement the provisions of Section 403.051, 403.085 through 403.088 concerning the development of effluent limitations for wastewater facilities.

Application to Coral Reefs:The Florida Air and Water Pollution Act establishes that no wastes are to be discharged to any waters of the state without first being given the degree of treatment necessay to protect the beneficial uses of such water. Requiring treatment of industrial and domestic waste water indirectly protects adjoining ecosystem, such as reefs, by limiting the pollutant that reach these other systems.

Legislative Actions:The Department shall not issue a permit for a discharge to waters of the state, unless the Department has established an efflent limit for those pollutants in the discharge that are present in quantities or concentrations which can be reasonably expected to cause or contribute, directly or indirectly, to a violation of any water quality standard established in rule 62-302. The effluent limit may be a technology based effluent limit (TBEL), a water quality based effluent limit (WQBEL) determined by a Level 1 process, or where applicable, a WQBEL determined by a Level 2 process.

Comments:
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
US State Waters; Designated Marine Areas
Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Applied Chemicals; Building & Home Construction; Cleaner & Solvent Use; Coal Mining; Construction Codes & Projects; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Domestic Animal Waste; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Fish; Food, Beverage, & Tobacco Products; Irrigation; Landuse Management; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Metals, Electronics, & Machinery Products; Mineral, Rock, & Metal Mining; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Point Source Discharges; Road Construction & Maintenance; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Solid Waste Disposal; Utility Line Construction & Maintenance; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Waterborne Discharges; Wholesale & Retail Trade; Wood, Plastics, & Chemical Products
Water Resource Implementation Rule, 62-40 Florida Administrative Code (2006). The Chapter is intended to provide water resouirce implementation goals, objectives and guidance for the development and review of programs, rules, and plans relating to water resources. A goal of the Chapter is to coordinate the management of water and land resources. It is the objective of the State to protect the functions of the entire ecological systems, as developed and defined in the programs, rules, and plans of the Department and water management districts. It is a goal of the Chapter that sufficient water be available for all existing and future reasonable-beneficial uses and the natural systems and that adverse effects of competition for water supplies be avoided.

Application to Coral Reefs:By protecting the functions of entire aquatic ecological systems, those waters will contain less contaminants when they are discharged and meet other natural water bodies including marine ecosystems. Cleaner water will result in less ecological strees to marine ecosystems, including coral reefs.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:This Chapter is intended to provide water resource implementation goals, objectives, and guidance for the development and review of programs, rules, and plans relating to water resources, based on statutory policies and directives in Chapters 187, 373, and 403, Florida Statutes.
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
US State Waters
Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Drinking Water Supply; Environmental Education & Outreach; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Waste Management Policies
Wetland applications, 62-611 Florida Administrative Code Annotated (1996). To provide qualitative and quantitative design criteria discharge limits, permitting requirements, and monitoring requirements for wetlands, man-made and natural, receiving domestic wastewater.

Application to Coral Reefs:Because wetlands act as buffers and remove nutrients from contaminated water, in many case the nutrients will not reach the estuarine and marine environments and potentially have an adverse effect on coral reefs.

Legislative Actions:The Rule is administrative in nature and specific pollutant limits and monitoring requirements are specified in individual permits

Comments:
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters
Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; City Planning; Construction Codes & Projects; Environmental Education & Outreach; Hydrologic Management; Landuse Management; Mangroves; Nutrients; Pipelines; Point Source Discharges; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Sewage Treatment; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge

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