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ReefLink Database

Physical Damage

Physical Damage

Physical Damage to reef habitat and wetlands can occur from vessel groundings, dredging, trampling, boat movement, anchor drops, trawling, and fishing gear.

CMap

Biological monitoring is the use of a biological entity as a detector and its response as a measure to determine environmental conditions. Boating activities include movement in coastal waters and into ports that can lead to anchor drops or vessel groundings, or damage from trawling and other fishing gear. Boating Regulations are restrictions placed on boating activities to promote safety for boaters and the natural environment, and can include mooring buoys, registration and licensing, and speed limits. Civil Engineering and Construction specializes in the design and construction of infrastructure, including buildings and homes, roads, utility lines, and ports. Contact Uses, such as biological additions, physical damage, and biological harvesting, are activities in which humans create pressures through direct contact with the ecosystem. Cultural policies are responses that impact the distribution and functioning of cultural sectors, including tourism, recreation, education, and social organization. Cultural services are the nonmaterial benefits people obtain from ecosystems through spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, recreational opportunities, aesthetic experiences, sense of place, and educational and research opportunities. Culture sectors contribute to the social, emotional, and intellectual well-being of the community. Designated uses are a state's concise statements of its management objectives and expectations for each of the individual surface waters under its jurisdiction. Dredging regulations are decisions or policies to control the location or intensity of physically damaging activities such as dredging, draining, or filling. Dredging is the process of excavating material from an area to maintain ship channels and harbors for safe navigation. Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems . Fishing & harvesting management controls the activities which harvest fish and invertebrates, including commercial and recreational fishing. The Food and Raw Materials sector includes groups that harvest natural resources from the earth, including agriculture, aquaculture, fishing, forestry, mining, and the oil and gas industry. Infrastructural policies are responses, including zoning, codes, or regulations, that impact the distribution and functioning of socio-economic sectors that provide infrastructure. Infrastructural sectors provide the physical, organizational, and technical support for the economy to function, including construction, utilities, transportation, finance, manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade, and technical services. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are Any area of the marine environment that has been reserved by federal, state, tribal, territorial, or local laws or regulations to provide lasting protection for part or all of the natural and cultural resources therein. The Reef Ecosystem includes a suite of abiotic variables that form the physical and chemical environment. Physical Damage to reef habitat and wetlands can occur from vessel groundings, dredging, trampling, boat movement, anchor drops, trawling, and fishing gear. Pressures are human activities that create stress on the environment. Provisioning services are the products or ecosystem goods obtained from ecosystems, including seafood, genetic and biochemical resources, pharmaceuticals, ornamental resources, and water resources. The state of the Reef Ecosystem is the condition, in terms of quantity and quality, of the abiotic and biotic components including physical, chemical, and biological variables. Reef Habitat is the abundance, distribution, and condition of the benthic components of the reef ecosystem. Reef Inhabitants are all of the motile components of the reef ecosystem, including fish, invertebrates, marine reptiles and mammals, and are quantified by their  abundance, distribution, and condition. Reef Life is the abundance, distribution, and condition of the biological components of the coral reef ecosystem. Regulating Services are benefits obtained from ecosystem processes that regulate the environment, including erosion regulation, natural hazard regulation, and climate regulation. Resource use management pertains to responses to regulate or limit contact activities that may directly impact coastal species through harvesting or physical damage. Responses are actions taken by groups or individuals in society and government to prevent, compensate, ameliorate or adapt to changes in Ecosystem Services or their perceived value. The Security Sector provides security to the country and its people effectively and under democratic principles. Sediment includes dirt, sand, silt, clay, and small rocks that form soil on land or soft substrate in marine habitats, and may be transported by water, wind, or human activities. Shelter includes sectors that provide for the comfort and protection of humans in relation to their living spaces. Socio-Economic Drivers include the sectors that fulfill human needs for Food & Raw Materials, Water, Shelter, Health, Culture, and Security, and the Infrastructure that supports the sectors. Supporting services are ecological processes that indirectly benefit humans by maintaining a functional ecosystem for the production of other ecosystem goods and services. Trampling occurs when humans walk on, kick, bump into, or touch corals. The Transportation Sector involves comprises all modes of transportation (Aviation, Maritime, Mass Transit, Highway, Freight Rail, and Pipeline) The Transportation Systems Sector is segmented into six key subsectors, or modes, which operate independently within both a regulated and non-regulated environment, yet are also highly interdependent. Wetland and reef restoration are activities to directly improve, reestablish, or repair degraded ecosystems. A wetland is an area of land whose soil is saturated with moisture either permanently or seasonally.

CMap Description

Boats and ship activities can lead to groundings, anchor drops, or use of fishing gear that can damage reef habitat, and movement can cause resuspension of sediment in the reef environment. Coastal engineering and water transportation may require filling or draining of wetlands, or dredging of reef habitat to create channels for ships. Recreational activities by humans swimming or snorkeling over reefs can damage coral through trampling. Many of the same socio-economic sectors that cause physical damage, also benefit from reef ecosystem services, including provision of shoreline protection, recreational value, seafood, and other marine products. Resource use management can be used to minimize physical damage by establishing protected areas, boating regulations, fishing regulations, or limiting dredging. Physical damage can be ameliorated through restoration projects to restore damaged wetlands or reef habitat.

Citations

Citation Year Study Location Study Type Database Topics
Auster, PJ; Gjerde, K; Heupel, E; Watling, L; Grehan, A; Rogers, AD. 2011. Definition and detection of vulnerable marine ecosystems on the high seas: problems with the "move-on" rule. ICES Journal of Marine Science 68:254-264. 2011 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Finfish Harvest; Octocoral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Boehm, AB; Yamahara, KM; Walters, SP; Layton, BA; Keymer, DP; Thompson, RS; Knee, KL; Rosener, M. 2011. Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen, Soluble Reactive Phosphorous, and Microbial Pollutant Loading from Tropical Rural Watersheds in Hawai'i to the Coastal Ocean During Non-Storm Conditions. Estuaries and Coasts 34:925-936. 2011 Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Castro-Perez, JM; Gonzalez, GA; Arias-Gonzalez, JE. 2011. Characterizing spatial and temporal reef fisheries in Chinchorro Bank Biosphere Reserve, northern Mesoamerican Reef System. Hidrobiologica 21:197-209. 2011 South & Central America; Caribbean; Mexico Apex Fish Predators; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Piscivorous Fish; Seagrasses; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Du Preez, C; Tunnicliffe, V. 2011. Shortspine thornyhead and rockfish (Scorpaenidae) distribution in response to substratum, biogenic structures and trawling. Marine Ecology Progress Series 425:217-231. 2011 US Pacific & Hawaii; Columbia Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Sediment; Sponges; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Hannak, JS; Kompatscher, S; Stachowitsch, M; Herler, J. 2011. Snorkelling and trampling in shallow-water fringing reefs: Risk assessment and proposed management strategy. Journal of Environmental Management 92:2723-2733. 2011 Cuba; Egypt Model; Index or Indicator Banks, Credit, & Securities; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Finfish Harvest; Sediment; Stony Coral; Substrate; Tourism & Recreation; Trampling
Hughes, AO; Croke, JC. 2011. Validation of a spatially distributed erosion and sediment yield model (SedNet) with empirically derived data from a catchment adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. Marine and Freshwater Research 62:962-973. 2011 Australia; Europe Model Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Huvenne, VAI; Tyler, PA; Masson, DG; Fisher, EH; Hauton, C; Huhnerbach, V; Le Bas, TP; Wolff, GA. 2011. A Picture on the Wall: Innovative Mapping Reveals Cold-Water Coral Refuge in Submarine Canyon. PLoS One 6. 2011 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Europe GIS & Maps Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Sediment; Stony Coral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Water Depth & Sea Level
Jones, RJ. 2011. Spatial patterns of chemical contamination (metals, PAHs, PCBs, PCDDs/PCDFS) in sediments of a non-industrialized but densely populated coral atoll/small island state (Bermuda). Marine Pollution Bulletin 62:1362-1376. 2011 South & Central America; Bermuda; Caribbean Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Discharges; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Solid Waste Disposal; Toxics
Kilpatrick, R; Ewing, G; Lamb, T; Welsford, D; Constable, A. 2011. Autonomous video camera system for monitoring impacts to benthic habitats from demersal fishing gear, including longlines. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 58:486-491. 2011 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Larsson, AI; Purser, A. 2011. Sedimentation on the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa: Cleaning efficiency from natural sediments and drill cuttings. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62:1159-1168. 2011 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Model Sediment; Stony Coral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Long, JD; Cochrane, E; Dolecal, RE. 2011. Previous disturbance enhances the negative effects of trampling on barnacles. Marine Ecology Progress Series 437:165-173. 2011 Trampling
Matsuda, S; Iryu, Y. 2011. Rhodoliths from deep fore-reef to shelf areas around Okinawa-jima, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Marine Geology 282:215-230. 2011 Japan Algae; Coralline Algae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Melbourne-Thomas, J., C. R. Johnson, T. Fung, R. M. Seymour, L. M. Cherubin, J. E. Arias-Gonzalez, and E. A. Fulton. 2011. Regional-scale scenario modeling for coral reefs: a decision support tool to inform management of a complex system. Ecological Applications 21:1380-1398. 2011 Model; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Decision Support; Physical Damage; Storms & Hurricanes
Melbourne-Thomas, J; Johnson, CR; Fung, T; Seymour, RM; Cherubin, LM; Arias-Gonzalez, JE; Fulton, EA. 2011. Regional-scale scenario modeling for coral reefs: a decision support tool to inform management of a complex system. Ecological Applications 21:1380-1398. 2011 Model; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Decision Support; Fish; Nutrients; Physical Damage; Sea Urchins; Storms & Hurricanes
Murugan, A; Dhanya, S; Sarcar, AB; Naganathan, V; Rajagopal, S; Balasubramanian, T. 2011. Fishery biology, demography of three spotted seahorse, Hippocampus trimaculatus inhabiting Gulf of Mannar region, Southeast coast of India. Indian journal of GeoMarine Sciences 40:411-423. 2011 India Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Invertebrate Harvest; Seagrasses; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Okuku, EO; Ohowa, B; Mwangi, SN; Munga, D; Kiteresi, LI; Wanjeri, VO; Okumu, S; Kilonzo, J. 2011. Sewage pollution in the Coastal waters of Mombasa City, Kenya: A norm Rather than an Exception. International Journal Of Environmental Research 5:865-874. 2011 Kenya Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Nutrients; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Waterborne Discharges
Richards, ZT; Beger, M. 2011. A quantification of the standing stock of macro-debris in Majuro lagoon and its effect on hard coral communities. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62:1693-1701. 2011 US Pacific & Hawaii; Marshall Islands Finfish Harvest; Housing; Marine Debris; Stony Coral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Richardson-White, S; Walker, SE. 2011. Diversity, taphonomy and behavior of encrusting foraminifera on experimental shells deployed along a shelf-to-slope bathymetric gradient, Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 312:305-324. 2011 US Pacific & Hawaii; Bahamas Index or Indicator Physical Damage; Skeletal Coral; Substrate
Rooper, CN; Wilkins, ME; Rose, CS; Coon, C. 2011. Modeling the impacts of bottom trawling and the subsequent recovery rates of sponges and corals in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Continental Shelf Research 31:1827-1834. 2011 Model Commercial Fisheries; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Sponges; Substrate; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Sarmento, VC; Barreto, AFS; Santos, PJP. 2011. The response of meiofauna to human trampling on coral reefs. Scientia Marina 75:559-570. 2011 Algae; Marine Worms; Substrate; Tourism & Recreation; Trampling
Shester, GG; Micheli, F. 2011. Conservation challenges for small-scale fisheries: Bycatch and habitat impacts of traps and gillnets. Biological Conservation 144:1673-1681. 2011 South & Central America; Mexico Field Study & Monitoring Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Octocoral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Soffker, M; Sloman, KA; Hall-Spencer, JM. 2011. In situ observations of fish associated with coral reefs off Ireland. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 58:818-825. 2011 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Complex Habitat & Resources; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Octocoral; Sediment; Skeletal Coral; Stony Coral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Tyler, EHM; Manica, A; Jiddawi, N; Speight, MR. 2011. A role for partially protected areas on coral reefs: maintaining fish diversity? Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 21:231-238. 2011 Tanzania Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Marine Protected Areas; Special Use Permitting; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Wattage, P; Glenn, H; Mardle, S; Van Rensburg, T; Grehan, A; Foley, N. 2011. Economic value of conserving deep-sea corals in Irish waters: A choice experiment study on marine protected areas. Fisheries Research 107:59-67. 2011 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Marine Protected Areas; Monetary Valuation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Williamson, EA; Strychar, KB; Withers, K; Sterba-Boatwright, B. 2011. Effects of salinity and sedimentation on the Gorgonian Coral, Leptogorgia virgulata (Lamarck 1815). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 409:331-338. 2011 South & Central America; Mexico Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Runoff; Octocoral; Salinity; Sediment; Substrate; Tourism & Recreation
Zuidema, C; Plate, R; Dikou, A. 2011. To preserve or to develop? East Bay dredging project, South Caicos, Turks and Caicos Islands. Journal of Coastal Conservation 15:555-563. 2011 Turks and Caicos Algae; Beaches & Nature Parks; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Monetary Valuation; Seagrasses; Skeletal Coral; Tourism & Recreation; Turf Algae; Valuation
Bartley, R., J. P. Corfield, B. N. Abbott, A. A. Hawdon, S. N. Wilkinson, and B. Nelson. 2010. Impacts of improved grazing land management on sediment yields, Part 1: Hills lope processes. Journal of Hydrology 389:237-248. 2010 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Landuse Management; Littering; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Capasso, E., S. R. Jenkins, M. Frost, and H. Hinz. 2010. Investigation of benthic community change over a century-wide scale in the western English Channel. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 90:1161-1172. 2010 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Echinoderms; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Marine Worms; Molluscs; Sea Urchins; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Chabanet, P., N. Guillemot, M. Kulbicki, L. Vigliola, and S. Sarramegna. 2010. Baseline study of the spatio-temporal patterns of reef fish assemblages prior to a major mining project in New Caledonia (South Pacific). Marine Pollution Bulletin 61:598-611. 2010 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia; New Caledonia Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment
Claudet, J., P. Lenfant, and M. Schrimm. 2010. Snorkelers impact on fish communities and algae in a temperate marine protected area. Biodiversity and Conservation 19:1649-1658. 2010 Index or Indicator Algae; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Fish; Marine Protected Areas; Octocoral; Tourism & Recreation; Trampling
Crowe, S. E., P. T. Gayes, R. F. Viso, D. C. Bergquist, P. C. Jutte, and R. F. Van Dolah. 2010. Impact of the Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site on nearby hard bottom reef habitats. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60:679-691. 2010 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Complex Habitat & Resources; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fish; Ports & Harbors; Sediment; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Sponges
de Almeida, M. T. R., G. E. Siless, C. D. Perez, M. J. Veloso, L. Schejter, L. Puricelli, and J. A. Palermo. 2010. Dolabellane Diterpenoids from the South Atlantic Gorgonian Convexella magelhaenica. Journal of Natural Products 73:1714-1717. 2010 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Octocoral
de Juan, S. and J. Lleonart. 2010. A conceptual framework for the protection of vulnerable habitats impacted by fishing activities in the Mediterranean high seas. Ocean and Coastal Management 53:717-723. 2010 Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Marine Protected Areas; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
D'Onghia, G., P. Maiorano, L. Sion, A. Giove, F. Capezzuto, R. Carlucci, and A. Tursi. 2010. Effects of deep-water coral banks on the abundance and size structure of the megafauna in the Mediterranean Sea. Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 57:397-411. 2010 Apex Fish Predators; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Marine Protected Areas; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Edgar, G. J., P. R. Last, N. S. Barrett, K. Gowlett-Holmes, M. Driessen, and P. Mooney. 2010. Conservation of natural wilderness values in the Port Davey marine and estuarine protected area, south-western Tasmania. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 20:297-311. 2010 Global; Australia Boating Activities; Climate; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Finfish Harvest; Invertebrates; Marine Protected Areas; Nutrients; Salinity; Sediment; Sponges; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation
Ercilla, G., F. Estrada, D. Casas, R. Duran, M. Nuez, B. Alonso, and M. L. Farran. 2010. The El Masnou infralittoral sedimentary environment (Barcelona province, NW Mediterranean Sea): morphology and Holocene seismic stratigraphy. Scientia Marina 74:179-196. 2010 Field Study & Monitoring Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Etnoyer, P. J., H. H. Wirshing, and J. A. Sanchez. 2010. Rapid Assessment of Octocoral Diversity and Habitat on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles. PLoS One 5:e10668. 2010 South & Central America; Antilles; Cuba; Caribbean Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Octocoral
Foden, J., S. I. Rogers, and A. P. Jones. 2010. Recovery of UK seabed habitats from benthic fishing and aggregate extraction-towards a cumulative impact assessment. Marine Ecology Progress Series 411:259-270. 2010 Europe; England Review; Field Study & Monitoring Complex Habitat & Resources; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Sediment; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Foley, N. S., V. Kahui, C. W. Armstrong, and T. M. van Rensburg. 2010. Estimating Linkages between Redfish and Cold Water Coral on the Norwegian Coast. Marine Resource Economics 25:105-120. 2010 Norway Model Commercial Fisheries; Fish; Fishing Sector; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Giansante, C., M. Fatigati, F. Ciarrocchi, G. S. Milillo, L. Onori, and N. Ferri. 2010. Monitoring of ichthyic fauna in artificial reefs along the Adriatic coast of the Abruzzi Region of Italy. Veterinaria Italiana 46:365-374. 2010 Europe Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Artificial Habitat; Commercial Fisheries; Fish; Fishing Sector; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Gray, D. L., R. Canessa, R. Rollins, C. P. Keller, and P. Dearden. 2010. Incorporating Recreational Users into Marine Protected Area Planning: A Study of Recreational Boating in British Columbia, Canada. Environmental Management 46:167-180. 2010 Columbia Model Aquaculture; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Landuse Management; Marine Protected Areas; Small Boats; Tourism & Recreation; Whales & Dolphins
Hall, B. L., G. M. Henderson, C. Baroni, and T. B. Kellogg. 2010. Constant Holocene Southern-Ocean C-14 reservoir ages and ice-shelf flow rates. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 296:115-123. 2010 Model Anchoring & Vessel Grounding
Hardiman, N. and S. Burgin. 2010. Recreational impacts on the fauna of Australian coastal marine ecosystems. Journal of Environmental Management 91:2096-2108. 2010 Australia; Cuba Review; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Boating Activities; Finfish Harvest; Infrastructure; Recreational Fishing; Tourism & Recreation; Waterborne Discharges
Heindel, K., J. Titschack, B. Dorschel, V. A. I. Huvenne, and A. Freiwald. 2010. The sediment composition and predictive mapping of facies on the Propeller Mound-A cold-water coral mound (Porcupine Seabight, NE Atlantic). Continental Shelf Research 30:1814-1829. 2010 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) GIS & Maps; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Echinoderms; Marine Protected Areas; Sediment; Skeletal Coral
Herrera, S., A. Baco, and J. A. Sanchez. 2010. Molecular systematics of the bubblegum coral genera (Paragorgiidae, Octocorallia) and description of a new deep-sea species. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 55:123-135. 2010 Finfish Harvest; Octocoral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Heupel, M. R., A. J. Williams, D. J. Welch, C. R. Davies, A. Penny, J. P. Kritzer, R. J. Marriott, and B. D. Mapstone. 2010. Demographic characteristics of exploited tropical lutjanids: a comparative analysis. Fishery Bulletin 108:420-432. 2010 Finfish Harvest; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Hughes, A. O., J. C. Croke, T. J. Pietsch, and J. M. Olley. 2010. Changes in the rates of floodplain and in-channel bench accretion in response to catchment disturbance, central Queensland, Australia. Geomorphology 114:338-347. 2010 Australia; Europe Model Climate; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Hutchison, C. S. and V. R. Vijayan. 2010. What are the Spratly Islands? Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 39:371-385. 2010 Malaysia; China; Vietnam Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Jordan, L. K. B., K. W. Banks, L. E. Fisher, B. K. Walker, and D. S. Gilliam. 2010. Elevated sedimentation on coral reefs adjacent to a beach nourishment project. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60:261-271. 2010 Florida Beaches & Nature Parks; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Stony Coral; Storms & Hurricanes
Lirman, D., N. Gracias, B. Gintert, A. C. R. Gleason, G. Deangelo, M. Dick, E. Martinez, and R. P. Reid. 2010. Damage and recovery assessment of vessel grounding injuries on coral reef habitats by use of georeferenced landscape video mosaics. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 8:88-97. 2010 Florida Field Study & Monitoring; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Complex Habitat & Resources; Seagrasses; Storms & Hurricanes; Wetland & Reef Restoration
Mapes, R. H., N. H. Landman, K. Cochran, C. Goiran, B. R. de Forges, and A. Renfro. 2010. Early Taphonomy And Significance Of Naturally Submerged Nautilus Shells From The New Caledonia Region. Palaios 25:597-610. 2010 New Caledonia Algae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Mastrototaro, F., G. D'Onghia, G. Corriero, A. Matarrese, P. Maiorano, P. Panetta, M. Gherardi, C. Longo, A. Rosso, F. Sciuto, R. Sanfilippo, C. Gravili, F. Boero, M. Taviani, and A. Tursi. 2010. Biodiversity of the white coral bank off Cape Santa Maria di Leuca (Mediterranean Sea): An update. Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 57:412-430. 2010 Echinoderms; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Molluscs; Stony Coral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Maynard, J. A., K. R. N. Anthony, S. Afatta, N. Dahl-Tacconi, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2010. Making a Model Meaningful to Coral Reef Managers in a Developing Nation: a Case Study of Overfishing and Rock Anchoring in Indonesia. Conservation Biology 24:1316-1326. 2010 Indonesia Model; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Algae; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Complex Habitat & Resources; Finfish Harvest; Small Herbivorous Fish
McKenna, S. A. and P. Etnoyer. 2010. Rapid Assessment of Stony Coral Richness and Condition on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles. PLoS One 5:e10749. 2010 South & Central America; Antilles; Cuba; Caribbean Algae; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Complex Habitat & Resources; Oil & Gas Tankers; Pathogens; Sponges; Stony Coral
Pereira, P. H. C., B. P. Ferreira, and S. M. Rezende. 2010. Community structure of the ichthyofauna associated with seagrass beds (Halodule wrightii) in Formoso River estuary - Pernambuco, Brazil. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 82:617-628. 2010 Index or Indicator Corallivorous Fish; Large Herbivorous Fish; Seagrasses; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Pittman, S. J., C. F. G. Jeffrey, R. Clark, K. Woody, B. D. Herlach, C. Caldow, M. E. Monaco, and R. Appledoorn. 2010. Coral reef ecosystems of Reserva Natural de La Parguera (Puerto Rico): spatial and temporal patterns in fish and benthic communities (2001-2007). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD. 2010 South & Central America; Puerto Rico; Caribbean Field Study & Monitoring Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Collaboration & Partnering; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fish; Fishing Sector; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Mangroves; Marine Debris; Marine Protected Areas; Tourism & Recreation
Poonian, C., P. Z. R. Davis, and C. K. McNaughton. 2010. Impacts of Recreational Divers on Palauan Coral Reefs and Options for Management. Pacific Science 64:557-565. 2010 Cuba; Palau Field Study & Monitoring Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Physical Damage; Stony Coral; Tourism & Recreation
Rees, S. E., M. J. Attrill, M. C. Austen, S. C. Mangi, J. P. Richards, and L. D. Rodwell. 2010. Is there a win-win scenario for marine nature conservation? A case study of Lyme Bay, England. Ocean and Coastal Management 53:135-145. 2010 England Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Monetary Valuation; Substrate; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Rudershausen, P. J., W. A. Mitchell, J. A. Buckel, E. H. Williams, and E. Hazen. 2010. Developing a two-step fishery-independent design to estimate the relative abundance of deepwater reef fish: Application to a marine protected area off the southeastern United States coast. Fisheries Research 105:254-260. 2010 Florida; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Model Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Marine Protected Areas; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Schittone, J. 2010. Restoration and monitoring of a vessel grounding on a shallow reef in the Florida Keys. Revista de Biologia Tropical 58:151-161. 2010 Florida Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Hydrocoral; Octocoral; Substrate
Sheehy, D. J. and S. F. Vik. 2010. The role of constructed reefs in non-indigenous species introductions and range expansions. Ecological Engineering 36:1-11. 2010 South & Central America; Mexico Review Artificial Habitat; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Civil Engineering & Construction; Invasive Species; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Skeletal Coral
Sheppard, C., M. Al-Husiani, F. Al-Jamali, F. Al-Yamani, R. Baldwin, J. Bishop, F. Benzoni, E. Dutrieux, N. K. Dulvy, S. R. V. Durvasula, D. A. Jones, R. Loughland, D. Medio, M. Nithyanandan, G. M. Pilling, I. Polikarpov, A. R. G. Price, S. Purkis, B. Riegl, and M. Saburova. 2010. The Gulf: A young sea in decline. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60:13-38. 2010 Review Climate; Collaboration & Partnering; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fishing Sector; Infrastructure; Mangroves; Salinity; Seawater Flow; Sediment; Tourism & Recreation
Skov, H. and F. Thomsen. 2010. General models of marine animal habitats require a process-based approach to parameter selection and model design Reply. Marine Ecology Progress Series 399:299-303. 2010 Model Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Sofonia, J. J. and R. K. F. Unsworth. 2010. Development of water quality thresholds during dredging for the protection of benthic primary producer habitats. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 12:159-163. 2010 Field Study & Monitoring; Model Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Light; Sediment
Stromberg, S. M., T. Lundalv, and T. J. Goreau. 2010. Suitability of mineral accretion as a rehabilitation method for cold-water coral reefs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 395:153-161. 2010 Lab Study Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Stony Coral; Substrate; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Sutcliffe, P. R., J. N. A. Hooper, and C. R. Pitcher. 2010. The most common sponges on the Great Barrier Reef seabed, Australia, include species new to science (Phylum Porifera). Zootaxa 1-30. 2010 Australia GIS & Maps Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Marine Protected Areas; Sediment; Sponges
Tims, S. G., S. E. Everett, L. K. Fifield, G. J. Hancock, and R. Bartley. 2010. Plutonium as a tracer of soil and sediment movement in the Herbert River, Australia. Nuclear Instruments & Methods In Physics Research Section B-beam Interactions With Materials And Atoms 268:1150-1154. 2010 Australia Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Travers, M. J., I. C. Potter, K. R. Clarke, S. J. Newman, and J. B. Hutchins. 2010. The inshore fish faunas over soft substrates and reefs on the tropical west coast of Australia differ and change with latitude and bioregion. Journal of Biogeography 37:148-169. 2010 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia; Pacific Ocean; Indonesia Fish; Mangroves; Substrate; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
U.S. Coral Reef Task Force. 2010. Coral reef local action strategies. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. 2010 Florida Artificial Habitat; Beaches & Nature Parks; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Boating Activities; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Finfish Harvest; Scientific Research; Tourism & Recreation
Wallace, B. P., R. L. Lewison, S. L. McDonald, R. K. McDonald, C. Y. Kot, S. Kelez, R. K. Bjorkland, E. M. Finkbeiner, S. Helmbrecht, and L. B. Crowder. 2010. Global patterns of marine turtle bycatch. Conservation Letters [inpress]. 2010 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii; Indian Ocean; India Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Marine Birds; Sea Turtles; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Welch, D. J., B. D. Mapstone, C. R. Davies, and G. R. Russ. 2010. Spatial and fishing effects on sampling gear biases in a tropical reef line fishery. Marine and Freshwater Research 61:1134-1146. 2010 Australia Finfish Harvest; Fish; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Abu-Hilal, A. and T. Al-Najjar. 2009. Marine litter in coral reef areas along the Jordan Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Journal of Environmental Management 90:1043-1049. 2009 Finfish Harvest; Littering; Marine Debris; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Althaus, F., A. Williams, T. A. Schlacher, R. J. Kloser, M. A. Green, B. A. Barker, N. J. Bax, P. Brodie, and M. A. Schlacher-Hoenlinger. 2009. Impacts of bottom trawling on deep-coral ecosystems of seamounts are long-lasting. Marine Ecology Progress Series 397:279-294. 2009 Australia Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Stony Coral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Bainbridge, Z. T., J. E. Brodie, J. W. Faithful, D. A. Sydes, and S. E. Lewis. 2009. Identifying the land-based sources of suspended sediments, nutrients and pesticides discharged to the Great Barrier Reef from the Tully-Murray Basin, Queensland, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 60:1081-1090. 2009 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Seagrasses; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetlands
Barletta, M. and M. F. Costa. 2009. Living and Non-living Resources Exploitation in a Tropical Semi-arid Estuary. Journal of Coastal Research 371-375. 2009 Aquaculture; Beaches & Nature Parks; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fishing Sector; Mangroves; Salinity; Tourism & Recreation
Batista, J. B., R. M. V. Leonel, and M. A. J. Costa. 2009. Population characteristics of Microphrys bicornutus (Brachyura, Mithracidae) on the phytal Halimeda opuntia (Chlorophyta, Halimedaceae), on reef area submitted to human visitation, in Joao Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil. Iheringia Serie Zoologia 99:44-52. 2009 Algae; Calcareous Macroalgae; Salinity; Tourism & Recreation; Trampling
Bell, J. D., E. Clua, C. A. Hair, R. Galzin, and P. J. Doherty. 2009. The Capture and Culture of Post-Larval Fish and Invertebrates for the Marine Ornamental Trade. Reviews in Fisheries Science 17:223-240. 2009 Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Aquaculture; Aquarium & Pet Trade; Aquarium Stock; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Infrastructural Policies; Infrastructure; Plankton; Substrate; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Bradley, P., W. S. Fisher, H. Bell, W. Davis, V. Chan, C. LoBue, and W. Wiltse. 2009. Development and implementation of coral reef biocriteria in US jurisdictions. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 150:43-51. 2009 Global; US Virgin Islands Review; Field Study & Monitoring Biocriteria; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Climate; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Physical Damage; Sea Temperatures; Shoreline Protection; Stony Coral; Tourism & Recreation
Bradley, P., W. S. Fisher, H. Bell, W. Davis, V. Chan, C. LoBue, W. Wiltse. 2009. Development and implementation of coral reef biocriteria in U.S. jurisdictions. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 150:43-51. 2009 Global; US Virgin Islands Review; Field Study & Monitoring Biocriteria; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Climate; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Physical Damage; Sea Temperatures; Shoreline Protection; Stony Coral; Tourism & Recreation
Cinner, J. E. 2009. Poverty and the use of destructive fishing gear near east African marine protected areas. Environmental Conservation 36:321-326. 2009 Model; Index or Indicator Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Marine Protected Areas; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Cinner, J. E., T. R. McClanahan, N. A. J. Graham, M. S. Pratchett, S. K. Wilson, and J. B. Raina. 2009. Gear-based fisheries management as a potential adaptive response to climate change and coral mortality. Journal of Applied Ecology 46:724-732. 2009 Kenya; Papua New Guinea Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Climate; Complex Habitat & Resources; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Cinner, J. E., T. R. McClanahan, N. A. J. Graham, M. S. Pratchett, S. K. Wilson, and J.-B. Raina. 2009. Gear-based fisheries management as a potential adaptive response to climate change and coral mortality. Journal of Applied Ecology 46:724-732. 2009 Kenya; Papua New Guinea Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Climate; Complex Habitat & Resources; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Clark, M. R. and A. A. Rowden. 2009. Effect of deepwater trawling on the macro-invertebrate assemblages of seamounts on the Chatham Rise, New Zealand. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 56:1540-1554. 2009 Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Commercial Fisheries; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Mineral, Rock, & Metal Mining; Stony Coral; Substrate; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Coles, R., L. McKenzie, G. De'ath, A. Roelofs, and W. L. Long. 2009. Spatial distribution of deepwater seagrass in the inter-reef lagoon of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. Marine Ecology Progress Series 392:57-68. 2009 Australia Model; GIS & Maps Algae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Marine Protected Areas; Point Source Discharges; Seagrasses; Sediment; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Water Depth & Sea Level
Collen, J. D., D. W. Garton, and J. P. A. Gardner. 2009. Shoreline Changes and Sediment Redistribution at Palmyra Atoll (Equatorial Pacific Ocean): 1874-Present. Journal of Coastal Research 25:711-722. 2009 US Pacific & Hawaii; Pacific Ocean; Palmyra Atoll Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Infrastructure; Military; Sediment
Davies, T. E., N. Beanjara, and T. Tregenza. 2009. A socio-economic perspective on gear-based management in an artisanal fishery in south-west Madagascar. Fisheries Management and Ecology 16:279-289. 2009 Madagascar Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Housing; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
de Freitas, M. C., R. H. S. D. Vieira, and M. E. de Araujo. 2009. Impact of the Construction of the Harbor at Pecem (Ceara, Brazil) upon Reef Fish Communities in Tide Pools. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 52:187-195. 2009 Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fish; Ports & Harbors; Small Herbivorous Fish
Dinsdale, E. A. 2009. Linking ecological and perceptual assessments for environmental management: a coral reef case study. Ecology and Society 14:28. 2009 Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Stony Coral
Forcada, A., C. Valle, P. Bonhomme, G. Criquet, G. Cadiou, P. Lenfant, and J. L. Sanchez-Lizaso. 2009. Effects of habitat on spillover from marine protected areas to artisanal fisheries. Marine Ecology Progress Series 379:197-211. 2009 Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Marine Protected Areas; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Georgiadis, M., G. Papatheodorou, E. Tzanatos, M. Geraga, A. Ramfos, C. Koutsikopoulos, and G. Ferentinos. 2009. Coralligene formations in the eastern Mediterranean Sea: Morphology, distribution, mapping and relation to fisheries in the southern Aegean Sea (Greece) based on high-resolution acoustics. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 368:44-58. 2009 GIS & Maps Algae; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Coralline Algae; Finfish Harvest; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Sediment; Special Use Permitting; Substrate; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Harris, R., M. W. Vorkink, C. Prasetyadi, E. Zobell, N. Roosmawati, and M. Apthorpe. 2009. Transition from subduction to arc-continent collision: Geologic and neotectonic evolution of Savu Island, Indonesia. Geosphere 5:152-171. 2009 Australia; Indian Ocean; India; Indonesia Field Study & Monitoring; GIS & Maps Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Heifetz, J., R. P. Stone, and S. K. Shotwell. 2009. Damage and disturbance to coral and sponge habitat of the Aleutian Archipelago. Marine Ecology Progress Series 397:295-303. 2009 Finfish Harvest; Hydrocoral; Octocoral; Sponges; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Hourigan, T. F. 2009. Managing fishery impacts on deep-water coral ecosystems of the USA: emerging best practices. Marine Ecology Progress Series 397:333-340. 2009 US Pacific & Hawaii; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Field Study & Monitoring Collaboration & Partnering; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Marine Protected Areas; Sponges; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Hughes, A. O., J. M. Olley, J. C. Croke, and L. A. McKergow. 2009. Sediment source changes over the last 250 years in a dry-tropical catchment, central Queensland, Australia. Geomorphology 104:262-275. 2009 Australia; Europe Field Study & Monitoring; Model Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Landscape Changes; Landuse Management; Mitigation; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Lachica-Alino, L., L. T. David, M. Wolff, P. M. Alino, and M. C. G. Ranola. 2009. Distributional Patterns, Habitat Overlap and Trophic Interactions of Species Caught by Trawling in the Ragay Gulf, Philippines. Philippine Agricultural Scientist 92:46-65. 2009 Philippines Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Mangroves; Octopus & Squid; Plankton; Seagrasses; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Lee, T.-G., K. Lee, J. R. Hein, and J.-W. Moon. 2009. Geophysical investigation of seamounts near the Ogasawara fracture zone, western Pacific. Earth, Planets and Space 61:319-331. 2009 US Pacific & Hawaii; Japan; Marshall Islands Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Water Depth & Sea Level
Malecha, P. W. and R. P. Stone. 2009. Response of the sea whip Halipteris willemoesi to simulated trawl disturbance and its vulnerability to subsequent predation. Marine Ecology Progress Series 388:197-206. 2009 Fishing Sector; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Martin-Smith, K. 2009. A Risk-Management Framework For Avoiding Significant Adverse Impacts Of Bottom Fishing Gear On Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems. Ccamlr Science 16:177-193. 2009 Review; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Finfish Harvest; Marine Birds; Scientific Research; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Merino-Tome, O., J. R. Bahamonde, E. Samankassou, and E. Villa. 2009. The influence of terrestrial run off on marine biotic communities: An example from a thrust-top carbonate ramp (Upper Pennsylvanian foreland basin, Picos de Europa, NW Spain). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 278:23-Jan. 2009 Spain Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Algae; Cyanobacteria; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Echinoderms; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Sponges; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Mitchell, A., J. Reghenzani, J. Faithful, M. Furnas, and J. Brodie. 2009. Relationships between land use and nutrient concentrations in streams draining a 'wet-tropics' catchment in northern Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 60:1097-1108. 2009 Australia Model Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Moore, C. G., C. R. Bates, J. M. Mair, G. R. Saunders, D. B. Harries, and A. R. Lyndon. 2009. Mapping serpulid worm reefs (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) for conservation management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 19:226-236. 2009 Field Study & Monitoring; GIS & Maps Aquaculture; Complex Habitat & Resources; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Marine Worms; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Negri, A. and P. Marshall. 2009. TBT contamination of remote marine environments: Ship groundings and ice-breakers as sources of organotins in the Great Barrier Reef and Antarctica. Journal of Environmental Management 90. 2009 Australia Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Point Source Discharges; Sediment; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing
Nelson, W. A. 2009. Calcified macroalgae - critical to coastal ecosystems and vulnerable to change: a review. Marine and Freshwater Research 60:787-801. 2009 Global Review Agriculture; Algae; Aquaculture; CO2; Coastal Development; Complex Habitat & Resources; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Ocean Acidity; Sediment
Okada, T., P. Larcombe, and C. Mason. 2009. Estimating the spatial distribution of dredged material disposed of at sea using particle-size distributions and metal concentrations. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58:1164-1177. 2009 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Oliver, L. M. and W. S. Fisher, editors. 2009. APM 289: Report on effects of UV radiation, temperature and nutrients on South Florida corals. US EPA Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Breeze, (FL, USA). 2009 Global; Florida Algae; Climate; Light; Nutrients; Ocean Acidity; Pathogens; Physical Damage; Sediment; Stony Coral
Orejas, C., A. Gori, C. Lo Iacono, P. Puig, J. M. Gili, and M. R. T. Dale. 2009. Cold-water corals in the Cap de Creus canyon, northwestern Mediterranean: spatial distribution, density and anthropogenic impact. Marine Ecology Progress Series 397:37-51. 2009 Finfish Harvest; Substrate; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Penney, A. J., S. J. Parker, and J. H. Brown. 2009. Protection measures implemented by New Zealand for vulnerable marine ecosystems in the South Pacific Ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series 397:341-354. 2009 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Pacific Ocean Finfish Harvest; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Pitcher, C. R., C. Y. Burridge, T. J. Wassenberg, B. J. Hill, and I. R. Poiner. 2009. A large scale BACI experiment to test the effects of prawn trawling on seabed biota in a closed area of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia. Fisheries Research 99:168-183. 2009 Australia Review Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Invertebrates; Marine Protected Areas; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Rasheed, M., E. El-Hihi, S. Al-Rousan, and A. Abu-Hilal. 2009. Chemical evaluation of sand material sources for beach replenishment along the coast of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Chemistry and Ecology 25:371-384. 2009 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Nutrients
Sanchez, F., A. Serrano, and M. G. Ballesteros. 2009. Photogrammetric quantitative study of habitat and benthic communities of deep Cantabrian Sea hard grounds. Continental Shelf Research 29:1174-1188. 2009 Field Study & Monitoring Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Marine Protected Areas; Salinity; Sediment; Sponges; Substrate; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Scoon, R. N. and A. A. Mitchell. 2009. A Multi-Stage Orthomagmatic And Partial Melting Hypothesis For The Driekop Platiniferous Dunite Pipe, Eastern Limb Of The Bushveld Complex, South Africa. South African Journal of Geology 112:163-186. 2009 South Africa Field Study & Monitoring; GIS & Maps Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Seas At Risk. 2009. Moving Towards Low Impact Fisheries In Europe Policy Hurdles & Actions. 2009 Southeast Asia; Europe Review Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Banks, Credit, & Securities; Climate; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Funding & Incentives; Special Use Permitting; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Utility Line Construction & Maintenance
Staples, D. A. 2009. A new species of Rhopalorhynchus (Pycnogonida: Colossendeidae) from Lizard Island, North Queensland, Australia. Zootaxa 62-68. 2009 Australia Review Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Skeletal Coral
Trigg, C. and C. G. Moore. 2009. Recovery of the biogenic nest habitat of Limaria hians (Mollusca: Limacea) following anthropogenic disturbance. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 82:351-356. 2009 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Molluscs; Sediment
Viehman, S., S. M. Thur, and G. A. Piniak. 2009. Coral reef metrics and habitat equivalency analysis. Ocean and Coastal Management 52:181-188. 2009 Index or Indicator Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Petroleum Spills
Wallace, B. P., L. Avens, J. Braun-McNeill, and C. M. McClellan. 2009. The diet composition of immature loggerheads: Insights on trophic niche, growth rates, and fisheries interactions. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 373:50-57. 2009 Global; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Commercial Fisheries; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Nutrients; Sea Turtles; Snails & Conch; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Wolanski, E., J. A. Martinez, and R. H. Richmond. 2009. Quantifying the impact of watershed urbanization on a coral reef: Maunalua Bay, Hawaii. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 84:259-268. 2009 US Pacific & Hawaii Field Study & Monitoring; Model Algae; Coralline Algae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-Monetary Valuation; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Skeletal Coral; Small Herbivorous Fish; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Woodby, D., D. Carlile, and L. Hulbert. 2009. Predictive modeling of coral distribution in the Central Aleutian Islands, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series 397:227-240. 2009 Model Complex Habitat & Resources; Finfish Harvest; Octocoral; Substrate; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Yanez, E., C. Silva, R. Vega, F. Espindola, L. Alvarez, N. Silva, S. Palma, S. Salinas, E. Menschel, V. Haussermann, D. Soto, and N. Ramirez. 2009. Seamounts in the southeastern Pacific Ocean and biodiversity on Juan Fernandez seamounts, Chile. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research 37:555-570. 2009 US Pacific & Hawaii; Pacific Ocean Review Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Plankton; Stony Coral; Substrate; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
[No author name available]. 2008. Coastal Environment 2008: Environmental Problems in Coastal Regions, CENV 08. in WIT Transactions on the Built Environment. 2008 Field Study & Monitoring; Model Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Artificial Habitat; Boating Activities; Climate; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Petroleum Spills; Plankton; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation
Addison, P. F. E., R. S. Koss, and T. D. O'Hara. 2008. Recreational use of a rocky intertidal reef in Victoria: Implications for ecological research and management. Australasian Journal of Environmental Management 15:169-179. 2008 Australia Complex Habitat & Resources; Environmental Education & Outreach; Tourism & Recreation; Trampling
Bauer, L. J., M. S. Kendall, and C. F. G. Jeffrey. 2008. Incidence of marine debris and its relationships with benthic features in Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary, Southeast USA. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56:402-413. 2008 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Field Study & Monitoring Boating Activities; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Finfish Harvest; Marine Debris; Recreational Fishing; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Cabioch, G., L. Montaggioni, N. Frank, C. Seard, E. Salle, C. Payri, B. Pelletier, and M. Paterne. 2008. Successive reef depositional events along the Marquesas foreslopes (French Polynesia) since 26 ka. Marine Geology 254:18-34. 2008 Algae; Calcareous Macroalgae; Climate; Coralline Algae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Cook, S. E., K. W. Conway, and B. Burd. 2008. Status of the glass sponge reefs in the Georgia Basin. Marine Environmental Research 2008 Columbia GIS & Maps Finfish Harvest; Fish; Sediment; Sponges; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Delaunoy, O., N. Gracias, and R. Garcia. 2008. Towards detecting changes in underwater image sequences. in OCEANS'08 MTS/IEEE Kobe-Techno-Ocean'08 - Voyage toward the Future, OTO'08. 2008 Field Study & Monitoring; Model Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Storms & Hurricanes
Doerge, B. C. and C. Smith. 2008. Mechanisms of erosion of volcanic soils on non-agricultural lands in guam. Pages 419-429 in American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2008. 2008 Guam Agriculture; Coastal Defense; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fishing Sector; Military; Ports & Harbors; Shoreline Protection
Dryden, J., A. Grech, J. Moloney, and M. Hamann. 2008. Rezoning of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area: Does it afford greater protection for marine turtles? Wildlife Research 35:477-485. 2008 Australia Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Commercial Fisheries; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Landuse Management; Marine Protected Areas; Sea Turtles; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Ellis, N., F. Pantus, A. Welna, and A. Butler. 2008. Evaluating ecosystem-based management options: Effects of trawling in Torres Strait, Australia. Continental Shelf Research 28:2324-2338. 2008 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Model; Index or Indicator Echinoderms; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Fairclough, D. V., K. R. Clarke, F. J. Valesini, and I. C. Potter. 2008. Habitat partitioning by five congeneric and abundant Choerodon species (Labridae) in a large subtropical marine embayment. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 77:446-456. 2008 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia Finfish Harvest; Seagrasses; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Fanardzhian, S. V., M. A. Agaian, I. G. Agadzhanian, and A. M. Grabskii. 2008. The dynamics of pyelonephritic process activity indices after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with coral-like nephrolithiasis. Georgian medical news 157:20-23. 2008 Lab Study; Index or Indicator Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Flamand, B., G. Cabioch, C. Payri, and B. Pelletier. 2008. Nature and biological composition of the New Caledonian outer barrier reef slopes. Marine Geology 250:157-179. 2008 New Caledonia Model Algae; Coralline Algae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes
Gala, W. R., R. W. Hill, and L. A. Hostetter. 2008. Use of Habitat Equivalency Analysis (HEA) to determine the environmentally superior project alternative. Pages 1393-1401 in Society of Petroleum Engineers - 9th International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production 2008 - \In Search of Sustainable Excellence\"". 2008 Artificial Habitat; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fish; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration
Grech, A. and H. Marsh. 2008. Rapid assessment of risks to a mobile marine mammal in an ecosystem-scale marine protected area. Conservation Biology 22:711-720. 2008 Australia Model; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Finfish Harvest; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Whales & Dolphins
Guest, J. R., P. A. Todd, E. Goh, B. Sivaloganathan, and K. P. Reddy. 2008. Can giant clam (Tridacna squamosa) populations be restored on Singapore's heavily impacted coral reefs? Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18:570-579. 2008 US Pacific & Hawaii Aquaculture; Coastal Development; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Light; Sediment; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing
Hartog, W. M., L. Benedet, D.-J.R. Walstra, M. Van Koningsveld, M. J. F. Stive, and C. W. Finkl. 2008. Mechanisms that influence the performance of beach nourishment: A case-study in Delray Beach, Florida, U.S.A. Journal of Coastal Research 24:1304-1319. 2008 Florida Model Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Storms & Hurricanes
Hawdon, A. A., R. J. Keen, D. A. Post, and S. N. Wilkinson. 2008. Hydrological recovery of rangeland following cattle exclusion. IAHS-AISH Publication 532-539. 2008 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Haywood, M. D. E., C. R. Pitcher, N. Ellis, T. J. Wassenberg, G. Smith, K. Forcey, I. McLeod, A. Carter, C. Strickland, and R. Coles. 2008. Mapping and characterisation of the inter-reefal benthic assemblages of the Torres Strait. Continental Shelf Research 28:2304-2316. 2008 Australia GIS & Maps Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fishing Sector; Sediment; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Hiff, J. 2008. T/B Morris J. Berman oil spill: Restoration projects overview. Pages 145-150 in International Oil Spill Conference - IOSC 2008, Proceedings. 2008 Puerto Rico Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Complex Habitat & Resources; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Petroleum Spills; Sediment
Hirst, R., C. Sutton, and C.-H. Chaineau. 2008. Coral transplantation, an innovative measure in the frame of environmental impact mitigation. Pages 165-181 in Society of Petroleum Engineers - 9th International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production 2008 - \In Search of Sustainable Excellence\"". 2008 Fish; Mitigation; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Physical Damage; Substrate
Hughes, A. O., J. M. Olley, J. C. Croke, and L. A. Mckergow. 2008. Sediment sources in a dry-tropical catchment: central Queensland, Australia. IAHS-AISH Publication 351-358. 2008 Australia; Europe Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Landscape Changes; Mitigation; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Iannibelli, M. and D. Musmarra. 2008. Effects of anti-trawling artificial reefs on fish assemblages: The case of Salerno Bay (Mediterranean Sea). Italian Journal of Zoology 75:385-394. 2008 Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Artificial Habitat; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Izuka, S. K. and J. M. Resig. 2008. Evidence of Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene marine environments in the deep subsurface of the Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii. Palaios 23:442-451. 2008 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Salinity; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Jeffers, S. A., W. F. Patterson III, and J. H. Cowan Jr. 2008. Habitat and bycatch effects on population parameters of inshore lizardfish (Synodus foetens) in the north central Gulf of Mexico. Fishery Bulletin 106:417-426. 2008 South & Central America; Mexico Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Artificial Habitat; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Invertebrate Harvest; Skeletal Coral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Kim, C. G. and H. S. Kim. 2008. Post-placement management of artificial reefs in Korea. Fisheries 33:61-68. 2008 Artificial Habitat; Finfish Harvest; Marine Debris; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Leujak, W. and R. F. G. Ormond. 2008. Quantifying acceptable levels of visitor use on Red Sea reef flats. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18:930-944. 2008 Egypt Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Corallivorous Fish; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Skeletal Coral; Stony Coral; Tourism & Recreation; Trampling
Leujak, W. and R. F. G. Ormond. 2008. Reef walking on Red Sea reef flats - Quantifying impacts and identifying motives. Ocean and Coastal Management 51:755-762. 2008 Octocoral; Sediment; Stony Coral; Trampling
Lloret, J. and V. Riera. 2008. Evolution of a mediterranean coastal zone: Human impacts on the marine environment of cape creus. Environmental Management 42:977-988. 2008 Cuba Boating Activities; Climate; Commercial Fisheries; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Marine Protected Areas; Recreational Fishing; Seagrasses; Tourism & Recreation
Maynard, J. A. 2008. Severe anchor damage to Lobophyllia variegata colonies on the Fujikawa Maru, Truk Lagoon, Micronesia. Coral Reefs 27:273. 2008 Micronesia Anchoring & Vessel Grounding
Maynard, J. A., K. R. N. Anthony, S. Afatta, L. F. Anggainin, D. Haryanti, and Ambariyanto. 2008. Rock anchoring in Karimun Jawa, Indonesia: Ecological impacts and management implications. Pacific Conservation Biology 14:242-243. 2008 Indonesia Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Resource Use Management
Meixia, Z., Y. Kefu, Z. Qiaomin, and S. Qi. 2008. Spatial pattern of coral diversity in Luhuitou fringing reef, Sanya, China. Acta Ecologica Sinica 28:1419-1428. 2008 China Index or Indicator Aquaculture; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Stony Coral; Trampling
Michel, J., C. Boring, and C. Locke. 2008. Rapid assessment protocols for small vessel groundings. Pages 381-386 in International Oil Spill Conference - IOSC 2008, Proceedings. 2008 GIS & Maps Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Petroleum Spills; Seagrasses
Munoz-Perez, J. J. 2008. Artificial reefs to improve and protect fishing grounds. Recent Patents on Engineering 2:80-86. 2008 Review Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Artificial Habitat; Finfish Harvest; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
O'Hara, T. D., A. A. Rowden, and A. Williams. 2008. Cold-water coral habitats on seamounts: Do they have a specialist fauna? Diversity and Distributions 14:925-934. 2008 Australia Climate; Ocean Acidity; Skeletal Coral; Stony Coral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Poonian, C. N. S. 2008. The influence of protected area management on the status of coral reefs at Misali Island, Tanzania following the 1998 bleaching event in the western Indian Ocean. African Journal of Ecology 46:471-478. 2008 Indian Ocean; Cuba; Tanzania; India Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Landuse Management; Marine Protected Areas; Small Herbivorous Fish; Substrate
Rabaut, M., U. Braeckman, F. Hendrickx, M. Vincx, and S. Degraer. 2008. Experimental beam-trawling in Lanice conchilega reefs: Impact on the associated fauna. Fisheries Research 90:209-216. 2008 Field Study & Monitoring Complex Habitat & Resources; Fishing Sector; Marine Worms; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Rios-Jara, E., C. M. Galvan-Villa, and F. A. Solis-Marin. 2008. Echinoderms of the National Park Isla Isabel, Nayarit, Mexico [Equinodermos del Parque Nacional Isla Isabel, Nayarit, Mexico]. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 79:131-141. 2008 South & Central America; US Pacific & Hawaii; Mexico Index or Indicator Echinoderms; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Sea Urchins; Substrate; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Riul, P., C. H. Targino, J. D. N. Farias, P. T. Visscher, and P. A. Horta. 2008. Decrease in Lithothamnion sp. (Rhodophyta) primary production due to the deposition of a thin sediment layer. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 88:17-19. 2008 Oman; United Kingdom Agriculture; Algae; Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Coralline Algae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Light; Primary Production; Sediment
Schroeder, R. E., A. L. Green, E. E. DeMartini, and J. C. Kenyon. 2008. Long-term effects of a ship-grounding on coral reef fish assemblages at Rose Atoll, American Samoa. Bulletin of Marine Science 82:345-364. 2008 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia; Samoa; American Samoa Field Study & Monitoring Algae; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Cyanobacteria; Fish; Microorganisms; Small Herbivorous Fish
Sofonia, J. J. and K. R. N. Anthony. 2008. High-sediment tolerance in the reef coral Turbinaria mesenterina from the inner Great Barrier Reef lagoon (Australia). Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 78:748-752. 2008 Australia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Stony Coral
Wells, R. J. D., J. H. Cowan Jr., and W. F. Patterson III. 2008. Habitat use and the effect of shrimp trawling on fish and invertebrate communities over the northern Gulf of Mexico continental shelf. ICES Journal of Marine Science 65:1610-1619. 2008 Global; South & Central America; Mexico Index or Indicator Algae; Anemones & Zooanthids; Fish; Invertebrate Harvest; Skeletal Coral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Wells, R. J. D., J. H. Cowan Jr., W. F. Patterson III, and C. J. Walters. 2008. Effect of trawling on juvenile red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) habitat selection and life history parameters. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65:2399-2411. 2008 South & Central America; Mexico Complex Habitat & Resources; Fish; Invertebrate Harvest; Piscivorous Fish; Skeletal Coral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Whiteley, R. J. and S. B. Stewart. 2008. Case studies of shallow marine investigations in Australia with advanced underwater seismic refraction (USR). Exploration Geophysics 39:34-40. 2008 Australia Model Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Infrastructure; Pipelines; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
[No author name available]. 2007. Beach restoration in the Bahama Islands. World Dredging, Mining and Construction 43:11-Oct. 2007 Florida Model Dredging, Draining, & Filling
[No author name available]. 2007. CSD 600S: Vosta LMG completes dismountable cutter suction dredger. HSB International 56:17-22. 2007 Field Study & Monitoring Dredging, Draining, & Filling
[No author name available]. 2007. Islands of opportunity put Ras-al-Khaimah on the world map. World Dredging, Mining and Construction 43. 2007 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Tourism & Recreation
[No author name available]. 2007. Sediment remediation & aquatic enhancement of former Campbell Shipyard Port of San Diego, California. World Dredging, Mining and Construction 43:13-Oct. 2007 US Pacific & Hawaii Artificial Habitat; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fish; Military; Remediation; Sediment; Solid Waste Disposal
Acosta, A., C. Bartels, J. Colvocoresses, and M. F. D. Greenwood. 2007. Fish assemblages in seagrass habitats of the Florida keys, Florida: Spatial and temporal characteristics. Bulletin of Marine Science 81:19-Jan. 2007 Global; South & Central America; Florida; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Mexico Fish; Piscivorous Fish; Salinity; Seagrasses; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Alongi, D. M., L. A. Trott, and J. Pfitzner. 2007. Deposition, mineralization, and storage of carbon and nitrogen in sediments of the far northern and northern Great Barrier Reef shelf. Continental Shelf Research 27:2595-2622. 2007 Australia; Cuba; Europe CO2; Discharges; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Plankton; Primary Production; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Water Depth & Sea Level
Ammar, M. S. A. 2007. Recovery patterns of corals at Shabror Umm Gam'ar Hurghada, Red Sea, Egypt, after the 1998 outbreak of Acanthaster planci. Zoology in the Middle East 40:97-104. 2007 Egypt Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Octocoral; Seastars; Stony Coral
Bailey-Brock, J., R. Brock, A. Kam, A. Fukunaga, and H. Akiyama. 2007. Anthropogenic disturbance on shallow cryptofaunal communities in a marine life conservation district on Oahu, Hawaii. International Review of Hydrobiology 92:291-300. 2007 US Pacific & Hawaii Finfish Harvest; Fish; Marine Worms; Skeletal Coral; Trampling
Benedet, L., C. W. Finkl, and W. M. Hartog. 2007. Processes controlling development of erosional hot spots on a beach nourishment project. Journal of Coastal Research 23:33-48. 2007 Florida Beaches & Nature Parks; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Remediation; Sediment
Brown, B. E. 2007. Coral reefs of the Andaman Sea - An integrated perspective. Oceanography and Marine Biology 45:173-194. 2007 Global; Indian Ocean; India; Thailand; Malaysia; Indonesia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sea Temperatures; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Cooper, K., S. Boyd, J. Aldridge, and H. Rees. 2007. Cumulative impacts of aggregate extraction on seabed macro-invertebrate communities in an area off the east coast of the United Kingdom. Journal of Sea Research 57:288-302. 2007 United Kingdom Field Study & Monitoring; Model Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Invertebrates; Sediment
Dameron, O. J., M. Parke, M. A. Albins, and R. Brainard. 2007. Marine debris accumulation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: An examination of rates and processes. Marine Pollution Bulletin 54:423-433. 2007 US Pacific & Hawaii Finfish Harvest; Marine Debris; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Davies, A. J., J. M. Roberts, and J. Hall-Spencer. 2007. Preserving deep-sea natural heritage: Emerging issues in offshore conservation and management. Biological Conservation 138:299-312. 2007 Global; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean Review; Field Study & Monitoring Climate; CO2; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Marine Protected Areas; Ocean Acidity; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Dearden, P., M. Bennett, and R. Rollins. 2007. Perceptions of diving impacts and implications for reef conservation. Coastal Management 35:305-317. 2007 Cuba; Thailand Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Tourism & Recreation
Doorm-Groen, S. and T. Foster. 2007. Facts not theory. Pages 36-38 Dredging and Port Construction. 2007 Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Ehrhardt, N. M. and V. K. W. Deleveaux. 2007. The Bahamas' Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus) fishery - two assessment methods applied to a data - deficient coastal population. Fisheries Research 87:17-27. 2007 South & Central America; Bahamas; Caribbean Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Piscivorous Fish; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Environmental Protection Agency. 2007. National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Hydromodification. EPA 841-B-07-002, Office of Water, Washington, DC. 2007 Aquaculture; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Infrastructure; Irrigation; Microorganisms; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Point Source Discharges; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation; Water
Glynn, P. W., G. M. Wellington, B. Riegl, D. B. Olson, E. Borneman, and E. A. Wieters. 2007. Diversity and biogeography of the scleractinian coral fauna of Easter Island (Rapa Nui). Pacific Science 61:67-90. 2007 US Pacific & Hawaii; Cuba Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Stony Coral
Gordon, I. J. 2007. Linking land to ocean: Feedbacks in the management of socio-ecological systems in the Great Barrier Reef catchments. Hydrobiologia 591:25-33. 2007 Australia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation
Graham, N. A. J., T. R. McClanahan, Y. Letourneur, and R. Galzin. 2007. Anthropogenic stressors, inter-specific competition and ENSO effects on a Mauritian coral reef. Environmental Biology of Fishes 78:57-69. 2007 Global; Indian Ocean; Mauritius; India Climate; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fish; Fishing Sector; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation
Herr, A. and P. M. Kuhnert. 2007. Assesment of uncertainty in Great Barrier Reef catchment models. Water Science and Technology 56:181-188. 2007 Australia Model; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Landuse Management; Nutrients; Resource Use Management; Sediment
Herro, A. 2007. Eye on earth: South Pacific to be protected from destructive fishing. World Watch 20:4. 2007 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia Finfish Harvest; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Holliday, D., T. C. Stieglitz, P. V. Ridd, and W. W. Read. 2007. Geological controls and tidal forcing of submarine groundwater discharge from a confined aquifer in a coastal sand dune system. Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans 112. 2007 Australia Model Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Hsieh, H. J., C. A. Chen, C.-F. Dai, W. Ou, W.-S. Tsai, and W.-C. Su. 2007. From the drawing board to the field: An example for establishing an MPA in Penghu, Taiwan. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 17:619-635. 2007 Taiwan Field Study & Monitoring Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Environmental Education & Outreach; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Housing; Marine Protected Areas; Monetary Valuation; Snails & Conch; Tourism & Recreation
Islam, A., L. Wang, C. Smith, S. Reddy, A. Lewis, and A. Smith. 2007. Evaluation of satellite remote sensing for operational monitoring of sediment plumes produced by dredging at Hay Point, Queensland, Australia. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing 1. 2007 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Model; GIS & Maps; Remote Sensing Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Sediment
Jameson, S. C., M. S. A. Ammar, E. Saadalla, H. M. Mostafa, and B. Riegl. 2007. A quantitative ecological assessment of diving sites in the Egyptian Red Sea during a period of severe anchor damage: A baseline for restoration and sustainable tourism management. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 15:309-323. 2007 Egypt Review; Field Study & Monitoring Algae; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Octocoral; Physical Damage; Stony Coral; Tourism & Recreation
Jones, R. J. 2007. Chemical contamination of a coral reef by the grounding of a cruise ship in Bermuda. Marine Pollution Bulletin 54:905-911. 2007 Bermuda Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Cruise Ships; Remediation; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Toxics
Kott, P. 2007. New and little-known species of Didemnidae (Ascidiacea, Tunicata) from Australia (part 4). Journal of Natural History 41:1163-1211. 2007 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia; Indian Ocean; Cuba; India Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Leon, R., L. Somoza, T. Medialdea, F. J. Gonzalez, V. Diaz-del-Rio, M. C. Fernandez-Puga, A. Maestro, and M. P. Mata. 2007. Sea-floor features related to hydrocarbon seeps in deepwater carbonate-mud mounds of the Gulf of Cadiz: From mud flows to carbonate precipitates. Geo-Marine Letters 27:237-247. 2007 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Climate; Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Leujak, W. and R. F. G. Ormond. 2007. Visitor perceptions and the shifting social carrying capacity of South Sinai's coral reefs. Environmental Management 39:472-489. 2007 Egypt Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Tourism & Recreation; Trampling
Lumsden, S.E., T. F. Hourigan, A. W. Bruckner, and G. Dorr, editors. 2007. The State of Deep Coral Ecosystems of the United States: 2007. NOAA TEcHnical Memorandum CRCP - 3, NOAA, Silver Spring (Maryland, USA). 2007 Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Finfish Harvest; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Mangi, S. C. and C. M. Roberts. 2007. Factors influencing fish catch levels on Kenya's coral reefs. Fisheries Management and Ecology 14:245-253. 2007 Kenya Finfish Harvest; Fish; Sea Urchins; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Mangi, S. C., C. M. Roberts, and L. D. Rodwell. 2007. Financial comparisons of fishing gear used in Kenya's coral reef lagoons. Ambio 36:671-676. 2007 Kenya Banks, Credit, & Securities; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Mangi, S. C., C. M. Roberts, and L. D. Rodwell. 2007. Reef fisheries management in Kenya: Preliminary approach using the driver-pressure-state-impacts-response (DPSIR) scheme of indicators. Ocean and Coastal Management 50:463-480. 2007 Kenya Review; Index or Indicator; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Finfish Harvest; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
McCreary, J. P., T. Miyama, R. Furue, T. Jensen, H.-W. Kang, B. Bang, and T. Qu. 2007. Interactions between the Indonesian Throughflow and circulations in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Progress in Oceanography 75:70-114. 2007 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia; Indian Ocean; India; Pacific Ocean; Indonesia Field Study & Monitoring; Model Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Seawater Flow
Moore, S. A. and A. Polley. 2007. Defining indicators and standards for tourism impacts in protected areas: Cape Range National Park, Australia. Environmental Management 39:291-300. 2007 Australia Index or Indicator Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Tourism & Recreation
Murdoch, T. J. T., A. F. Glasspool, M. Outerbridge, J. Ward, S. Manuel, J. Gray, A. Nash, K. A. Coates, J. Pitt, J. W. Fourqurean, P. A. Barnes, M. Vierros, K. Holzer, and S. R. Smith. 2007. Large-scale decline in offshore seagrass meadows in Bermuda. Marine Ecology Progress Series 339:123-130. 2007 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Bermuda Field Study & Monitoring; GIS & Maps Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Physical Damage; Sea Turtles; Seagrasses
Pichel, W. G., J. H. Churnside, T. S. Veenstra, D. G. Foley, K. S. Friedman, R. E. Brainard, J. B. Nicoll, Q. Zheng, and P. Clemente-Colon. 2007. Marine debris collects within the North Pacific Subtropical Convergence Zone. Marine Pollution Bulletin 54:1207-1211. 2007 US Pacific & Hawaii Index or Indicator Finfish Harvest; Marine Birds; Marine Debris; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Whales & Dolphins
Price, A. R. G., M. J. Keeling, and I. N. Stewart. 2007. A robustness metric integrating spatial and temporal information: Application to coral reefs exposed to local and regional disturbances. Marine Ecology Progress Series 331:101-108. 2007 Global; Indian Ocean; India; Thailand Index or Indicator Climate; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sea Temperatures; Special Use Permitting; Storms & Hurricanes; Water Depth & Sea Level
Reed, J. K., C. C. Koenig, and A. N. Shepard. 2007. Impacts of bottom trawling on a deep-water Oculina coral ecosystem off Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science 81:481-496. 2007 Florida Commercial Fisheries; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Piscivorous Fish; Recreational Fishing; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Relini, G., M. Relini, G. Palandri, S. Merello, and E. Beccornia. 2007. History, ecology and trends for artificial reefs of the Ligurian sea, Italy. Hydrobiologia 580:193-217. 2007 Algae; Artificial Habitat; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fleshy Macroalgae; Funding & Donations; Funding & Incentives; Invasive Species; Seagrasses; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Roman, G. S. J., P. Dearden, and R. Rollins. 2007. Application of zoning and \limits of acceptable change\" to manage snorkelling tourism". Environmental Management 39:819-830. 2007 Thailand Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Fishing Sector; Landuse Management; Marine Protected Areas; Tourism & Recreation; Trampling
Seaman, W. 2007. Artificial habitats and the restoration of degraded marine ecosystems and fisheries. Hydrobiologia 580:143-155. 2007 South & Central America; US Pacific & Hawaii; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean; Cuba; Pacific Ocean; Japan; Mexico Review; Field Study & Monitoring; Model Aquaculture; Artificial Habitat; Commercial Fisheries; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Mitigation; Nutrients; Recreational Fishing; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Taylor, P. D., P. Kuklinski, and D. P. Gordon. 2007. Branch diameter and depositional depth in cyclostome bryozoans: Testing a potential paleobathymetric tool. Palaios 22:220-224. 2007 Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Sponges
Tupper, M. 2007. Identification of nursery habitats for commercially valuable humphead wrasse Cheilinus undulatus and large groupers (Pisces: Serranidae) in Palau. Marine Ecology Progress Series 332:189-199. 2007 Palau Algae; Coastal Development; Commercial Fisheries; Complex Habitat & Resources; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fish; Marine Protected Areas; Piscivorous Fish; Planktivorous Fish; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Skeletal Coral; Stony Coral; Wholesale & Retail Trade
Valdimarsson, G. 2007. Trawling the sea bed (Sheppard, 2006). Marine Pollution Bulletin 54:489-490. 2007 Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Van Soest, R. W. M., D. F. R. Cleary, M. J. De Kluijver, M. S. S. Lavaleye, C. Maier, and F. C. Van Duyl. 2007. Sponge diversity and community composition in Irish bathyal coral reefs. Contributions to Zoology 76:121-142. 2007 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Skeletal Coral; Sponges
Vargas-Angel, B., E.C. Peters, E. Kramarsky-Winter, D.S. Gilliam, R.E. Dodge. 2007. Cellular reactions to sedimentation and temperature stress in the Caribbean coral Montastraea cavernosa. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 95:140-145. 2007 South & Central America; Florida; Caribbean Lab Study Anemones & Zooanthids; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Octocoral; Sediment; Stony Coral; Zooxanthellae
Wanless, H. R. and K. L. Maier. 2007. An evaluation of beach renourishment sands adjacent to reefal settings, Southeast Florida. Southeastern Geology 45:25-42. 2007 Florida Beaches & Nature Parks; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Yang, S., L. Li, and C. Shi. 2007. Decision-making support system for vessel automatic anti-grounding and anti-reef. Pages 2356-2361 in International Conference on Transportation Engineering 2007, ICTE 2007. 2007 Model Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Water Depth & Sea Level
[No author name available]. 2006. The further adventures of. Pages 44-47 Dredging and Port Construction. 2006 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Coal Mining; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Marine Protected Areas; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing
Bloesch, P. M. and G. E. Rayment. 2006. Phosphorus fertility assessment of intensively farmed areas of catchments draining to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area; 2: Potential of soils to release soluble phosphorus. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 37:2265-2276. 2006 Australia Index or Indicator Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Boland, R., B. Zgliczynski, J. Asher, A. Hall, K. Hogrefe, and M. Timmers. 2006. Dynamics of debris densities removal at the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands coral reefs. Atoll Research Bulletin 461-470. 2006 US Pacific & Hawaii Finfish Harvest; Marine Debris; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Burridge, C. Y., C. R. Pitcher, B. J. Hill, T. J. Wassenberg, and I. R. Poiner. 2006. A comparison of demersal communities in an area closed to trawling with those in adjacent areas open to trawling: A study in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia. Fisheries Research 79:64-74. 2006 Australia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Marine Protected Areas; Sediment; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Callaghan, D. P., P. Nielsen, N. Cartwright, M. R. Gourlay, and T. E. Baldock. 2006. Atoll lagoon flushing forced by waves. Coastal Engineering 53:691-704. 2006 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia Model Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Camoin, G., G. Cabioch, A. Eisenhauer, J.-C. Braga, B. Hamelin, and G. Lericolais. 2006. Environmental significance of microbialites in reef environments during the last deglaciation. Sedimentary Geology 185:277-295. 2006 Algae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Nutrients; Plankton; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Campbell, S. J. and S. T. Pardede. 2006. Reef fish structure and cascading effects in response to artisanal fishing pressure. Fisheries Research 79:75-83. 2006 Indonesia Index or Indicator Corallivorous Fish; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Large Herbivorous Fish; Small Herbivorous Fish; Stony Coral; Substrate; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Davenport, J. and J. L. Davenport. 2006. The impact of tourism and personal leisure transport on coastal environments: A review. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 67:280-292. 2006 Cuba Review Beaches & Nature Parks; Boating Regulations; Cruise Ships; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Docks & Marinas; Hotel & Food Services; Infrastructure; Invasive Species; Land & Air Transportation; Small Boats; Tourism & Recreation; Trampling
Dinsdale, E. A. and D. M. Fenton. 2006. Assessing coral reef condition: Eliciting community meanings. Society and Natural Resources 19:239-258. 2006 Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Fish
Downs, C. A., R. H. Richmond, W. J. Mendiola, L. Rougee, and G. K. Ostrander. 2006. Cellular physiological effects of the MV Kyowa Violet fuel-oil spill on the hard coral, Porites lobata. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25:3171-3180. 2006 Micronesia Model Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Mangroves; Petroleum Spills; Stony Coral
Esselman, P. C., M. C. Freeman, and C. M. Pringle. 2006. Fish-assemblage variation between geologically defined regions and across a longitudinal gradient in the Monkey River Basin, Belize. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 25:142-156. 2006 South & Central America; Belize Index or Indicator Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fish; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Henry, L.-A., E. L. R. Kenchington, T. J. Kenchington, K. G. MacIsaac, C. Bourbonnais-Boyce, and D. C. Gordon Jr. 2006. Impacts of otter trawling on colonial epifaunal assemblages on a cobble bottom ecosystem on Western Bank (northwest Atlantic). Marine Ecology Progress Series 306:63-78. 2006 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Complex Habitat & Resources; Finfish Harvest; Octocoral; Sponges; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Tunicates
Hudson, J. H. and E. C. Franklin. 2006. Structural stabilization of a large Montastrea faveolata (Ellis and Solander, 1786) colony damaged by vessel impact. Caribbean Journal of Science 42:252-254. 2006 South & Central America; Florida; Puerto Rico; Caribbean Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Stony Coral
Kaiser, M. J., K. R. Clarke, H. Hinz, M. C. V. Austen, P. J. Somerfield, and I. Karakassis. 2006. Global analysis of response and recovery of benthic biota to fishing. Marine Ecology Progress Series 311:14-Jan. 2006 Global Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Marine Worms; Octocoral; Sediment; Sponges; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Kelley, C. and W. Ikehara. 2006. The impacts of bottomfishing on Raita and West St. Rogatien Banks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin 305-317. 2006 US Pacific & Hawaii Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Kott, P. 2006. Observations on non-didemnid ascidians from Australian waters (1). Journal of Natural History 40:169-234. 2006 Australia; Cuba; South Africa Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Mangi, S. C. and C. M. Roberts. 2006. Quantifying the environmental impacts of artisanal fishing gear on Kenya's coral reef ecosystems. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52:1646-1660. 2006 Kenya Field Study & Monitoring Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Physical Damage; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Noakes, S. E. and P. C. Jutte. 2006. Utilizing gamma isotope tracers to determine sediment source at reef sites near the Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52:666-673. 2006 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Field Study & Monitoring Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Ports & Harbors; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Packham, G. H., G. M. Philip, and T. C. T. Hubble. 2006. Late Silurian or Early Devonian corals from the continental slope off southern New South Wales. Alcheringa 30:33-42. 2006 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Water Depth & Sea Level
Rayment, G. E. and P. M. Bloesch. 2006. Phosphorus fertility assessment of intensively farmed areas of catchments draining to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area; 1: Soil phosphorus status. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 37:2249-2264. 2006 Australia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Nutrients
Reed, J. K., D. C. Weaver, and S. A. Pomponi. 2006. Habitat and fauna of deep-water Lophelia pertusa coral reefs off the southeastern U.S.: Blake Plateau, Straits of Florida, and Gulf of Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science 78:343-375. 2006 South & Central America; Florida; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Mexico GIS & Maps Biomedical Research Policies; Fish; Fishing Sector; Marine Protected Areas; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics Sources; Pipelines; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Roberts, J. M., A. J. Wheeler, and A. Freiwald. 2006. Reefs of the deep: The biology and geology of cold-water coral ecosystems. Science 312:543-547. 2006 Review Ocean Acidity; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Rogers, C. S. and J. Miller. 2006. Permanent 'phase shifts' or reversible declines in coral cover? Lack of recovery of two coral reefs in St. John, US Virgin Islands. Marine Ecology Progress Series 306:103-114. 2006 South & Central America; US Virgin Islands; Caribbean Field Study & Monitoring Algae; Finfish Harvest; Pathogens; Physical Damage; Small Herbivorous Fish; Storms & Hurricanes; Substrate
Rougee, L., C. A. Downs, R. H. Richmond, and G. K. Ostrander. 2006. Alteration of normal cellular profiles in the scleractinian coral (Pocillopora damicornis) following laboratory exposure to fuel oil. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25:3181-3187. 2006 Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Petroleum Spills; Stony Coral
Ruggiero, E. T., G. Buono, and P. Raia. 2006. Bioerosion on brachiopod shells of a thanatocoenosis of Alboràn sea (Spain). Pages 175-184 in Ichnos:an International Journal of Plant and Animal. 2006 Spain Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Sherman, R. L. and R. E. Spieler. 2006. Tires: Unstable materials for artificial reef construction. Pages 215-223 in WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment. 2006 Florida; Cuba Artificial Habitat; Fish; Physical Damage; Storms & Hurricanes; Tourism & Recreation
Stone, R. P. 2006. Coral habitat in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska: Depth distribution, fine-scale species associations, and fisheries interactions. Coral Reefs 25:229-238. 2006 Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Hydrocoral; Octocoral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Teeter, A. M. and B. H. Johnson. 2006. Sediment and fluid mud modeling of atchafalaya pro-delta channel. Pages 714-733 in Proceedings of the International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling. 2006 Field Study & Monitoring; Model Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Funding & Donations; Funding & Incentives; Salinity; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Toller, W. 2006. An investigation of anchor damage to the Frederiksted Reef System: Impacts to substrate, benthic communities, and reef fish assemblages. Disivision of Fish and Wildlife, Department of Planning and Natural Resources, Frederiksted, USVI. 2006 US Virgin Islands Index or Indicator; GIS & Maps Algae; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Calcareous Macroalgae; Commercial Fishing Boats; Complex Habitat & Resources; Fish; Fleshy Macroalgae; Skeletal Coral; Stony Coral; Substrate; Turf Algae
Ueda, Y., Y. Narimatsu, T. Hattori, M. Ito, D. Kitagawa, N. Tomikawa, and T. Matsuishi. 2006. Fishing efficiency estimated based on the abundance from virtual population analysis and bottom-trawl surveys of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus in the waters off the Pacific coast of northern Honshu, Japan. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi (Japanese Edition) 72:201-209. 2006 US Pacific & Hawaii; Japan Finfish Harvest; Fish; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
[No author name available]. 2005. News: Mock ship grounding and oil spill in Florida keys National Marine Sanctuary. Marine Pollution Bulletin 50. 2005 Florida Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Complex Habitat & Resources; Petroleum Spills; Security Policies
Adjeroud, M., Y. Chancerelle, M. Schrimm, T. Perez, D. Lecchini, R. Galzin, and B. Salvat. 2005. Detecting the effects of natural disturbances on coral assemblages in French Polynesia: A decade survey at multiple scales. Aquatic Living Resource 18:111-123. 2005 US Pacific & Hawaii; Pacific Ocean Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Physical Damage; Seastars; Stony Coral
Bakir, K. and T. Katagan. 2005. Crustacean diversity of the coralligenous beds of Markiz Island (Aegean coast of Turkey). Crustaceana 78:873-883. 2005 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp
Bennett, V. and D. Noviello. 2005. Response to the grounding of the F/V Ei Jyu Maru No. 21. Page 7183 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 US Pacific & Hawaii; Japan; Palau; Guam Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Coastal Defense; Finfish Harvest; Infrastructure; Petroleum Spills
Boulon, R., M. Chiappone, R. Halley, W. Jaap, B. Keller, B. Kruczynski, M. Miller, and C. Rogers. 2005. Atlantic Acropora Status Review. 2005 Global; South & Central America; Florida; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Jamaica; Belize; Caribbean; Mexico Review Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Climate; Coastal Development; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Pathogens; Physical Damage; Sediment; Special Use Permitting; Stony Coral; Storms & Hurricanes; Zooxanthellae
Capune, W. K. 2005. Jin Shiang Fa case study: What could have been done? Pages 4183-4186 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Finfish Harvest; Petroleum Spills
Chapman, D. J. and B. E. Julius. 2005. The use of preventative projects as compensatory restoration. Journal of Coastal Research 21:120-131. 2005 Florida Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Activities; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Petroleum Spills
Chen, F., H. Ouyang, X. Feng, Z. Gao, Y. Yang, X. Zou, T. Liu, G. Zhao, and T. Mao. 2005. Anchoring dental implant in tissue-engineered bone using composite scaffold: A preliminary study in nude mouse model. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 63:586-591. 2005 Cuba Model Anchoring & Vessel Grounding
Chiappone, M., H. Dienes, D. W. Swanson, and S. L. Miller. 2005. Impacts of lost fishing gear on coral reef sessile invertebrates in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Biological Conservation 121:221-230. 2005 Florida Commercial Fisheries; Complex Habitat & Resources; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Hydrocoral; Octocoral; Recreational Fishing; Sponges; Stony Coral; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Waterborne Discharges
Crigger, D. K., G. A. Graves, and D. L. Fike. 2005. Lake Worth Lagoon conceptual ecological model. Wetlands 25:943-954. 2005 Florida Model Boating Activities; Discharges; Finfish Harvest; Invertebrates; Mangroves; Nutrients; Salinity; Seagrasses; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetlands
Dunbrack, R. and R. Zielinski. 2005. Body size distribution and frequency of anthropogenic injuries of Bluntnose Sixgill Sharks, Hexanchus griseus, at Flora Islets, British Columbia. Canadian Field-Naturalist 119:537-540. 2005 Columbia Apex Fish Predators; Finfish Harvest; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Elliott, J. E. 2005. Responding to vessel groundings and oil spills in national parks and marine sanctuaries. Pages 10012-10017 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 Florida Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Petroleum Spills; Seagrasses
Finkl, C. W., R. H. Charlier, and S. L. Krupa. 2005. Vulnerability of coastal environments to land use and abuse: The example of southeast Florida. International Journal of Environmental Studies 62:535-554. 2005 Florida; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Flood, V. S., J. M. Pitt, and S. R. Smith. 2005. Historical and ecological analysis of coral communities in Castle Harbour (Bermuda) after more than a century of environmental perturbation. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:545-557. 2005 Bermuda Review Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Seawater Flow; Sediment; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Garzon-Ferreira, J., S. Zea, and J. M. Diaz. 2005. Incidence of partial mortality and other health indicators in hard-coral communities of four southwestern Caribbean atolls. Bulletin of Marine Science 76:105-122. 2005 Global; South & Central America; Caribbean Index or Indicator Algae; Pathogens; Physical Damage; Sea Urchins; Stony Coral
Gayle, P. M. H., P. Wilson-Kelly, and S. Green. 2005. Transplantation of benthic species to mitigate impacts of coastal development in Jamaica. Revista de Biologia Tropical 53:105-115. 2005 Jamaica; Panama Coastal Development; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Mitigation; Octocoral; Recreational Opportunities; Sea Urchins; Sediment; Stony Coral; Substrate
Gonzalez-Correa, J. M., J. T. Bayle, J. L. Sanchez-Lizaso, C. Valle, P. Sanchez-Jerez, and J. M. Ruiz. 2005. Recovery of deep Posidonia oceanica meadows degraded by trawling. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 320:65-76. 2005 Artificial Habitat; Seagrasses; Sediment; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Greiner, R., A. Herr, J. Brodie, and D. Haynes. 2005. A multi-criteria approach to Great Barrier Reef catchment (Queensland, Australia) diffuse-source pollution problem. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:128-137. 2005 Australia Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Henry, C. and E. Levine. 2005. NOAA'S response to the Jessica oil spill in the Galapagos archipelago. Pages 10338-10342 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Coastal Defense; Petroleum Spills
Hudson, J. H. and E. C. Franklin. 2005. Structural reef restoration and coral transplantation to the R/V Columbus Iselin grounding site in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. in Proceedings of MTS/IEEE OCEANS, 2005. 2005 Florida Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Complex Habitat & Resources; Ports & Harbors; Storms & Hurricanes; Wetland & Reef Restoration
Knap, A. H., T. D. Sleeter, and I. W. Hughes. 2005. Case history: The grounding of the M/T Tifoso, 1983 A test of Bermuda's contingency plan. Page 913 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Bermuda Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Coastal Defense; Petroleum Spills; Tourism & Recreation
Kwon, M. S., J. H. Noh, and M. Lee. 2005. An overview of potentials in the South Pacific and the new R&D investment challenges. Ocean and Polar Research 27:419-431. 2005 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fishing Sector; Recreational Opportunities; Tourism & Recreation
Loiola, L. L. and C. B. Castro. 2005. Tanacetipathes Opresko, 2001 (Cnidaria: Antipatharia: Myriopathidae) from Brazil, including two new species. Zootaxa 31-Jan. 2005 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Cuba Dredging, Draining, & Filling
McComb, P. and K. Black. 2005. Detailed observations of littoral transport using artificial sediment tracer, in a high-energy, rocky reef and iron sand environment. Journal of Coastal Research 21:358-373. 2005 Model Beaches & Nature Parks; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Shoreline Protection; Water Depth & Sea Level
Mriner, N., C. Morhange, M. Boudagher-Fadel, M. Bourcier, and P. Carbonel. 2005. Geoarchaeology of Tyre's ancient northern harbour, Phoenicia. Journal of Archaeological Science 32:1302-1327. 2005 Oman Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Sediment
Mutti, M., A. W. Droxler, and A. D. Cunningham. 2005. Evolution of the Northern Nicaragua Rise during the Oligocene-Miocene: Drowning by environmental factors. Sedimentary Geology 175:237-258. 2005 South & Central America; Jamaica; Honduras; Nicaragua; Caribbean Climate; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. 2005. Contaminated Sediment Remediation Guidance for Hazardous Waste Sites. EPA-540-R-05-012, US Environmental Protection Agency. 2005 India Review; Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study; Model Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Health Policies; Infrastructural Policies; Infrastructure; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Remediation; Security Policies; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Solid Waste Disposal; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Waste Management Policies
O'Reagain, P. J., J. Brodie, G. Fraser, J. J. Bushell, C. H. Holloway, J. W. Faithful, and D. Haynes. 2005. Nutrient loss and water quality under extensive grazing in the upper Burdekin river catchment, North Queensland. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:37-50. 2005 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Peterson, C. H. and M. J. Bishop. 2005. Assessing the environmental impacts of beach nourishment. Bioscience 55:887-896. 2005 Global Review; Field Study & Monitoring Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Coastal Development; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Invertebrates; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Marine Birds; Mitigation; Sea Turtles; Water Depth & Sea Level
Petit, C. C. and J. J. Vandenabeele. 2005. Supporting coastal and lake applications with the help of remote sensing. Pages 2771-2774 in International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS). 2005 Indonesia Field Study & Monitoring; Model; GIS & Maps; Remote Sensing; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Climate; Coastal Development; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Plankton; Sediment
Rinkevich, B. 2005. Conservation of coral reefs through active restoration measures: Recent approaches and last decade progress. Environmental Science and Technology 39:4333-4342. 2005 Review; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Aquaculture; Artificial Habitat; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Substrate; Wetland & Reef Restoration
Roark, E. B., T. P. Guilderson, S. Flood-Page, R. B. Dunbar, B. L. Ingram, S. J. Fallon, and M. McCulloch. 2005. Radiocarbon-based ages and growth rates of bamboo corals from the Gulf of Alaska. Geophysical Research Letters 32:5-Jan. 2005 Climate; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Sakas, C. J. 2005. Rivers to reefs - Watersheds affect ocean reefs oceans 2005 MTS/IEEE. in Proceedings of MTS/IEEE OCEANS, 2005. 2005 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Salin, K. R., T. M. Yohannan, and C. Mohanakumaran Nair. 2005. Fisheries and trade of seahorses, Hippocampus spp., in southern India. Fisheries Management and Ecology 12:269-273. 2005 India; Malaysia; United Arab Emirates Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Aquarium & Pet Trade; Aquarium Stock; Echinoderms; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Invertebrate Harvest; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics; Sponges; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Saphier, A. D. and T. C. Hoffmann. 2005. Forecasting models to quantify three anthropogenic stresses on coral reefs from marine recreation: Anchor damage, diver contact and copper emission from antifouling paint. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:590-598. 2005 Model Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Tourism & Recreation
SeafoodWatch. 2005. Sustainable Seafood Business Practices. Monteray Bay. 2005 Global Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Aquaculture; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Hotel & Food Services; Marine Birds; Marine Debris; Sea Turtles; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Wetlands; Whales & Dolphins; Wholesale & Retail Trade
Stone, G. W., X. Zhang, and A. Sheremet. 2005. The role of barrier islands, muddy shelf and reefs in mitigating the wave field along coastal Louisiana. Journal of Coastal Research 21:40-55. 2005 Field Study & Monitoring; Model Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Sumpton, W. and S. Jackson. 2005. The effects of incidental trawl capture of juvenile snapper (Pagrus auratus) on yield of a sub-tropical line fishery in Australia: An assessment examining habitat preference and early life history characteristics. Fisheries Research 71:335-347. 2005 Australia Model Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Octocoral; Piscivorous Fish; Skeletal Coral; Substrate; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Symons, L. C. and J. Morris. 2005. Development of multi-hazard contingency plans and tools for the National Marine Sanctuary System. Pages 9628-9631 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 Florida; US Pacific & Hawaii; Samoa; American Samoa Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Cultural Protections; Marine Protected Areas; Petroleum Spills; Special Use Permitting; Storms & Hurricanes; Whales & Dolphins
Symons, L. C., M. Hodges, and M. S. Devany. 2005. Flexibility for NOAA in development and application of multi-hazard contingency plans and response tools: The Sanctuaries Hazardous Incident Logistics Database System (SHIELDS). Pages 11158-11160 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, IOSC 2005. 2005 US Pacific & Hawaii Review; GIS & Maps; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Regulations; Cultural Policies; Cultural Protections; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Marine Protected Areas; Petroleum Spills; Small Boats; Special Use Permitting; Storms & Hurricanes
Symons, L. C., R. Pavia, and M. Hodges. 2005. Emergency response in National Marine Sanctuaries. in Proceedings of MTS/IEEE OCEANS, 2005. 2005 Florida Field Study & Monitoring; Model Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Coastal Defense; Security Policies; Transportation Policies
Toscano, F. and A. Raspini. 2005. Epilithozoan fauna associated with ferromanganese crustgrounds on the continental slope segment between Capri and Li Galli Islands (Bay of Salerno, Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Facies 50:427-441. 2005 Oman Bivalves; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Marine Worms; Sponges
Van Soest, R. W. M. and M. S. S. Lavaleye. 2005. Diversity and abundance of sponges in bathyal coral reefs of Rockall Bank, NE Atlantic, from boxcore samples. Marine Biology Research 1:338-349. 2005 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sponges
Vandegrift, S. 2005. Peanut Island/Snook Islands environmental restoration project. World Dredging, Mining and Construction 41. 2005 Florida; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Docks & Marinas; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Military; Storms & Hurricanes
Waller, R. G. and P. A. Tyler. 2005. The reproductive biology of two deep-water, reef-building scleractinians from the NE Atlantic Ocean. Coral Reefs 24:514-522. 2005 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean Finfish Harvest; Stony Coral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Warner, G. F. 2005. The occurrence of black corals in Jamaican reef environments, with special reference to Stichopathes lutkeni (Antipatharia: Antipathidae). Revista de Biologia Tropical 53:61-66. 2005 South & Central America; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Cuba; Jamaica; Caribbean Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Waycott, M., B. J. Longstaff, and J. Mellors. 2005. Seagrass population dynamics and water quality in the Great Barrier Reef region: A review and future research directions. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51:343-350. 2005 Australia Review; Field Study & Monitoring Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fishing Sector; Nutrients; Sea Turtles; Seagrasses; Toxics
Asoh, K., T. Yoshikawa, R. Kosaki, and E. A. Marschall. 2004. Damage to cauliflower coral by monofilament fishing lines in Hawaii. Conservation Biology 18:1645-1650. 2004 US Pacific & Hawaii Finfish Harvest; Physical Damage; Recreational Fishing; Skeletal Coral; Stony Coral; Tourism & Recreation
Boggemann, M. and W. Westheide. 2004. Interstitial Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Mahe (Seychelles). Journal of Natural History 38:403-446. 2004 Seychelles Field Study & Monitoring Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Marine Worms; Skeletal Coral
Brock, R. J. and B. F. Culhane. 2004. The no-take research natural area of Dry Tortugas National Park (Florida): Wishful thinking or responsible planning? Pages 67-74 in American Fisheries Society Symposium. 2004 Florida Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Beaches & Nature Parks; Boating Regulations; Cultural Policies; Cultural Protections; Fishing Sector; Marine Protected Areas; Piscivorous Fish; Resource Use Management; Scientific Research; Seagrasses
Cappo, M., P. Speare, and G. De'Ath. 2004. Comparison of baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVS) and prawn (shrimp) trawls for assessments of fish biodiversity in inter-reefal areas of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 302:123-152. 2004 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Model Fish; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Marine Protected Areas; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Chiappone, M., D. W. Swanson, S. L. Miller, and H. Dienes. 2004. Spatial distribution of lost fishing gear on fished and protected offshore reefs in the Florida Keys national marine sanctuary. Caribbean Journal of Science 40:312-326. 2004 Florida Field Study & Monitoring Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Marine Debris; Marine Protected Areas; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Cole, R. and G. McBride. 2004. Assessing impacts of dredge spoil disposal using equivalence tests: Implications of a precautionary (proof of safety) approach. Marine Ecology Progress Series 279:63-72. 2004 Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Coleman, F. C., P. B. Baker, and C. C. Koenig. 2004. A Review of Gulf of Mexico Marine Protected Areas: Successes, Failures, and Lessons Learned. Fisheries 29:21-Oct. 2004 South & Central America; Mexico Review; Field Study & Monitoring Commercial Fisheries; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Marine Protected Areas; Recreational Fishing; Special Use Permitting; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Dinsdale, E. A. and V. J. Harriott. 2004. Assessing Anchor Damage on Coral Reefs: A Case Study in Selection of Environmental Indicators. Environmental Management 33:126-139. 2004 Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Complex Habitat & Resources
Esslemont, G., R. A. Russell, and W. A. Maher. 2004. Coral record of harbour dredging: Townsville, Australia. Journal of Marine Systems 52:51-64. 2004 Australia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Light; Sediment; Stony Coral
Frihy, O. E., M. A. El Ganaini, W. R. El Sayed, and M. M. Iskander. 2004. The role of fringing coral reef in beach protection of Hurghada, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea of Egypt. Ecological Engineering 22:17-25. 2004 Egypt Field Study & Monitoring; Model Artificial Habitat; Beaches & Nature Parks; Docks & Marinas; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Tourism & Recreation
Gribble, N. A. 2004. A spatially explicit multi-competitor coexistence model of penaeid (shrimp) distribution on the Australian Great Barrier Reef. Ecological Modelling 177:61-74. 2004 Australia Model; Index or Indicator Finfish Harvest; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Storms & Hurricanes; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Jenkins, G. P. 2004. The ecosystem effects of abalone fishing: A review. Marine and Freshwater Research 55:545-552. 2004 Review; Index or Indicator Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Marine Protected Areas; Sea Urchins; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Jouvenel, J.-Y., F. Bachet, J.-G. Harmelin, and D. Bellan-Santini. 2004. Biological monitoring of a marine reserve ('Cote bleue' marine park, Marseilles Bay, Mediterranean Sea, France) [Suivi biologique d'une reserve marine de la Cote bleue (golfe de Marseille, Mediterranee, France)]. Revue d'Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie) 59:243-251. 2004 France Field Study & Monitoring Artificial Habitat; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Marine Protected Areas; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Moore, J. G. and D. A. Clague. 2004. Hawaiian submarine manganese-iron oxide crusts - A dating tool? Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 116:337-347. 2004 US Pacific & Hawaii Field Study & Monitoring; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Mundy, B. C. and F. A. Parrish. 2004. New records of the fish genus Grammatonotus (Teleostei: Perciformes: Percoidei: Callanthiidae) from the Central Pacific, including a spectacular species in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Science 58:403-417. 2004 US Pacific & Hawaii Review Fish; Plankton; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Puotinen, M. L. 2004. Tropical cyclones in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 1910-1999: A first step towards characterising the disturbance regime. Australian Geographical Studies 42:378-392. 2004 Australia GIS & Maps Physical Damage; Storms & Hurricanes
Quattrini, A. M., S. W. Ross, K. J. Sulak, A. M. Necaise, T. L. Casazza, and G. D. Dennis. 2004. Marine fishes new to continental United States waters, North Carolina, and the Gulf of Mexico. Southeastern Naturalist 3:155-172. 2004 South & Central America; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Mexico Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Smith, P. J., S. M. McVeagh, J. T. Mingoia, and S. C. France. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in deep-sea bamboo coral (Keratoisidinae) species in the southwest and northwest Pacific Ocean. Marine Biology 144:253-261. 2004 US Pacific & Hawaii; Pacific Ocean Stony Coral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Sumida, P. Y. G., M. Y. Yoshinaga, L.A.S.-P. Madureira, and M. Hovland. 2004. Seabed pockmarks associated with deepwater corals off SE Brazilian continental slope, Santos Basin. Marine Geology 207:159-167. 2004 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean GIS & Maps Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Marine Worms; Sediment; Skeletal Coral
Toscas, P. J., M. J. Faddy, and C. Y. Burridge. 2004. Analysis of the impact of prawn trawling on benthic species in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Environmetrics 15:279-289. 2004 Australia Model Finfish Harvest; Marine Protected Areas; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Wielgus, J. 2004. General protocol for calculating the basis of legal claims for damages caused by vessel groundings in Eilat. Israel Nature and National Parks Protection Authority, Jerusalem. 2004 Anchoring & Vessel Grounding
Wielgus, J. 2004. General protocol for calculating the basis of monetary legal claims for damages to coral reefs by vessel groundings and an application to the northern Red Sea. Israel Nature and National Parks Protection Authority, Jerusalem. 2004 Cuba Field Study & Monitoring Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Complex Habitat & Resources; Monetary Valuation; Valuation
Anderson, O. F. and M. R. Clark. 2003. Analysis of bycatch in the fishery for orange roughy, Hoplostethus atlanticus, on the South Tasman Rise. Marine and Freshwater Research 54:643-652. 2003 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Stony Coral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Boland, R. C. and M. J. Donohue. 2003. Marine debris accumulation in the nearshore marine habitat of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi 1999-2001. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46:1385-1394. 2003 US Pacific & Hawaii; Pacific Ocean Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Marine Debris; Mitigation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Burridge, C. Y., C. R. Pitcher, T. J. Wassenberg, I. R. Poiner, and B. J. Hill. 2003. Measurement of the rate of depletion of benthic fauna by prawn (shrimp) otter trawls: An experiment in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Fisheries Research 60:237-253. 2003 Global; Australia Model Algae; Fish; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Octocoral; Sponges; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Creary, M. M. 2003. A simplified field guide to the bryozoan species found on the roots of the red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) in and around Kingston Harbour, Jamaica, W.I. Bulletin of Marine Science 73:521-526. 2003 South & Central America; Jamaica; Caribbean Field Study & Monitoring Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Mangroves; Substrate
Croquer, A. and D. Bone. 2003. Disease in scleractinian corals: A new problem in the reef at Cayo Sombrero, Morrocoy National Park, Venezuela? [Las enfermedades en corales escleractinidos: ¿Un nuevo problema en el arrecife de Cayo Sombrero, Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela?]. Revista de Biologia Tropical 51:167-172. 2003 South & Central America; Venezuela; Caribbean Field Study & Monitoring Algae; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Pathogens; Stony Coral
Donohue, M. J. 2003. How multiagency partnerships can successfully address large-scale pollution problems: A Hawaii case study. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46:700-702. 2003 US Pacific & Hawaii; Pacific Ocean Review; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Collaboration & Partnering; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Marine Debris; Mitigation; Resource Use Management; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Waterborne Discharges
Edgar, G. J., P. A. Marshall, and P. Mooney. 2003. The effect of the Jessica grounding on Galapagos reef fish communities adjacent to the wreck site. Marine Pollution Bulletin 47:296-302. 2003 Algae; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Fish; Oil & Gas Tankers; Petroleum Spills; Small Herbivorous Fish
Fabricius, K. E., C. Wild, E. Wolanski, and D. Abele. 2003. Effects of transparent exopolymer particles and muddy terrigenous sediments on the survival of hard coral recruits. 57:613-621. 2003 Australia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Stony Coral
Finkl, C. W. and R. H. Charlier. 2003. Sustainability of Subtropical Coastal Zones in Southeastern Florida: Challenges for Urbanized Coastal Environments Threatened by Development, Pollution, Water Supply, and Storm Hazards. Journal of Coastal Research 19:934-943. 2003 Florida; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Cuba Model Agriculture; Banks, Credit, & Securities; Chemical Use Regulations; Discharges; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish Harvest; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Remediation; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation; Water; Wetlands
Gittings, S. R., K. Benson, L. Takata, and K. Witman. 2003. Conservation science in the National Marine Sanctuary Program. Marine Technology Society Journal 37:9-May. 2003 US Pacific & Hawaii Field Study & Monitoring Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Cultural Policies; Cultural Protections; Finfish Harvest; Marine Protected Areas; Petroleum Spills; Whales & Dolphins
Gribble, N.A. 2003. GBR-prawn: modelling ecosystem impacts of changes in fisheries management of the commercial prawn (shrimp) trawl fishery in the far northern Great Barrier Reef. Fisheries Research 65:493-506. 2003 Australia Model Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Apex Fish Predators; Complex Habitat & Resources; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Marine Birds; Piscivorous Fish; Sea Turtles; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Henry, L.-A., E. L. R. Kenchington, and A. Silvaggio. 2003. Effects of mechanical experimental disturbance on aspects of colony responses, reproduction, and regeneration in the cold-water octocoral Gersemia rubiformis. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81:1691-1701. 2003 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Octocoral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Huang, L., Y. Tan, X. Song, X. Huang, H. Wang, S. Zhang, J. Dong, and R. Chen. 2003. The status of the ecological environment and a proposed protection strategy in Sanya Bay, Hainan Island, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin 47:180-186. 2003 China Fish; Mangroves; Molluscs; Monetary Valuation; Nutrients; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Plankton; Shoreline Protection; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Lindahl, U. 2003. Coral reef rehabilitation through transplantation of staghorn corals: Effects of artificial stabilization and mechanical damages. Coral Reefs 22:217-223. 2003 Physical Damage; Stony Coral; Substrate
Lirman, D. and M. W. Miller. 2003. Modeling and monitoring tools to assess recovery status and convergence rates between restored and undisturbed coral reef habitats. Restoration Ecology 11:448-456. 2003 Florida Field Study & Monitoring; Model; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Activities; Complex Habitat & Resources; Physical Damage; Stony Coral; Substrate
Lirman, D., B. Orlando, S. Macia, D. Manzello, L. Kaufman, P. Biber, and T. Jones. 2003. Coral communities of Biscayne Bay, Florida and adjacent offshore areas: Diversity, abundance, distribution, and environmental correlates. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 13:121-135. 2003 Florida Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Complex Habitat & Resources; Salinity; Sediment; Stony Coral; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Littlewood, D. T. J. and S. K. Donovan. 2003. Fossil parasites: A case of identity. Geology Today 19:136-142. 2003 Echinoderms; Trampling
Morris, M. J., J. D. Collen, R. Smith, and J. E. Patterson. 2003. Sedimentology and geochemistry of reef flat sediments, Suva, Fiji: Implications for cement manufacture. Environmental and Engineering Geoscience 9:295-304. 2003 Fiji Algae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Echinoderms; Molluscs; Sediment
Proni, J. R. and R. I. McMillen. 2003. Distinguishing ambient and anthropogenic sediments at sensitive coastal ocean sites. Pages 377-386 in Environmental Studies. 2003 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Rao, V. P., L. Montaggioni, K. H. Vora, F. Almeida, K. M. Rao, and G. Rajagopalan. 2003. Significance of relic carbonate deposits along the central and southwestern margin of India for late Quaternary environmental and sea level changes. Sedimentary Geology 159:95-111. 2003 India Index or Indicator Algae; Coralline Algae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Nutrients; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Roberts, J. M., D. Long, J. B. Wilson, P. B. Mortensen, and J. D. Gage. 2003. The cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia) and enigmatic seabed mounds along the north-east Atlantic margin: Are they related? Marine Pollution Bulletin 46:20-Jul. 2003 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Finfish Harvest; Stony Coral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Water Depth & Sea Level
Rodgers, K. S. and E. F. Cox. 2003. The effects of trampling on Hawaiian corals along a gradient of human use. Biological Conservation 112:383-389. 2003 US Pacific & Hawaii Trampling
Rodgers, K., E. Cox, and C. Newtson. 2003. Effects of mechanical fracturing and experimental trampling on Hawaiian corals. Environmental Management 31:377-384. 2003 US Pacific & Hawaii Shoreline Protection; Stony Coral; Trampling
Siar, S. V. 2003. Knowledge, gender, and resources in small-scale fishing: The case of Honda Bay, Palawan, Philippines. Environmental Management 31:569-580. 2003 Philippines GIS & Maps Echinoderms; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Housing; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Smith, L. D., A. P. Negri, E. Philipp, N. S. Webster, and A. J. Heyward. 2003. The effects of antifoulant-paint-contaminated sediments on coral recruits and branchlets. Marine Biology 143:651-657. 2003 Australia Lab Study Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Marine Protected Areas; Sediment; Stony Coral; Zooxanthellae
Spadoni, R. H. and H. Hudson. 2003. Repair of coral reefs following large vessel groundings. Pages 1500-1503 in Oceans Conference Record (IEEE). 2003 Florida; Puerto Rico Anchoring & Vessel Grounding
Steller, D. L., R. Riosmena-Rodriguez, M. S. Foster, and C. A. Roberts. 2003. Rhodolith bed diversity in the Gulf of California: The importance of rhodolith structure and consequences of disturbance. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 13. 2003 Algae; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Complex Habitat & Resources; Finfish Harvest; Marine Worms; Sediment; Substrate; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Talbot, L. M., S. M. Turton, and A. W. Graham. 2003. Trampling resistance of tropical rainforest soils and vegetation in the wet tropics of north east Australia. Journal of Environmental Management 69:63-69. 2003 Australia Littering; Seagrasses; Trampling
The Coral Reef Alliance (CORAL) the Tour Opperators' Iniative (TOI) and The Center for Environmental Leadership in Business (CELB). 2003. A Practical Guide to Good Practice: Managing Environmental Impacts In The Marine Recreation Sector. 2003 Cuba Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Regulations; Cultural Policies; Cultural Protections; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Hotel & Food Services; Recreational Fishing; Souvenir & Decorative Trade; Storms & Hurricanes; Tourism & Recreation; Travel Services & Tour Operators
Bertrand, A., F.-X. Bard, and E. Josse. 2002. Tuna food habits related to the micronekton distribution in French Polynesia. Marine Biology 140:1023-1037. 2002 Fish; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Brown, B. E., K. R. Clarke, and R. M. Warwick. 2002. Serial patterns of biodiversity change in corals across shallow reef flats in KO Phuket, Thailand, due to the effects of local (sedimentation) and regional (climatic) perturbations. Marine Biology 141:21-29. 2002 Indian Ocean; India; Thailand Field Study & Monitoring Climate; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Sea Temperatures; Sediment; Stony Coral; Water Depth & Sea Level; Zooxanthellae
Burton, W. H., J. S. Farrar, F. Steimle, and B. Conlin. 2002. Assessment of out-of-kind mitigation success of an artificial reef deployed in Delaware Bay, USA. ICES Journal of Marine Science 59. 2002 Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Artificial Habitat; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Mitigation; Ports & Harbors
Calhoun, R. S., C. H. Fletcher, and J. N. Harney. 2002. A budget of marine and terrigenous sediments, Hanalei Bay, Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Sedimentary Geology 150:61-87. 2002 US Pacific & Hawaii Algae; Calcareous Macroalgae; Coralline Algae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Echinoderms; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Charlier, R. H. 2002. Impact on the coastal environment of marine aggregates mining. International Journal of Environmental Studies 59:297-322. 2002 Australia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Mining
Chiappone, M., A. White, D. W. Swanson, and S. L. Miller. 2002. Occurrence and biological impacts of fishing gear and other marine debris in the Florida Keys. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44:597-604. 2002 Florida Finfish Harvest; Marine Debris; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Cochrane, K.L., editor. 2002. A Fishery Manager's Guidebook. Management Measures and their application. Fisheries Technical Paper 424, FAO, Rome. 2002 Review; Field Study & Monitoring Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Collaboration & Partnering; Finfish Harvest; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Cornee, J.-J., M. Villeneuve, M. Ferrandini, F. Hinschberger, J. Malod, K. Matsumaru, A. Ribaud-Laurenti, and J.-P. Rehault. 2002. Oligocene reefal deposits in the Pisang Ridge and the origin of the Lucipara Block (Banda Sea, eastern Indonesia). Geo-Marine Letters 22:66-74. 2002 Indonesia Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Ferry, R. E. and C. McArthur. 2002. Evaluation of shelf, harbor and disposed dredged sediments as potential sources of deposited muds on South Florida reefs. Pages 1827-1836 in Dredging, Key Technologies for Global Prosperity. 2002 Global; Florida Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Ports & Harbors; Sediment
Fossa, J. H., P. B. Mortensen, and D. M. Furevik. 2002. The deep-water coral Lophelia pertusa in Norwegian waters: Distribution and fishery impacts. Hydrobiologia 471:12-Jan. 2002 Norway Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Fowler, J., T. C. Stephens, M. Santiago, and P. de Bruin. 2002. Amwaj Islands constructed with geotubes, Bahrain. World Dredging, Mining and Construction 38:Jun-40. 2002 Bahrain Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Golf Course Operations; Hotel & Food Services; Housing; Shoreline Protection; Storms & Hurricanes
Germano, J. D., C. A. Reid, P. G. D. Whiteside, and R. Kennish. 2002. Field verification of computer models predicting plume dispersion in Hong Kong. Pages 859-873 in Dredging, Key Technologies for Global Prosperity. 2002 Global Field Study & Monitoring; Model Beaches & Nature Parks; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fishing Sector; Sediment
Gittings, S. 2002. Pre-Construction Coral Survey of the M/V Wellwood Grounding Site. Marine Sanctuaries Conservation Series MSD-03-01. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Marine Sanctuaries Division, Silver Spring, MD. 2002 Florida Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Anemones & Zooanthids; Hydrocoral; Octocoral; Stony Coral; Storms & Hurricanes; Substrate
Hall-Spencer, J., V. Allain, and J. H. Fossa. 2002. Trawling damage to Northeast Atlantic ancient coral reefs. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 269:507-511. 2002 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Norway Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Haynes, D. and D. Loong. 2002. Antifoulant (butyltin and copper) concentrations in sediments from the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Australia. Environmental Pollution 120:391-396. 2002 Australia Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Docks & Marinas; Large Ships; Sediment; Tourism & Recreation
Haynes, D., C. Christie, P. Marshall, and K. Dobbs. 2002. Antifoulant concentrations at the site of the Bunga Teratai Satu grounding, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44:968-972. 2002 Australia Anchoring & Vessel Grounding
Jiddawi, N. S. and M. C. Ohman. 2002. Marine fisheries in Tanzania. Ambio 31:518-527. 2002 Tanzania Corallivorous Fish; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Invertivorous Fish; Large Herbivorous Fish; Piscivorous Fish; Small Boats; Small Herbivorous Fish; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Kaiser, M. J., J. S. Collie, S. J. Hall, S. Jennings, and I. R. Poiner. 2002. Modification of marine habitats by trawling activities: Prognosis and solutions. Fish and Fisheries 3:114-136. 2002 Complex Habitat & Resources; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Marine Worms; Nutrients; Seagrasses; Sediment; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Koskela, R. W., P. Ringeltaube, A. R. Small, T. V. Koskela, A. R. Fraser, J. D. Lee, and P. Marshall. 2002. Using predictive monitoring to mitigate construction impacts in sensitive marine environments. Pages 1-15 in Recent Advances in Marine Science and Technology. 2002 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Model Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Mangroves; Marine Protected Areas; Ports & Harbors
Lok, A., C. Metin, A. Ulas, F. O. Duzbastilar, and A. Tokac. 2002. Artificial reefs in Turkey. ICES Journal of Marine Science 59. 2002 Field Study & Monitoring Artificial Habitat; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Recreational Fishing; Special Use Permitting; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Malakoff, D. 2002. Sea-floor ecosystems: Trawling's a drag for marine life, say studies. Science 298:2123. 2002 Florida Finfish Harvest; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Marshall, P., C. Christie, K. Dobbs, A. Green, D. Haynes, J. Brodie, K. Michalek-Wagner, A. Smith, J. Storrie, and E. Turak. 2002. Grounded ship leaves TBT-based antifoulant on the Great Barrier Reef: An overview of the environmental response. Spill Science and Technology Bulletin 7:215-221. 2002 Australia Anchoring & Vessel Grounding
McArthur, C., R. Ferry, and J. Proni. 2002. Development of guidelines for dredged material disposal based on abiotic determinants of coral reef community structure. Pages 1897-1911 in Dredging, Key Technologies for Global Prosperity. 2002 Global Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Primary Production; Sediment
Miller, D. C., C. L. Muir, and O. A. Hauser. 2002. Detrimental effects of sedimentation on marine benthos: What can be learned from natural processes and rates? Ecological Engineering 19:211-232. 2002 Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Marine Worms; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes
Negri, A. P., L. D. Smith, N. S. Webster, and A. J. Heyward. 2002. Understanding ship-grounding impacts on a coral reef: Potential effects of anti-foulant paint contamination on coral recruitment. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44:111-117. 2002 Australia Lab Study Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Sediment; Stony Coral
NOAA Marine Sanctuaries Division. 2002. Environmental assessment: M/V Wellwood grounding site restoration. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Sanctuaries Division, Silver Spring, Maryland. 2002 Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Climate; Cultural Policies; Mitigation
Precht, W. F., A. W. Bruckner, R. B. Aronson, and R. J. Bruckner. 2002. Endangered acroporid corals of the Caribbean. Coral Reefs 21:41-42. 2002 South & Central America; Florida; Bahamas; Caribbean Algae; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Regulations; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Pathogens; Stony Coral; Storms & Hurricanes
Rasser, M. W. and B. Riegl. 2002. Holocene coral reef rubble and its binding agents. Coral Reefs 21:57-72. 2002 Review Algae; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Coralline Algae; Seagrasses; Skeletal Coral; Sponges; Storms & Hurricanes
Reed, J. K. 2002. Deep-water Oculina coral reefs of Florida: Biology, impacts, and management. Hydrobiologia 471:43-55. 2002 Florida Review Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Coastal Defense; Commercial Fisheries; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Marine Protected Areas; Piscivorous Fish; Recreational Fishing; Skeletal Coral; Special Use Permitting; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Richmond, R., R. Kelty, P. Craig, C. Emaurois, A. Green, C. Birkeland, G. Davis, A. Edward, Y. Golbuu, J. Gutierrez, P. Houk, N. Idechong, J. Maragos, G. Paulay, J. Starmer, A. Tafileichig, M. Trianni, and N. V. Velde. 2002. Status of the coral reefs in micronesia and American Samoa: US affiliated and freely associated islands in the Pacific. Pages 217-236 in C.R. Wilkinson, editor. Status of coral reefs of the world: 2002. GCRMN Report. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville. 2002 US Pacific & Hawaii; Cuba; Palau; Micronesia; Samoa; Marshall Islands; American Samoa; Guam; Northern Mariana Islands Field Study & Monitoring; GIS & Maps Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Seastars; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes
Roberts, J. M. 2002. The occurrence of the coral Lophelia pertusa and other conspicuous epifauna around an oil platform in the North Sea. Underwater Technology 25:83-91. 2002 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Anemones & Zooanthids; Discharges; Octocoral; Oil & Gas Industry; Oil & Gas Rigs; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Roberts, J. M. and R. M. Anderson. 2002. A new laboratory method for monitoring deep-water coral polyp behaviour. Hydrobiologia 471:143-148. 2002 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Sediment; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Rutzler, K. 2002. Impact of crustose clionid sponges on Caribbean reef corals. Acta Geologica Hispanica 37:61-72. 2002 South & Central America; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Bermuda; Belize; Caribbean Field Study & Monitoring Boring Sponges; Cyanobacteria; Encrusting Sponges; Fish; Microorganisms; Physical Damage; Sediment; Skeletal Coral; Sponges; Stony Coral; Substrate
Sanchez-Jerez, P., B. M. Gillanders, S. Rodriguez-Ruiz, and A. A. Ramos-Espla. 2002. Effect of an artificial reef in Posidonia meadows on fish assemblage and diet of Diplodus annularis. ICES Journal of Marine Science 59. 2002 Artificial Habitat; Fish; Seagrasses; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Soldal, A. V., I. Svellingen, T. Jorgensen, and S. Lokkeborg. 2002. Rigs-to-reefs in the North Sea: Hydroacoustic quantification of fish in the vicinity of a \semi-cold\" platform". ICES Journal of Marine Science 59. 2002 Artificial Habitat; Fish; Oil & Gas Rigs; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Stapanian, M. A. and M. T. Bur. 2002. Overlap in offshore habitat use by double-crested cormorants and boaters in western Lake Erie. Journal of Great Lakes Research 28:172-181. 2002 Boating Activities; Fish; Tourism & Recreation
Turgeon, D. D., R. G. Asch, B. D. Causey, R. E. Dodge, W. Jaap, K. Banks, J. Delaney, B. D. Keller, R. Speiler, C. A. Matos, J. R. Garcia, E. Diaz, D. Catanzaro, C. S. Rogers, Z. Hillis-Starr, R. Nemeth, M. Taylor, G. P. Schmahl, M. W. Miller, D. A. Gulko, J. E. Maragos, A. M. Friedlander, C. L. Hunter, R. S. Brainard, P. Craig, R. H. Richond, G. Davis, J. Starmer, M. Trianni, P. Houk, C. E. Birkeland, A. Edward, Y. Golbuu, J. Gutierrez, N. Idechong, G. Paulay, A. Tafileichig, and N. V. Velde. 2002. The state of coral reef ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States: 2002. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Ocean Service/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Silver Spring, MD. 2002 Global; Florida; US Virgin Islands; Puerto Rico; US Pacific & Hawaii; Samoa; Guam Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Climate; Coastal Development; Finfish Harvest; Invasive Species; Marine Debris; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Pathogens; Storms & Hurricanes; Tourism & Recreation
Will, R. J., D. J. Yozzo, and J. M. Rhoads. 2002. Dredging and Recontouring of New York-New Jersey Harbor for Benthic Habitat Restoration and Water Quality Improvement. Pages 1067-1086 in Dredging, Key Technologies for Global Prosperity. 2002 Global Artificial Habitat; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Ports & Harbors; Wetlands
[No author name available]. 2001. Environmental dredging challenge in New York/New Jersey Harbor. World Dredging, Mining and Construction 37:26-Dec. 2001 Artificial Habitat; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Becker, L. C. and E. Mueller. 2001. The culture, transplantation and storage of Montastraea faveolata, Acropora cervicornis and Acropora palmata: What we have learned so far. Bulletin of Marine Science 69:881-896. 2001 Florida; Bahamas Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Pathogens; Stony Coral; Substrate
Bett, B. J. 2001. UK atlantic margin environmental survey: Introduction and overview of bathyal benthic ecology. Continental Shelf Research 21:917-956. 2001 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Field Study & Monitoring; GIS & Maps Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Oil & Gas Industry; Sediment; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Sponges; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Water Depth & Sea Level
Bett, B. J., D. S. M. Billett, D. G. Masson, and P. A. Tyler. 2001. RRS discovery cruise 248, 07 Jul-10 Aug 2000. A multidisciplinary study of the environment and ecology of deep-water coral ecosystems and associated seabed facies and features (The Darwin Mounds, Porcupine Bank and Porcupine Seabight). Cruise Report of the Southampton Oceanography Centre 36:29-31. 2001 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Bruckner, A. and R. Bruckner. 2001. Condition of restored Acropora palmata fragments off Mona Island, Puerto Rico, 2 years after the Fortuna Reefer ship grounding. Coral Reefs 20:235-243. 2001 Puerto Rico Algae; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boring Sponges; Marine Worms; Pathogens; Snails & Conch; Stony Coral; Storms & Hurricanes; Substrate
Catterall, C. P., I. R. Poiner, and C. J. O'Brien. 2001. Long-term population dynamics of a coral reef gastropod and responses to disturbance. Austral Ecology 26:604-617. 2001 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Algae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Molluscs; Sediment
Conway, K. W., M. Krautter, J. V. Barrie, and M. Neuweiler. 2001. Hexactinellid sponge reefs on the Canadian continental shelf: A unique \living fossil\"". Geoscience Canada 28:71-78. 2001 Global Finfish Harvest; Sponges; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Donohue, M. J., R. C. Boland, C. M. Sramek, and G. A. Antonelis. 2001. Derelict fishing gear in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: Diving surveys and debris removal in 1999 confirm threat to Coral Reef ecosystems. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42:1301-1312. 2001 US Pacific & Hawaii Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Finfish Harvest; Marine Debris; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Dziurak, V. S. and F. Z. Haiseniuk. 2001. Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy in the treatment of patients with coral-like nephrolithiasis [Ekstrakorporal'na udarno-khvyl'ova litotrypsiia v likuvanni khvorykh z koralopodibnym nefrolitiazom.]. Likars'ka sprava / Ministerstvo okhorony zdorov'ia Ukrainy 1:39-46. 2001 Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Ebersole, J. P. 2001. Recovery of fish assemblages from ship groundings on coral reefs in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Bulletin of Marine Science 69:655-671. 2001 Florida Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Complex Habitat & Resources; Corallivorous Fish; Fish; Large Herbivorous Fish; Octocoral; Planktivorous Fish; Remediation; Substrate
Fry, G. C., D. A. Milton, and T. J. Wassenberg. 2001. The reproductive biology and diet of sea snake bycatch of prawn trawling in Northern Australia: Characteristics important for assessing the impacts on populations. Pacific Conservation Biology 7:55-73. 2001 Australia Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Commercial Fishing Boats; Complex Habitat & Resources; Fish; Fishing Sector; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Ginsburg, R. N., E. Gischler, and W. E. Kiene. 2001. Partial mortality of massive reef-building corals: An index of patch reef condition, Florida Reef Tract. Bulletin of Marine Science 69:1149-1173. 2001 Florida Index or Indicator Boating Activities; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Finfish Harvest; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Non-point Source Runoff; Pathogens; Stony Coral; Storms & Hurricanes
Hudson, J. H. and W. B. Goodwin. 2001. Assessment of vessel grounding injury to coral reef and seagrass habitats in the Florida keys National Marine Sanctuary, Florida: Protocol and methods. Bulletin of Marine Science 69:509-516. 2001 Florida GIS & Maps Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Seagrasses; Substrate
Jordan, I. E. and M. J. Samways. 2001. Recent changes in coral assemblages of a South African coral reef, with recommendations for long-term monitoring. Biodiversity and Conservation 10:1027-1037. 2001 Global; Cuba; South Africa Field Study & Monitoring Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Octocoral; Pathogens; Physical Damage; Stony Coral
Kannan, R., A. K. Kumaraguru, A. Sundaramahalingam, M. Ramakrishnan, and M. Rajee. 2001. Socioeconomic status of coral reef resource users of Pamban region, Gulf of Mannar, South India. Man in India 81:103-121. 2001 India Finfish Harvest; Octocoral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Kendall, M. S., M. E. Monaco, K. R. Buja, J. D. Christensen, C.R. Kruer, M. Finkbeiner, and R. A. Warner. 2001. Methods Used to Map the Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. NOAA National Ocean Service, Silver Spring, (MD, USA). 2001 South & Central America; Florida; US Virgin Islands; Puerto Rico; Caribbean GIS & Maps Algae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fishing Sector; Mangroves; Seagrasses; Sediment; Substrate
Koslow, J. A., K. Gowlett-Holmes, J. K. Lowry, T. O'Hara, G. C. B. Poore, and A. Williams. 2001. Seamount benthic macrofauna off southern Tasmania: Community structure and impacts of trawling. Marine Ecology Progress Series 213:111-125. 2001 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Marine Protected Areas; Octocoral; Sea Urchins; Seastars; Sponges; Stony Coral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Krautter, M., K. W. Conway, J. V. Barrie, and M. Neuweiler. 2001. Discovery of a \living dinousaur\": Globally unique modern hexactinellid sponge reefs off British Coloumbia, Canada". Facies 265-282. 2001 Global; Columbia Fish; Invertebrates; Sediment; Sponges; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Water Depth & Sea Level
Lugo-Fernandez, A., K. J. P. Deslarzes, J. M. Price, G. S. Boland, and M. V. Morin. 2001. Inferring probable dispersal of Flower Garden Banks coral larvae (Gulf of Mexico) using observed and simulated drifter trajectories. Continental Shelf Research 21:47-67. 2001 South & Central America; Florida; Mexico Oil & Gas Rigs; Physical Damage; Salinity; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Substrate; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Miller, M. W. and J. Barimo. 2001. Assessment of juvenile coral populations at two reef restoration sites in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary: Indicators of success? Bulletin of Marine Science 69:395-405. 2001 Florida Index or Indicator Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Complex Habitat & Resources; Skeletal Coral; Stony Coral; Wetland & Reef Restoration
Mitchell, A. W., J. R. Reghenzani, and M. J. Furnas. 2001. Nitrogen levels in the Tully River - A long-term view. Water Science and Technology 43:99-105. 2001 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Collaboration & Partnering; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Mylroie, J. E., J. W. Jenson, D. Taborosi, J. M. U. Jocson, D. T. Vann, and C. Wexel. 2001. Karst features of Guam in terms of a general model of carbonate island karst. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 63:22-Sep. 2001 Guam Field Study & Monitoring; Model Beaches & Nature Parks; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Precht, W. F., R. B. Aronson, and D. W. Swanson. 2001. Improving scientific decision-making in the restoration of ship-grounding sites on coral reefs. Bulletin of Marine Science 69:1001-1012. 2001 Florida Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Complex Habitat & Resources; Substrate
Riegl, B. 2001. Degradation of reef structure, coral and fish communities in the Red Sea by ship groundings and dynamite fisheries. Bulletin of Marine Science 69:595-611. 2001 Egypt Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Skeletal Coral; Small Herbivorous Fish; Stony Coral
Rogers, C. S. and J. Beets. 2001. Degradation of marine ecosystems and decline of fishery resources in marine protected areas in the US Virgin Islands. Environmental Conservation 28:312-322. 2001 South & Central America; US Virgin Islands; Caribbean Review Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Regulations; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Marine Protected Areas; Pathogens; Piscivorous Fish; Seagrasses; Small Herbivorous Fish; Special Use Permitting; Storms & Hurricanes
Rogers, C. S. and V. H. Garrison. 2001. Ten years after the crime: Lasting effects of damage from a cruise ship anchor on a coral reef in St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Bulletin of Marine Science 69:793-803. 2001 US Virgin Islands Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Cruise Ships; Sediment; Stony Coral
Spadoni, R. H. and C. J. Kruempel. 2001. Florida keys national marine sanctuary Looe key coral reef restoration project of 1999. Pages 302-305 in Oceans Conference Record (IEEE). 2001 Florida Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Complex Habitat & Resources; Storms & Hurricanes; Wetland & Reef Restoration
Talbot, F. and C. Wilkinson. 2001. Coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses: a sourcebook for managers. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville (Australia). 2001 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Climate; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Forestry; Invasive Species; Mangroves; Marine Protected Areas; Seagrasses; Sediment; Tourism & Recreation
Todd, P. A., P. G. Sanderson, and L. M. Chou. 2001. Morphological variation in the polyps of the scleractinian coral Favia speciosa (Dana) around Singapore. Hydrobiologia 444:227-235. 2001 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Stony Coral
Upadhyay, R. 2001. Middle Cretaceous carbonate build-ups and volcanic seamount in the Shyok suture, Northern Ladakh, India. Current Science 81:695-699. 2001 South & Central America; US Pacific & Hawaii; India; Caribbean Algae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Zuschin, M., J. Hohenegger, and F. F. Steininger. 2001. Molluscan assemblages on coral reefs and associated hard substrata in the northern red sea. Coral Reefs 20:107-116. 2001 Bivalves; Hydrocoral; Molluscs; Nutrients; Physical Damage; Skeletal Coral; Snails & Conch; Stony Coral; Substrate
Agard, J. B. R. and J. F. Gobin. 2000. The Lesser Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 1 627-641. 2000 South & Central America; US Virgin Islands; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean; Antilles; British Virgin Islands; St. Lucia; Trinidad; Tobago; Martinique; Venezuela; Guyana; Caribbean Apex Fish Predators; Commercial Fisheries; Commercial Fishing Boats; Deforestation & Devegetation; Docks & Marinas; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Land & Air Transportation; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Marine Protected Areas; Nutrients; Sea Urchins; Seagrasses; Seawater Flow; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Snails & Conch; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Waste Management Policies; Waterborne Discharges; Whales & Dolphins
Andrews, J. L. 2000. Dade County, Florida deep water sand search study. Pages 82-96 in Carbonate Beaches 2000. 2000 Florida Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Best, M. M. R. and S. M. Kidwell. 2000. Bivalve taphonomy in tropical mixed siliciclastic-carbonate settings. I. Environmental variation in shell condition. Paleobiology 26:80-102. 2000 South & Central America; Panama; Caribbean Calcareous Macroalgae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Billett, D. S. M. 2000. RRS Challenger Cruise 142, 19 Apr - 19 May 1999. Temporal and spatial variability of benthic communities on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain and in the Porcupine Seabight. Cruise Report of the Southampton Oceanography Centre 30:Jan-79. 2000 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Echinoderms; Sediment
Calder, D. R. 2000. Assemblages of hydroids (Cnidaria) from three seamounts near Bermuda in the western North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 47:1125-1139. 2000 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Cuba; Bermuda Docks & Marinas; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Invertebrates
Cavanagh, J. E., K. A. Burns, G. J. Brunskill, D. A. J. Ryan, and J. T. Ahokas. 2000. Induction of hepatic cytochrome P-450 1A in Pikey Bream (Acanthopagrus berda) collected from agricultural and urban catchments in Far North Queensland. Marine Pollution Bulletin 41:377-384. 2000 Australia Index or Indicator Agriculture; Boating Activities; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Fish; Non-point Source Runoff; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Charlier, R. H. and C. P. De Meyer. 2000. Ask nature to protect and build-up beaches. Journal of Coastal Research 16:385-390. 2000 Review; Field Study & Monitoring Artificial Habitat; Beaches & Nature Parks; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Hotel & Food Services; Storms & Hurricanes
Dustan, P. 2000. Florida Keys. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 1 405-414. 2000 Global; South & Central America; Florida; Caribbean Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Landuse Management; Mangroves; Nutrients; Permitting & Zoning; Pipelines; Sea Urchins; Seagrasses; Seawater Flow; Sediment; Tourism & Recreation
Edgar, G. J. and N. S. Barrett. 2000. Impact of the Iron Baron oil spill on subtidal reef assemblages in Tasmania. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40:36-49. 2000 Field Study & Monitoring Algae; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fish; Invertebrates; Petroleum Spills
Esslemont, G. 2000. Heavy metals in seawater, marine sediments and corals from the Townsville section, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Queensland. Marine Chemistry 71:215-231. 2000 Australia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Marine Protected Areas; Sediment; Special Use Permitting; Stony Coral
Hall-Spencer, J. M. and P. G. Moore. 2000. Limaria hians (Mollusca: Limacea): A neglected reef-forming keystone species. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 10:267-277. 2000 United Kingdom Algae; Bivalves; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Invertebrates; Molluscs; Sediment
Hill, B. J. and T. J. Wassenberg. 2000. The probable fate of discards from prawn trawlers fishing near coral reefs: A study in the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Fisheries Research 48:277-286. 2000 Australia Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Apex Fish Predators; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Marine Birds; Octopus & Squid; Sponges; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Whales & Dolphins
Jaap, W. C. 2000. Coral reef restoration. Ecological Engineering 15:345-364. 2000 Florida Review; Field Study & Monitoring Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fish; Fishing Sector; Pathogens; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Skeletal Coral; Sponges; Tourism & Recreation; Wetland & Reef Restoration
Knap, A. H., D. P. Connelly, and J. N. Butler. 2000. The Sargasso Sea and Bermuda. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 1 221-231. 2000 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Bermuda Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Fleshy Macroalgae; Nutrients; Plankton; Salinity; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Whales & Dolphins
Koenig, C. C., F. C. Coleman, C. B. Grimes, G. R. Fitzhugh, K. M. Scanlon, C. T. Gledhill, and M. Grace. 2000. Protection of fish spawning habitat for the conservation of warm-temperate reef-fish fisheries of shelf-edge reefs of Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science 66:593-616. 2000 Florida GIS & Maps Complex Habitat & Resources; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Koslow, J. A., G. W. Boehlert, J. D. M. Gordon, R. L. Haedrich, P. Lorance, and N. Parin. 2000. Continental slope and deep-sea fisheries: Implications for a fragile ecosystem. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57:548-557. 2000 Global Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Maragos, J. E. 2000. Hawaiian Islands (U.S.A.). Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 2 791-812. 2000 US Pacific & Hawaii Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Apex Fish Predators; Aquaculture; Aquarium & Pet Trade; Aquarium Stock; Beaches & Nature Parks; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Education & Outreach; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Golf Course Operations; Hotel & Food Services; Invasive Species; Marine Birds; Marine Debris; Marine Protected Areas; Military; Pathogens; Recreational Fishing; Scientific Research; Sea Turtles; Sediment; Special Use Permitting; Storms & Hurricanes; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Waterborne Discharges; Wetlands
Martin, C. E., B. Peucker-Ehrenbrink, G. J. Brunskill, and R. Szymczak. 2000. Sources and sinks of unradiogenic osmium runoff from Papua New Guinea. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 183:261-274. 2000 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii; Papua New Guinea Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
McConnaughey, R. A., K. L. Mier, and C. B. Dew. 2000. An examination of chronic trawling effects on soft-bottom benthos of the eastern Bering Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57:1377-1388. 2000 Anemones & Zooanthids; Bivalves; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Octocoral; Seastars; Snails & Conch; Sponges; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Moran, M. J. and P. C. Stephenson. 2000. Effects of otter trawling on macrobenthos and management of demersal scalefish fisheries on the continental shelf of north-western Australia. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57:510-516. 2000 Australia Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Octocoral; Sponges; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Mortensen, P. B., J. M. Roberts, and R. C. Sundt. 2000. Video-assisted grabbing: A minimally destructive method of sampling azooxanthellate coral banks. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 80:365-366. 2000 Norway Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Munoz-Perez, J. J., J. M. Gutierrez Mas, J. M. Naranjo, E. Torres, and L. Fages. 2000. Position and monitoring of anti-trawling reefs in the Cape of Trafalgar (Gulf of Cadiz, SW Spain). Bulletin of Marine Science 67:761-772. 2000 Spain Field Study & Monitoring; Model Artificial Habitat; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Neil, D. T. 2000. Characteristics and significance of a sub-tropical 'Low Wooded Island': Green Island, Moreton Bay, Australia. Journal of Coastal Research 16:287-294. 2000 Australia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Mangroves
O'Hara, T. D. 2000. Victoria province, Australia. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 2 661-671. 2000 Australia; Europe Agriculture; Beaches & Nature Parks; Commercial Fisheries; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Nutrients; Piscivorous Fish; Seagrasses; Sediment; Sponges; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Wetlands
Pitcher, C. R., I. R. Poiner, B. J. Hill, and C. Y. Burridge. 2000. Implications of the effects of trawling on sessile megazoobenthos on a tropical shelf in northeastern Australia. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57:1359-1368. 2000 Australia Review; Model Finfish Harvest; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Price, A. R. G. and J. E. Maragos. 2000. The Marshall Islands. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 2 773-789. 2000 US Pacific & Hawaii; Indian Ocean; India; Micronesia; Marshall Islands Algae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Military; Sea Turtles; Seagrasses; Seastars; Storms & Hurricanes; Tourism & Recreation; Water Depth & Sea Level
Rice, M. A., A. Valliere, and A. Caporelli. 2000. A review of shellfish restoration and management projects in Rhode Island. Journal of Shellfish Research 19:401-408. 2000 Review Aquaculture; Artificial Habitat; Bivalves; Commercial Fisheries; Docks & Marinas; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Finfish Harvest; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Molluscs; Petroleum Spills; Ports & Harbors; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Richardson, B. J., P. K. S. Lam, and R. S. S. Wu. 2000. Hong Kong. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 2 535-547. 2000 China Beaches & Nature Parks; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Land & Air Transportation; Mangroves; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Salinity; Seagrasses; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Toxics; Wastewater Discharge
Riegl, B. and W. E. Piller. 2000. Mapping of benthic habitats in northern Safaga Bay (Red Sea, Egypt): A tool for proactive management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 10:127-140. 2000 Egypt GIS & Maps; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Docks & Marinas; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Mangroves; Nutrients; Seagrasses; Shoreline Protection; Tourism & Recreation
Rutzler, K., M. C. Diaz, R. W. M. Van Soest, S. Zea, K. P. Smith, B. Alvarez, and J. Wulff. 2000. Diversity of sponge fauna in mangrove ponds, Pelican Cays, Belize. Atoll Research Bulletin 231-248. 2000 South & Central America; Belize Boating Activities; Finfish Harvest; Mangroves; Nutrients; Sediment; Sponges; Storms & Hurricanes; Substrate
Sabti, H., M. M. Hossain, R. R. Brooks, and R. B. Stewart. 2000. The current environmental impact of base-metal mining at the Tui Mine, Te Aroha, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 30:197-207. 2000 Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Drinking Water Supply; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Sanchez-Jerez, P. and A. Ramos-Espla. 2000. Changes in fish assemblages associated with the deployment of an antitrawling reef in seagrass meadows. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 129:1150-1159. 2000 Spain Artificial Habitat; Fish; Seagrasses; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Sheppard, C. R. C. 2000. The Red Sea. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 2 35-45. 2000 Indian Ocean; India Algae; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Fleshy Macroalgae; Mangroves; Nutrients; Primary Production; Seagrasses; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Special Use Permitting; Substrate; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Waste Management Policies
U.S. Coral Reef Task Force. 2000. The National Action Plan to Conserve Coral Reefs. Washington, D.C. 2000 Global Field Study & Monitoring; GIS & Maps Agriculture; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Climate; Collaboration & Partnering; Complex Habitat & Resources; Cultural Policies; Cultural Protections; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landuse Management; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Pathogens; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics Sources; Shoreline Protection; Tourism & Recreation
Vierros, M. 2000. Jamaica. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 1 559-574. 2000 Jamaica Algae; Beaches & Nature Parks; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Fleshy Macroalgae; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Mangroves; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sea Urchins; Seagrasses; Sediment; Small Herbivorous Fish; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetlands
Wong, P. P. 2000. Malacca Strait including Singapore and Johore Straits. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 2 331-344. 2000 Thailand; Malaysia; Southeast Asia; Indonesia Agriculture; Aquaculture; Beaches & Nature Parks; Commercial Fisheries; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Hotel & Food Services; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Marine Protected Areas; Nutrients; Seagrasses; Sediment; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Solid Waste Disposal; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Waterborne Discharges; Wetlands
Zann, L. P. 2000. Northeastern Australia: The Great Barrier Reef region. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 2 611-628. 2000 Australia Model Finfish Harvest; Marine Protected Areas; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Recreational Fishing; Seagrasses; Seastars; Sediment; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Zann, L. P. and V. Vuki. 2000. The South Western Pacific Islands region. Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 2 705-722. 2000 US Pacific & Hawaii; Vanuatu; New Caledonia; Fiji; Tonga; Samoa; American Samoa Model Cultural Policies; Cultural Protections; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Marine Protected Areas; Seastars; Sediment; Wetlands
1) Yu, S.; Earles, T.A., and G. Fitch [1998] ; 2) Earles, T.A. [1999]. 1999. 1) Constructed Wetlands for Stormwater Management. Final Report, Virginia Transportation Research Council (VTRC)99-R14 and 2) Earles, T. A. 1999. Mitigated Wetlands for the Control of Stormwater Runoff: Monitoring and Management. Dissertation, Unive. 1999 Field Study & Monitoring Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Runoff; Storms & Hurricanes; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetlands
[No author name available]. 1999. Dredging and the Great Barrier Reef. World Dredging, Mining and Construction 35. 1999 Global; Australia Docks & Marinas; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Shoreline Protection
[No author name available]. 1999. Maintenance dredging in Cape Coral, Florida. World Dredging, Mining and Construction 35:11-Oct. 1999 Florida Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Tourism & Recreation
Barrie Pnrock, A. 1999. Coral reefs and environmental change: Adaptation to what? American Zoologist 39:29-Oct. 1999 Global Climate; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish Harvest; Nutrients; Salinity; Storms & Hurricanes; Tourism & Recreation
Bett, B. J. 1999. RRS Charles Darwin Cruise 112C, 19 May-24 Jun 1998. Atlantic Margin Environmental Survey: Seabed survey of deep-water areas (17(th) round tranches) to the north and west of Scotland. Cruise Report of the Southampton Oceanography Centre 25:1-171. 1999 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Britain Field Study & Monitoring Fishing Sector; Nutrients; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Brown, P. J. and R. B. Taylor. 1999. Effects of trampling by humans on animals inhabiting coralline algal turf in the rocky intertidal. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 235:45-53. 1999 Algae; Marine Protected Areas; Marine Worms; Trampling
Chandrasena, N. and R. Sim. 1999. Managing entrenched weed problems in botany wetlands - An urban stormwater basin in Sydney. Pages 313-319 in Water Supply. 1999 Chemical Use Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Golf Course Operations; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Solid Waste Disposal; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Valuation; Water; Wetlands
Chao, S.-M. 1999. Revision of Taiwan starfish (Echinodermata: Asteroidea), with description of ten new records. Zoological Studies 38:405-415. 1999 Cuba; Columbia; China; Taiwan Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Echinoderms; Seastars; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Cruickshank, M. J. 1999. Development of aggregate resources in Pacific tropical islands. Marine Georesources and Geotechnology 17:101. 1999 US Pacific & Hawaii; Micronesia; Samoa; Marshall Islands; American Samoa Beaches & Nature Parks; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Infrastructure; Shoreline Protection; Water Depth & Sea Level
Edwards, A. J. and S. Clark. 1999. Coral transplantation: A useful management tool or misguided meddling? Marine Pollution Bulletin 37:474-487. 1999 Maldives Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Finfish Harvest; Hotel & Food Services; Seastars; Stony Coral; Substrate; Tourism & Recreation
Freiwald, A., J. B. Wilson, and R. Henrich. 1999. Grounding pleistocene icebergs shape recent deep-water coral reefs. Sedimentary Geology 125:8-Jan. 1999 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Norway Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Finfish Harvest; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Water Depth & Sea Level
Gawel, M. J. 1999. Protection of marine benthic habitats in the Pacific islands. A case study of Guam. Oceanologica Acta 22:721-726. 1999 US Pacific & Hawaii; Guam Lab Study Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Finfish Harvest; Non-point Source Runoff; Seastars; Sediment; Small Boats; Special Use Permitting; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation
Haneefa Koya, C. N. and A. K. V. Naseer. 1999. Community participation in reef management: An example of benign 'dredging' from India. Coral Reefs 18:320. 1999 India Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Hawkins, J. P., C. M. Roberts, T. Van't Hof, K. De Meyer, J. Tratalos, and C. Aldam. 1999. Effects of recreational scuba diving on Caribbean coral and fish communities. Conservation Biology 13:888-897. 1999 South & Central America; Cuba; Caribbean Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Fish; Pathogens; Physical Damage; Stony Coral; Tourism & Recreation
Jameson, S. C., M. S. A. Ammar, E. Saadalla, H. M. Mostafa, and B. Riegl. 1999. A coral damage index and its application to diving sites in the Egyptian Red Sea. Coral Reefs 18:333-339. 1999 Global; Egypt Index or Indicator Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Physical Damage; Skeletal Coral
Lindeman, K. C. and D. B. Snyder. 1999. Nearshore hardbottom fishes of southeast Florida and effects of habitat burial caused by dredging. Fishery Bulletin 97:508-525. 1999 Florida Beaches & Nature Parks; Corallivorous Fish; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fish; Large Herbivorous Fish; Planktivorous Fish; Small Herbivorous Fish
Mascarelli, P. E. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 1999. An experimental field evaluation of healin in damaged, unbleached and artificially bleached star coral, Montastraea annularis. Bulletin of Marine Science 65:577-586. 1999 Field Study & Monitoring Algae; Physical Damage; Sediment; Stony Coral; Zooxanthellae
Milliman, J. D., K. L. Farnsworth, and C. S. Albertin. 1999. Flux and fate of fluvial sediments leaving large islands in the East Indies. Journal of Sea Research 41:97-107. 1999 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii; Java Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Osborn, T., P. Williams, D. Burkholder, and D. Rabalais. 1999. NOAA and the state of Louisiana. World Dredging, Mining and Construction 35:7-Jun. 1999 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fish; Storms & Hurricanes
Pepperell, J. G. and T. L. O. Davis. 1999. Post-release behaviour of black marlin, Makaira indica, caught off the Great Barrier Reef with sportfishing gear. Marine Biology 135:369-380. 1999 Australia Apex Fish Predators; Finfish Harvest; Recreational Fishing; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Perry, C. T. 1999. Reef framework preservation in four contrasting modern reef environments, Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Journal of Coastal Research 15:796-812. 1999 Jamaica Physical Damage; Sediment; Skeletal Coral; Sponges; Substrate; Water Depth & Sea Level
Pittock, B. 1999. Coral reefs and envionmental change: adaptation to what?(1). American Zoologist 39:14. 1999 Climate; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Salinity; Tourism & Recreation
Prena, J., P. Schwinghamer, T. W. Rowell, D. C. Gordon Jr., K. D. Gilkinson, W. P. Vass, and D. L. McKeown. 1999. Experimental otter trawling on a sandy bottom ecosystem of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland: Analysis of trawl bycatch and effects on epifauna. Marine Ecology Progress Series 181:107-124. 1999 China Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Echinoderms; Finfish Harvest; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Molluscs; Octocoral; Sea Urchins; Seastars; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Ruitenbeek, J., M. Ridgley, S. Dollar, and R. Huber. 1999. Optimization of economic policies and investment projects using a fuzzy logic based cost-effectiveness model of coral reef quality: Empirical results for Montego Bay, Jamaica. Coral Reefs 18:381-392. 1999 Jamaica Model Economic Markets & Policies; Mitigation; Nutrients; Physical Damage; Sediment
Schuhmacher, H. 1999. Korallenriffe-Bedrohungen, Schutzkonzepte und Rehabilitationsmaßnahmen. Deutsche Hydrographische Zeitschrift 51:17-23. 1999 Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Artificial Habitat; Finfish Harvest; Landuse Management; Nutrients; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Stony Coral; Water Depth & Sea Level
Snyder, R. 1999. What's happening offshore...Hazard database. World Oil 220:27. 1999 South & Central America; Mexico Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Military; Pipelines
Adams, E. W., W. Schlager, and E. Wattel. 1998. Submarine slopes with an exponential curvature. Sedimentary Geology 117:135-141. 1998 Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Adjeroud, M., Y. Letourneur, M. Porcher, and B. Salvat. 1998. Factors influencing spatial distribution of fish communities on a fringing reef at Mauritius, S.W. Indian Ocean. Environmental Biology of Fishes 53:169-182. 1998 Indian Ocean; Mauritius; India Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Echinoderms; Fish; Molluscs; Nutrients
Bach Hanne, K., KO CK Rasmussen Erik, and TO M Foster. 1998. Eutrophication modelling of a tidally influenced mangrove area in Bali subject to major dredging and reclamation activities. Pages 251-261 in International Conference on Environmental Problems in Coastal Regions. 1998 Model Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Hotel & Food Services; Mangroves; Nutrients; Plankton; Tourism & Recreation
Blaber, S. J. M., D. A. Milton, M. J. Farmer, and G. C. Smith. 1998. Seabird breeding populations on the far northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia: Trends and influences. Emu 98:44-57. 1998 Australia Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Marine Birds; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Craig, P. C. 1998. Temporal spawning patterns of several surgeonfishes and wrasses in American Samoa. Pacific Science 52:35-39. 1998 Samoa; American Samoa Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Planktivorous Fish; Small Herbivorous Fish
Edinger, E. N., J. Jompa, G. V. Limmon, W. Widjatmoko, and M. J. Risk. 1998. Reef degradation and coral biodiversity in Indonesia: Effects of land-based pollution, destructive fishing practices and changes over time. Marine Pollution Bulletin 36:617-630. 1998 Java; Indonesia Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Sediment; Stony Coral
Gittings, S. R. 1998. Reef community stability on the Flower Garden Banks, northwest Gulf of Mexico. Gulf of Mexico Science 16:161-169. 1998 South & Central America; Mexico Field Study & Monitoring Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Pathogens; Special Use Permitting; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Gribble, N. A. and J. W. A. Robertson. 1998. Fishing effort in the far northern section cross shelf closure area of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: The effectiveness of area closures. Journal of Environmental Management 52:53-67. 1998 Australia Field Study & Monitoring Finfish Harvest; Fish; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Marine Protected Areas; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Grubelic, I. 1998. Presence of the species Genocidris maculata AGASSIZ, 1869, (Echinoidea, Echinodermata) in the Adriatic Sea. Periodicum Biologorum 100:39-42. 1998 Cuba Algae; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Echinoderms
Isdale, P. J., B. J. Stewart, K. S. Tickle, and J. M. Lough. 1998. Palaeohydrological variation in a tropical river catchment: A reconstruction using fluorescent bands in corals of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Holocene 8:8-Jan. 1998 Australia Model; Index or Indicator Climate; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Runoff; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Johnstone, R. W. 1998. The status of the coral reefs of Zanzibar: One example of a regional predicament. Ambio 27:700-707. 1998 Indian Ocean; India Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Finfish Harvest; Tourism & Recreation
Moore, C. G., G. R. Saunders, and D. B. Harries. 1998. The status and ecology of reefs of Serpula vermicularis L. (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) in Scotland. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 8:645-656. 1998 Complex Habitat & Resources; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Marine Worms
Proni John, R., CH RI S McArthur, and GL EN N Schuster. 1998. Adaptive dredged material discharge for the Port of Miami. Pages 1249-1257 in Ports - Proceedings. 1998 Florida Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Military
Pugliese, R. 1998. Final habitat plan for the South Atlantic Region. South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, Charleston, SC. 1998 Florida; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Field Study & Monitoring; Model Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Agriculture; Aquaculture; Commercial Fisheries; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Fleshy Macroalgae; Invertebrate Harvest; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Monetary Valuation; Nutrients; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Piscivorous Fish; Recreational Fishing; Seagrasses; Special Use Permitting; Tourism & Recreation; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Rajasuriya, A. 1998. Coral and rock reef habitats in southern Sri Lanka; patterns in the distribution of coral communities. Ambio 27:723-728. 1998 Sri Lanka Boating Activities; Complex Habitat & Resources; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Finfish Harvest; Sediment; Stony Coral
Sosa-Cordero, E., A. M. Arce, W. Aguilar-Davila, and A. Ramirez-Gonzalez. 1998. Artificial shelters for spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Latreille): An evaluation of occupancy in different benthic habitats. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 229:18-Jan. 1998 South & Central America; Bahamas; Cuba; Mexico Index or Indicator Algae; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Sea Temperatures; Seagrasses; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Zea, S., J. Geister, J. Garzon-Ferreira, and J. M. Diaz. 1998. Biotic changes in the reef complex of San Andres Island (Southwestern Caribbean Sea, Colombia) occurring over nearly three decades. Atoll Research Bulletin 30-Jan. 1998 South & Central America; Caribbean Algae; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Beaches & Nature Parks; Boating Activities; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Octocoral; Pathogens; Sea Urchins; Skeletal Coral; Stony Coral; Storms & Hurricanes; Tourism & Recreation
[No author name available]. 1997. Tracers catch the drift. Dredging and Port Construction 24:18-19. 1997 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Sediment
Acero, A. and G. R. Navas. 1997. Notes on the fish family Scorpaenidae (Pisces: Scorpaeniformes) in the continental Colombian Caribbean, including a new record [Notas sobre los peces de la familia Scorpaenidae (Pisces: Scorpaeniformes) de Caribe continental Colombiano, incluyendo un nuev. Boletin de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras 26:61-70. 1997 South & Central America; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Caribbean Fish; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Attwood, C. G., J. M. Harris, and A. J. Williams. 1997. International experience of marine protected areas and their relevance to South Africa. South African Journal of Marine Science 311-332. 1997 South Africa Field Study & Monitoring Corporate Responses; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Mangroves; Marine Protected Areas; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Bavestrello, G., C. Cerrano, D. Zanzi, and R. Cattaneo-Vietti. 1997. Damage by fishing activities to the Gorgonian coral Paramuricea clavata in the Ligurian Sea. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 7:253-262. 1997 Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Finfish Harvest; Marine Protected Areas; Marine Worms; Octocoral
Bodge Kevin, R. 1997. Structural restoration of coral reefs damaged by vessel groundings. Pages 4261-4273 in Proceedings of the Coastal Engineering Conference. 1997 Florida Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Coastal Engineering; Skeletal Coral; Storms & Hurricanes
Cruickshank, M. J. and C. L. Morgan. 1997. Environmental impact of coastal sand utilization in a small Pacific island nation. Page 8344 in Proceedings of the Annual Offshore Technology Conference. 1997 US Pacific & Hawaii; Australia; Tonga Beaches & Nature Parks; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fish; Sediment
Erzini, K., C. C. Monteiro, J. Ribeiro, M. N. Santos, M. Gaspar, P. Monteiro, and T. C. Borges. 1997. An experimental study of gill net and trammel net 'ghost fishing' off the Algarve (southern Portugal). Marine Ecology Progress Series 158:257-265. 1997 Model Algae; Apex Fish Predators; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Marine Birds; Octopus & Squid; Piscivorous Fish; Planktivorous Fish; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Hampton, M. A., M. E. Torresan, and J. H. Barber Jr. 1997. Sea-floor geology of a part of Mamala Bay, Hawai'i. Pacific Science 51:54-75. 1997 Index or Indicator Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Holcombe, T. L., J. S. Warren, L. A. Taylor, D. F. Reid, and C. E. Herdendorf. 1997. Lakefloor geomorphology of western Lake Erie. Journal of Great Lakes Research 23:190-201. 1997 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Surface & Groundwater Flow
J. R. Maxted, S. B. Weisberg, J. C. Chaillou, R. A. Eskin, F. W. Kutz. 1997. The Ecological Condition of Dead-End Canals of the Delaware and Maryland Coastal Bays. Estuaries 20:319-327. 1997 Boating Activities; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Housing; Invertebrates; Marine Worms; Sediment
Link, J. 1997. Untrawlable bottom in shrimp statistical zones of the northwest Gulf of Mexico. Marine Fisheries Review 59:33-36. 1997 South & Central America; Mexico Finfish Harvest; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Invertebrate Harvest; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Littler, D. S. and M. M. Littler. 1997. An illustrated marine flora of the Pelican Cays, Belize. Bulletin - Biological Society of Washington 9:149. 1997 South & Central America; Belize; Caribbean Algae; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Mangroves; Nutrients; Physical Damage
Martini, R., D. Vachard, L. Zaninetti, S. Cirilli, J.-J. Cornee, B. Lathuiliere, and M. Villeneuve. 1997. Sedimentology, stratigraphy, and micropalaeontology of the upper triassic reefal series in Eastern Sulawesi (Indonesia). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 128:157-174. 1997 Australia; Indonesia Algae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Sponges
Mcclanahan, T. R., H. Glaesel, J. Rubens, and R. Kiambo. 1997. The effects of traditional fisheries management on fisheries yields and the coral-reef ecosystems of southern Kenya. Environmental Conservation 24:105-120. 1997 Kenya Cultural Policies; Cultural Protections; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Marine Protected Areas; Special Use Permitting; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
McKenna Jr., J. E. 1997. Influence of physical disturbance on the structure of coral reef fish assemblages in the Dry Tortugas. Caribbean Journal of Science 33:82-97. 1997 Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Complex Habitat & Resources; Corallivorous Fish; Fish; Large Herbivorous Fish; Large Ships; Planktivorous Fish
McManus, J. W. 1997. Tropical marine fisheries and the future of coral reefs: A brief review with emphasis on Southeast Asia. Coral Reefs 16. 1997 Global; Southeast Asia Review; Model Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Scientific Research; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Mcmanus, J. W., R. B. Reyes Jr., and C. L. Nanola Jr. 1997. Effects of some destructive fishing methods on coral cover and potential rates of recovery. Environmental Management 21:69-78. 1997 Philippines Model Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Finfish Harvest
Meesters, E. H., W. Pauchli, and R. P. M. Bak. 1997. Predicting regeneration of physical damage on a reef-building coral by regeneration capacity and lesion shape. Marine Ecology Progress Series 146:91-99. 1997 South & Central America; Caribbean Field Study & Monitoring Physical Damage; Stony Coral
Pitt, R., Robertson, B. Barron, P., Ayyoubi, A. and S. Clark . 1997. Stormwater Treatment At Critical Areas Vol. 1: The Multi-Chambered Treatment Train (MCTT), USEPA Cooperative Agreement No. CR 819573 . 1997 Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Impervious Surfaces; Non-point Source Runoff; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Probert, P. K., D. G. McKnight, and S. L. Grove. 1997. Benthic invertebrate bycatch from a deep-water trawl fishery, Chatham rise, New Zealand. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 7:27-40. 1997 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Review Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Echinoderms; Fishing Sector; Stony Coral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Water Depth & Sea Level
Readhead, M. L. 1997. Snapping shrimp noise near Gladstone, Queensland. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 101:1718-1722. 1997 Australia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Water Depth & Sea Level
Ribera, G., M. Coloreu, C. Rodriguez-Prieto, and E. Ballesteros. 1997. Phytobenthic assemblages of Addaia Bay (Menorca, western Mediterranean): Composition and distribution. Botanica Marina 40:523-532. 1997 Algae; Docks & Marinas; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fleshy Macroalgae; Primary Production; Seagrasses
Schroeder, W. W. and T. S. Hopkins. 1997. Northern record for the zooxanthellate scleractinian coral Siderastrea Siderea (Ellis and Solander) from the Gulf of Mexico. Gulf Research Reports 9:361-364. 1997 South & Central America; Florida; Mexico Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Stony Coral
World Resource Institute International Marinelife Alliance, editor. 1997. Sullied Seas. WRI, Washington D.C. 1997 Global; Tanzania; Maldives; Fiji; Papua New Guinea; Southeast Asia; Vietnam; Indonesia; Philippines; Germany Lab Study; GIS & Maps Apex Fish Predators; Aquarium & Pet Trade; Aquarium Stock; Banks, Credit, & Securities; Coastal Development; Collaboration & Partnering; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Health Policies; Live Collection; Mangroves; Non-point Source Runoff; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
[No author name available]. 1996. Dutra's environmental dredging pilot projects. World Dredging, Mining and Construction 32:10-11+28. 1996 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Military; Sediment; Solid Waste Disposal
Amar, E. C., R. M. T. Cheong, and M. V. T. Cheong. 1996. Small-scale fisheries of coral reefs and the need for community-based resource management in Malalison Island, Philippines. Fisheries Research 25:265-277. 1996 Philippines Aquaculture; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Piscivorous Fish; Resource Use Management; Small Herbivorous Fish; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Chadwick-Furman, N. E. 1996. Reef coral diversity and global change. Global Change Biology 2:559-568. 1996 Global; South & Central America; US Pacific & Hawaii; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Pacific Ocean; Caribbean Climate; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Light; Plankton; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Chandramohan, P., V. Sanil Kumar, and S. Jaya Kumar. 1996. Dredge spoil disposal off Kavaratti island, Lakshadweep, India. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 25:67-70. 1996 India Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Graham, BR UC E and MA RK Schroeder. 1996. M/V FIRAT removal, grounding assessment, hard coral reattachment, and monitoring - a case study. Pages 1451-1455 in Oceans Conference Record (IEEE). 1996 Florida Field Study & Monitoring; GIS & Maps Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Stony Coral; Substrate
Halls, I. W. and R. A. Furness. 1996. Electronic navigation charting: An Australian perspective. Cartography 25:53-59. 1996 Australia Anchoring & Vessel Grounding
Hamzah, AM IR, A. AD JI Z Saleh, and SA TY A Budhi Takdir. 1996. Marine management efforts for the Pagerungan gas development. Pages 891-898 in International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production. 1996 Indonesia Artificial Habitat; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Waterborne Discharges
Mohammed, S. Z. and S. Al-Ssadh. 1996. Coral reef grounds and its associated biota in the western side of 1 the Arabian Gulf (ROPME Sea Area) with respect to 1991 Gulf war oil spill. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 25:35-40. 1996 Bahrain Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Petroleum Spills; Sediment
Osborn, TI M, KE VI N Bodge, MI LE S Croom, MA RK Schroeder, and CH AR LI E Wahle. 1996. Structural restoration of two coral reefs in the Florida keys national marine sanctuary. Pages 14-17 in Oceans Conference Record (IEEE). 1996 Florida Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Collaboration & Partnering; Military
Pearce, F. 1996. Crumbling away: is dredging the villain in the drama of Britain's eroding coasts? New Scientist 152:14-15. 1996 Britain Beaches & Nature Parks; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Riegl, B. and A. Riegl. 1996. Studies on coral community structure and damage as a basis for zoning marine reserves. Biological Conservation 77:269-277. 1996 South Africa Field Study & Monitoring; Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Landuse Management; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Russ, G. R. and A. C. Alcala. 1996. Do marine reserves export adult fish biomass? Evidence from Apo Island, central Philippines. Marine Ecology Progress Series 132:9-Jan. 1996 Philippines Field Study & Monitoring; Model Apex Fish Predators; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Zann, L. P. 1996. The state of the Marine Environment Report for Australia (SOMER): Process, findings and perspectives. Ocean and Coastal Management 33:63-86. 1996 Global; Australia Invasive Species; Littering; Mangroves; Nutrients; Seagrasses; Seastars; Sediment; Snails & Conch; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Alderson, MA RK. 1995. Course to paradise reclaimed. Pages 66-67 in Coastal Zone: Proceedings of the Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management. 1995 Artificial Habitat; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fish; Seagrasses; Wetlands
Allingham, D. P. and D. T. Neil. 1995. The supratidal deposits and effects of coral dredging on Mud Island, Moreton Bay, southeast Queensland. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie 39:273-292. 1995 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Mangroves; Sediment
ANON,. 1995. Iron Baron scuttling. Australasian Ships & Ports 8:12. 1995 Australia Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Petroleum Spills; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Breen, M. 1995. New technologies and techniques in underwater science. Underwater Technology 21:43-47. 1995 Mauritius Index or Indicator Finfish Harvest; Fish; Special Use Permitting; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Burch, B. L. and T. A. Burch. 1995. Sessile foraminifera of the Hawaiian archipelago: a preliminary survey. Marine Micropaleontology 26:161-170. 1995 US Pacific & Hawaii; Cuba Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Kurien, J. 1995. Collective action for common property resource rejuvenation: the case of people's artificial reefs in Kerala State, India. Human Organization 54:160-168. 1995 India Artificial Habitat; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Maragos, J. E. and C. W. Cook Jr. 1995. The 1991-1992 rapid ecological assessment of Palau's coral reefs. Coral Reefs 14:237-252. 1995 Palau Field Study & Monitoring Algae; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Aquarium & Pet Trade; Aquarium Stock; Beaches & Nature Parks; Complex Habitat & Resources; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Mangroves; Sea Turtles; Seagrasses; Seastars; Sediment; Stony Coral; Storms & Hurricanes; Tourism & Recreation
Pyburn, B. 1995. Oil spill recovery, little development but hope for the future. Work Boat World 14:30-38. 1995 Australia; South Africa Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Petroleum Spills; Remediation
Scally Douglas, R., E. Harrington John, and L. Timpe Gerald. 1995. Marine observation network for the Prince William Sound. Pages 741-749 in Oceans Conference Record (IEEE). 1995 Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Coastal Defense; Petroleum Spills
Tsuji, Y., H. Matsutomi, F. Imamura, M. Takeo, Y. Kawata, M. Matsuyama, T. Takahashi, Sunarjo, and P. Harjadi. 1995. Damage to coastal villages due to the 1992 Flores Island earthquake tsunami. Pure and Applied Geophysics 144:481-524. 1995 Field Study & Monitoring Housing
Van Waasbergen, R. J. 1995. Sediment facies and environments of deposition on Cretaceous Pacific carbonate platforms: an overview of dredged rocks from western Pacific guyots. Pages 471-493 in Proc., scientific results, ODP, Leg 143, northwest Pacific atolls and guyots. 1995 US Pacific & Hawaii; Pacific Ocean Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Wang, GE and H. Ohtsubo. 1995. Structural strength during bottom raking. Nihon Zosen Gakkai Ronbunshu/Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Japan 178:413-419. 1995 Model Anchoring & Vessel Grounding
Brown, B. E., M. D. Le Tissier, R. P. Dunne, and T. P. Scoffin. 1994. Natural and anthropogenic disturbances of intertidal reefs of SE Phuket, Thailand 1979-1992. Pages 279-285 in Proceedings of the colloquium on global aspects of coral reefs, Miami, 1993. 1994 Global; Thailand Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Chansang, H. and N. Phongsuwan. 1994. Health of fringing reefs of Asia through a decade of change: a case history from Phuket Island, Thailand. Pages 286-292 in Proceedings of the colloquium on global aspects of coral reefs, Miami, 1993. 1994 Global; Thailand Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Finfish Harvest; Nutrients; Seastars; Storms & Hurricanes; Tourism & Recreation
Clarke, DO UG LA S and RI CH AR D Kasul. 1994. Habitat value of offshore dredged material berms for fishery resources. Pages 938-945 in International Conference on Dredging and Dredged Material Placement. 1994 Artificial Habitat; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fishing Sector
Collins, K. J., A. C. Jensen, A. P. M. Lockwood, and S. J. Lockwood. 1994. Coastal structures, waste materials and fishery enhancement. Bulletin of Marine Science 55:1240-1250. 1994 Review Agriculture; Coal Mining; Coastal Defense; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fishing Sector; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Waste Management Policies
Cook, C. B., R. E. Dodge, and S. R. Smith. 1994. Fifty years of impacts on coral reefs in Bermuda. Pages 160-166 in Proceedings of the colloquium on global aspects of coral reefs, Miami, 1993. 1994 Global; Bermuda Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Stony Coral
De Sylva, D. P. 1994. Distribution and ecology of ciguatera fish poisoning in Florida, with emphasis on the Florida Keys. Bulletin of Marine Science 54:944-954. 1994 Global; Florida Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fish; Nutrients
Eakin, C. M., J. S. Feingold, and P. W. Glynn. 1994. Oil refinery impacts on coral reef communities in Aruba, NA. Pages 139-145 in Proceedings of the colloquium on global aspects of coral reefs, Miami, 1993. 1994 Global Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Ports & Harbors; Sediment; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Skeletal Coral
Gittings, S. R., T. J. Bright, and D. K. Hagman. 1994. The MV Wellwood and other large vessel groundings: coral reef damage and recovery. Pages 174-180 in Proceedings of the colloquium on global aspects of coral reefs, Miami, 1993. 1994 Global Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Complex Habitat & Resources; Fish; Plankton; Stony Coral
Glynn, P. W. 1994. State of coral reefs in the Galapagos Islands: Natural vs anthropogenic impacts. Marine Pollution Bulletin 29:131-140. 1994 Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Sea Urchins; Skeletal Coral
Guillen, J. E., A. A. Ramos, L. Martinez, and J. L. Sanchez Lizaso. 1994. Antitrawling reefs and the protection of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows in the western Mediterranean Sea: demand and aims. Bulletin of Marine Science 55:645-650. 1994 Artificial Habitat; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Hunter, C. L. and C. W. Evans. 1994. Reefs in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii: two centuries of western influence and two decades of data. Pages 339-345 in Proceedings of the colloquium on global aspects of coral reefs, Miami, 1993. 1994 Global; US Pacific & Hawaii Algae; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Plankton; Point Source Discharges; Sediment; Stony Coral; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Meesters, E.H., M. Noordeloos, R. P.M. Bak. 1994. Damage and regeneration: links to growth in the reef-building coral Montastraea annularis. Marine Ecology Progress Series 112:119-128. 1994 Model Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Light; Physical Damage; Stony Coral
Moore William, H. 1994. Grounding of exxon valdez: an examination of the human and organizational factors. Marine Technology 31:41-51. 1994 Anchoring & Vessel Grounding
Morton, B. 1994. Hong Kong's coral communities status, threats and management plans. Marine Pollution Bulletin 29:74-83. 1994 Review Climate; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Infrastructure; Land & Air Transportation; Marine Protected Areas; Stony Coral
Reichelt, A. J. and G. B. Jones. 1994. Trace metals as tracers of dredging activity in Cleveland Bay - Field and laboratory studies. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 45:1237-1257. 1994 Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Salm, R. 1994. Coral's hidden riches. People & the planet / IPPF, UNFPA, IUCN 3:19-21. 1994 Indian Ocean; India Model Aquaculture; Docks & Marinas; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Forestry; Hotel & Food Services; Housing; Mangroves; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics Sources; Shoreline Protection; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation; Water Depth & Sea Level
[No author name available]. 1993. 11th Australasian Conference on Coastal and Ocean Engineering. Pages 429-726 in National Conference Publication - Institution of Engineers, Australia. 1993 Australia Model Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Petroleum Spills; Seagrasses; Shoreline Protection; Surface & Groundwater Flow
[No author name available]. 1993. Coastal Zone'93. Pages 2415-3512 in Coastal Zone: Proceedings of the Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management. 1993 Global; South & Central America; US Pacific & Hawaii; Mexico GIS & Maps Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Microorganisms; Non-point Source Runoff; Point Source Discharges; Ports & Harbors; Resource Use Management; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Tourism & Recreation; Waterborne Discharges; Wetlands; Whales & Dolphins
Bode, LA NC E, LU CI AN O Mason, and TH OM AS Hardy. 1993. Application of numerical modelling to the prediction of dredge plume movement. Pages 379-384 in National Conference Publication - Institution of Engineers, Australia. 1993 Australia Model Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Brown, B. E., M. D. Tissier, R. P. Dunne, and T. P. Scoffin. 1993. Natural and anthropogenic disturbances on intertidal reefs of S.E. Phuket, Thailand 1979-1992. Pages 279-285 Miami, FL. 1993 Thailand Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Water Depth & Sea Level
Chandramohan, P., N. M. Anand, and B. U. Nayak. 1993. Shoreline dynamics of the Lakshadweep Islands. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 22:198-202. 1993 Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Gibbs, R. J. 1993. Metals of the bottom muds in Townsville Harbor, Australia. Environmental Pollution 81:297-300. 1993 Australia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Ports & Harbors
Gittings, S. R., T. J. Bright, and D. K. Hagman. 1993. The M/V Wellwood and other large vessel groundings: coral reef damage and recovery. Pages 174-180 Miami, FL. 1993 Florida Anchoring & Vessel Grounding
Greene, L. E. and J. M. Shenker. 1993. The effects of human activity on the temporal variability of coral reef fish assemblages in the Key Largo National Marine Sanctuary. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 3:189-205. 1993 Cuba Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Fish; Tourism & Recreation
Hawkins, J. P. and C. M. Roberts. 1993. Effects of recreational scuba diving on coral reefs: trampling on reef-flat communities. Journal of Applied Ecology 30:25-30. 1993 Cuba; Egypt Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Hotel & Food Services; Skeletal Coral; Stony Coral; Tourism & Recreation; Trampling
Kuo, J., W. Lee Long, and R. G. Coles. 1993. Occurrence and fruit and seed biology of Halophila tricostata Greenway (Hydrocharitaceae). Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 44:43-57. 1993 Australia Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Seagrasses; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Milliman, J. D. 1993. Coral reefs and their response to global climate change. Pages 306-321 Climatic change in the intra-Americas sea. 1993 Global Climate; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Pathogens
Molenaar, N. and A. A. M. Venmans. 1993. Calcium carbonate cementation of sand: A method for producing artificially cemented samples for geotechnical testing and a comparison with natural cementation processes. Engineering Geology 35:103-122. 1993 Lab Study; Model Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Pailles, C., D. M. McConchie, A. V. Arakel, and P. Saenger. 1993. The distribution of phosphate in sediments of the Johnstone Rivers catchment-estuary system, North Queensland, Australia. Sedimentary Geology 85:253-269. 1993 Australia Agriculture; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Marine Protected Areas; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Priced, A. R. G. 1993. The Gulf: Human impacts and management initiatives. Marine Pollution Bulletin 27:17-27. 1993 Global; Saudi Arabia; Kuwait Agriculture; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Climate; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Sediment; Solid Waste Disposal
Reichelt, A. J. and G. B. Jones. 1993. Characterization and fate of suspended sediments associated with dredging activities in Cleveland Bay. Pages 385-390 in National Conference Publication - Institution of Engineers, Australia. 1993 Australia Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Robert Pitt and K. Dunkers. 1993. Lake Water Quality Improvements from Treatment of Stormwater Using the Flow Balancing Method, 66th Annual Water Environment Federation Conference. Anaheim, CA. October 1993.; Detecting Water Quality Trends from Stormwater Discharge Reductions, Engineerin. in 66th Annual Water Environment Federation Conference. 1993 Global Field Study & Monitoring Agriculture; Algae; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Improved Technology; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Seawater Flow; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wastewater Discharge; Water Depth & Sea Level
Rogers, C. S. 1993. Hurricanes and anchors: preliminary results from the National Park Service regional reef assessment program. Miami, FL. 1993 Florida; US Virgin Islands Field Study & Monitoring Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Storms & Hurricanes
Saila, S. B., V. L. Kocic, and J. W. McManus. 1993. Modelling the effects of destructive fishing practices on tropical coral reefs. Marine Ecology Progress Series 94:51-60. 1993 Philippines Review; Model Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Finfish Harvest; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Van der Knaap, M. 1993. Physical damage to corals caused by trap-fishing on reefs of Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Environmental Conservation 20:265-267. 1993 Antilles Finfish Harvest; Physical Damage
Wood, K. A. 1993. The avian population of an urban bushland reserve at Wollongong, New South Wales: implications for management. Landscape and Urban Planning 23:81-95. 1993 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Wetlands
Boc Jr. Stanley, J., J. Reynold William, and M. Dobinchick Jasmina. 1992. Coastal processes and engineering on a micronesian fringing reef. Pages 285-302 in [No source information available]. 1992 Micronesia Beaches & Nature Parks; Cultural Protections; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Land & Air Transportation; Mitigation; Sediment
Collot, J.-Y., S. Lallemand, B. Pelletier, J.-P. Bissen, G. Glacon, M. A. Fisher, H. G. Greene, J. Boulin, J. Daniel, and M. Monzier. 1992. Geology of the d'Entrecasteaux-New Hebrides arc collision zone: results from a deep submersible survey. Tectonophysics 212. 1992 Australia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Stafford-Smith, M.G. 1992. Mortality of the hard coral Leptoria phrygia under persistent sediment influx. Pages 289-99 in Proceedings of the 7th International Coral Reef Symposium. 1992 Coastal Development; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Stony Coral
Triffleman, N. J., P. Hallock, and A. C. Hine. 1992. Morphology, sediments, and depositional environments of a small carbonate platform: Serranilla Bank, Nicaraguan Rise, southwest Caribbean Sea. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 62:591-606. 1992 South & Central America; Cuba; Nicaragua; Caribbean Algae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Sponges
Wolanski, E. and R. Gibbs. 1992. Resuspension and clearing of dredge spoils after dredging, Cleveland Bay, Australia. Water Environment Research 64:910-914. 1992 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Salinity; Sediment
Wolanski, E., R. Gibbs, P. Ridd, and A. Mehta. 1992. Settling of ocean-dumped dredged material, Townsville, Australia. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 35:473-489. 1992 Australia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Al-Madany, I. M., M. A. Abdalla, and A. S. E. Abdu. 1991. Coastal zone management in Bahrain: An analysis of social, economic and environmental impacts of dredging and reclamation. Journal of Environmental Management 32:335-348. 1991 Bahrain Model Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Mangroves; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Bunpapong, SI RI KU L and SO MP ON G Ausavajitanond. 1991. Saving what's left of tourism development at Patong beach, Phuket, Thailand. Pages 1685-1697 in Coastal Zone: Proceedings of the Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management. 1991 Thailand Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Regulations; Sewage Treatment; Tourism & Recreation; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies
Clague, D. A. and J. G. Moore. 1991. Geology and petrology of Mahukona Volcano, Hawaii. Bulletin of Volcanology 53:159-172. 1991 US Pacific & Hawaii Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Water Depth & Sea Level
Hawkins, J. P., C. M. Roberts, and T. Adamson. 1991. Effects of a phosphate ship grounding on a Red Sea coral reef. Marine Pollution Bulletin 22:538-542. 1991 Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Nutrients; Sediment
Liddle, M. J. 1991. Recreation ecology: Effects of trampling on plants and corals. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 6:13-17. 1991 Review Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Tourism & Recreation; Trampling
Palaganas Virgilio, P. 1991. Anchor damage on the coral reef of Sombrero, Island, Batangas, Philippines. Pages 3318-3329 in Coastal Zone: Proceedings of the Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management. 1991 Philippines Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Regulations; Tourism & Recreation
Paw, J. N. and T.-E. Chua. 1991. Managing coastal resources in Cilacap, Indonesia, and Lingayen Gulf, Philippines - an ASEAN initiative. Marine Pollution Bulletin 23:779-783. 1991 Java; Indonesia; Philippines Agriculture; Aquaculture; Beaches & Nature Parks; Chemical Use Regulations; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Mining; Non-point Source Runoff; Seagrasses; Sediment; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Taviani, M., P. Bouchet, B. Metivier, M. Fontugne, and G. Delibrias. 1991. Intermediate steps of southwards faunal shifts testified by last glacial submerged thanatocoenoses in the Atlantic ocean. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 86:331-338. 1991 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Tietjen, J. H. 1991. Ecology of free-living nematodes from the continental shelf of the central great barrier reef province. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 32:421-438. 1991 Australia Marine Worms; Microorganisms; Sediment; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Craik, W., J. Glaister, and I. Poiner. 1990. The effects of fishing. The effects of fishing. 1990 Australia; New Caledonia Review Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Discharges; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Sea Turtles; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Emelyanov, E. M., I. N. Elnikov, E. S. Trimonis, and G. S. Kharin. 1990. Geology of the Sierra Leone Rise. Geologische Rundschau 79:823-848. 1990 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Atlantic Ocean Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water Depth & Sea Level
Johnston, A. J. and H. F. Bock. 1990. Sub-seabed electrodeposition: foundation and anchoring enhancement. Geotechnique 40:503-508. 1990 Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Calcium Carbonate Deposition
Moore, J. G., D. A. Clague, K. R. Ludwig, and R. K. Mark. 1990. Subsidence and volcanism of the Haleakala Ridge, Hawaii. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 42:273-284. 1990 US Pacific & Hawaii GIS & Maps Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Neil, D. 1990. Potential for Coral stress due to sediment resuspension and deposition by reef walkers. Biological Conservation 52:221-227. 1990 Australia Sediment; Trampling
Somers, I. F. 1990. Manipulation of fishing effort in Australia's penaeid prawn fisheries. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 41:12-Jan. 1990 Australia Model Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Vora, K. H. and F. Almeida. 1990. Submerged reef systems on the central western continental shelf of India. Marine Geology 91:255-262. 1990 India Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Runoff; Water Depth & Sea Level
Alongi, D. M. 1989. Benthic processes across mixed terrigenous-carbonate sedimentary facies on the central Great Barrier Reef continental shelf. Continental Shelf Research 9:629-663. 1989 Australia; Cuba Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Marine Worms; Microorganisms; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Plankton; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Bombace, G. 1989. Artificial reefs in the Mediterranean Sea. Bulletin of Marine Science 44:1023-1032. 1989 France Aquaculture; Artificial Habitat; Finfish Harvest; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Foster, F. J. 1989. Bucketwheel suction dredges in mining. in [No source information available]. 1989 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Skeletal Coral
Hendry, M. and G. Digerfeldt. 1989. Palaeogeography and palaeoenvironments of a tropical coastal wetland and offshore shelf during Holocene submergence, Jamaica. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 73:10-Jan. 1989 Jamaica GIS & Maps Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Wetlands
Kay, A. M. and M. J. Liddle. 1989. Impact of human trampling in different zones of a coral reef flat. Environmental Management 13:509-520. 1989 Trampling
Peters, E. C. and P. P. Yevich. 1989. Histopathology of Ceriantheopsis americanus (Cnidaria: Ceriantharia) exposed to Black Rock Harbor dredge spoils in Long Island Sound. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 7:137-148. 1989 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Ports & Harbors
Pilkey, O., D. Heron, W. Harbridge, J. Kamens, F. Keer, and S. Thornton. 1989. The sedimentology of three Tunisian lagoons. Marine Geology 88:285-301. 1989 Climate; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Marine Worms; Molluscs; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Rappa Peter, J. and J. Miller Bruce. 1989. Coastal resource management planning in the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands. Pages 2147-2160 in Coastal Zone: Proceedings of the Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management. 1989 US Pacific & Hawaii; Micronesia Collaboration & Partnering; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Infrastructure; Mitigation; Ports & Harbors; Resource Use Management; Road Construction & Maintenance
Seiler, K.-P., P. Maloszewski, and H. Behrens. 1989. Hydrodynamic dispersion in karstified limestones and dolomites in the Upper Jurassic of the Franconian Alb, F.R.G. Journal of Hydrology 108:235-247. 1989 Model Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Seawater Flow; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Sheehy Daniel, J. and F. Vik Susan. 1989. Extending mitigation banking beyond wetlands. Pages 1242-1253 in Coastal Zone: Proceedings of the Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management. 1989 Decision Support Frameworks & Tools Artificial Habitat; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fishing Sector; Mitigation; Wetlands
Stephan, C. D. and D. G. Lindquist. 1989. A comparative analysis of the fish assemblages associated with old and new shipwrecks and fish aggregating devices in Onslow Bay, North Carolina. Bulletin of Marine Science 44:698-717. 1989 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Artificial Habitat; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fish
Wellmer, H. 1989. The underground drainage-system in the Fort of Galle (Sri Lanka). Erdkundliches Wissen 97:141-167. 1989 Sri Lanka Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Skeletal Coral
Brown, B. E. and R. P. Dunne. 1988. The environmental impact of coral mining on coral reefs in the Maldives. Environmental Conservation 15:159-166. 1988 Maldives Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Storms & Hurricanes
Chansang, H. 1988. Coastal tin mining and marine pollution in Thailand. Ambio 17:223-228. 1988 Thailand; Malaysia; Indonesia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Mining; Sediment; Waterborne Discharges
Clark, D., T. J. Fredette, and U. S. Army Engr. Dist. Mobile. 1988. Creation of offshore topographic features with dredged material. ENVIRON. EFFECTS DREDGING. 1988 South & Central America; Mexico; England Field Study & Monitoring Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Fish
Gittings, S. R. 1988. The recovery process in a mechanically damaged coral reef community. Ph.D. thesis. in [No source information available]. 1988 Florida Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Octocoral; Stony Coral; Storms & Hurricanes
Gittings, S. R. and T. J. Bright. 1988. The M/V Wellwood grounding: a sanctuary case study. Oceanus 31:35-41. 1988 Florida Algae; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Fish; Stony Coral
Kuhlmann, D. H. H. 1988. The sensitivity of coral reefs to environmental pollution. Ambio 17:13-21. 1988 Japan Agriculture; Algae; Calcium Carbonate Deposition; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Nutrients; Stony Coral
Rubec, P. J. 1988. The need for conservation and management of Philippine coral reefs. Environmental Biology of Fishes 23:141-154. 1988 Agriculture; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Dingler John, R. and E. Reiss Thomas. 1987. Nearshore Sand Sources For American Samoa: An Alternative To Using Beach Sand. Pages 4434-4448 in [No source information available]. 1987 Cuba; Samoa; American Samoa Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Durgaprasada Rao, N. V. N. and A. K. A. Behairy. 1987. Intertidal conglomerate south of Yanbu - An episodic clastic deposit in the eastern Red Sea. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 58:221-228. 1987 Saudi Arabia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Dustan, P. A., J. Halas. 1987. Changes in reef-coral communities of Carysfort Reef, Key Largo, Florida: 1974-1982. Coral Reefs 6:91-106. 1987 Florida Physical Damage; Sediment
Liddle, M. J. and A. M. Kay. 1987. Resistance, survival and recovery of trampled corals on the Great Barrier Reef. Biological Conservation 42:18-Jan. 1987 Australia Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Physical Damage; Stony Coral; Tourism & Recreation; Trampling
Madany, I. M., S. M. Ali, and M. S. Akhter. 1987. The impact of dredging and reclamation in Bahrain. Journal of Shoreline Management 3:255-268. 1987 Bahrain Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Purser, B. H., M. Soliman, and A. M'Rabet. 1987. Carbonate, evaporite, siliciclastic transitions in Quaternary rift sediments of the northwestern Red Sea. Sedimentary Geology 53:247-267. 1987 Egypt Climate; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Striegl, R.G.; Cowan, E.A. 1987. Relations Between Quality of Urban Runoff and Quality of Lake Ellyn at Glen Ellyn, Illinois. Available from Books and Open-File Reports Section, USGS, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225. USGS Water-Supply Paper 2301, 1987. 59p, 27 fig, 20 tab, 60 ref. 1987 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrients; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Van Dolah, R. F., P. H. Wendt, and N. Nicholson. 1987. Effects of a research trawl on a hard-bottom assemblage of sponges and corals. Fisheries Research 5:39-54. 1987 Boring Sponges; Octocoral; Sponges; Stony Coral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Tube, Barrel, & Finger Sponges
Wiedicke, M. 1987. Biostratigraphy, Microfacies and diagenesis of tertiary carbonates from the South China Sea (Dangerous Grounds-Palawan, Philippines). Facies 16:195-301. 1987 Australia; Southeast Asia; China; Philippines Model Algae; Coralline Algae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Echinoderms; Sediment
Anon,. 1986. Amazone, First Cutter Suction Dredger Completed By Boelwerf, Belgium. Holland Shipbuilding 35:39-41. 1986 Beach & Land Formation; Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Maynard John, K. and S. D. Chung David. 1986. Design Of Wharf Facilities, Guam, M. I. , To Accommodate Difficult Site Conditions. Pages 159-170 in [No source information available]. 1986 Guam Coastal Defense; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Military; Ports & Harbors
[No author name available]. 1985. Another port for Florida? PORT DEV. INT3:-22. 1985 Florida Agriculture; Banks, Credit, & Securities; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fish; Forestry
Evans, C., J. E. Maragos, and P. Holtus. 1985. Reef corals in Kaneohe Bay six years before and after termination of sewage discharges (Oahu, Hawaiian Archipelago). Pages 189-194 in Proceedings of the fifth international coral reef congress. Tahiti. 1985 US Pacific & Hawaii Agriculture; Algae; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Military; Nutrients; Sediment; Stony Coral
Grover, D. H. 1985. Army hopper dredges in World War II. World dredging & marine construction 21:-29. 1985 US Pacific & Hawaii; Europe Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Military; Stony Coral
Knap Anthony, H., D. Sleeter Thomas, and WY N Hughes Idwal. 1985. Case History: The Grounding Of The M/T Tifoso, 1983: A Test Of Bermuda'S Contingency Plan. Pages 289-291 in [No source information available]. 1985 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA); Bermuda Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Coastal Defense; Tourism & Recreation
Mallik, T. K. 1985. An analysis of problems related to dredging in a coral atoll: Kavaratti, Lakshadweep, Indian Ocean. Environmental Geology and Water Sciences 7:151-157. 1985 Indian Ocean; India; Fiji Algae; Beaches & Nature Parks; Calcareous Macroalgae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Molluscs; Ports & Harbors; Sediment
Shabica Charles, W. 1985. Sediment Accretion Associated With Surgebreaker Offshore Reef, A Low Cost Shore Protection Device: An Update On The Corps Of Engineers Section 54 Program. Pages 575-580 in Oceans Conference Record (IEEE). 1985 Mitigation; Physical Damage; Sediment; Shoreline Protection
Stoddard, AN DR EW, RO GE R Wells, and KI M Devonald. 1985. Development And Application Of A Deepwater Ocean Waste Disposal Model For Dredged Material: Yabucoa Harbor, Puerto Rico. Marine Technology Society Journal 19:26-39. 1985 Puerto Rico Model Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Special Use Permitting
Stoddart, D. R. 1985. Hurricane effects on coral reefs. in IN: PROC. FIFTH INT. CORAL REEF CONGRESS, (MOOREA, FRENCH POLYNESIA: MAY 27-JUN. 1, 1985). 1985 Review; Model Physical Damage; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes
[No author name available]. 1984. Cuban dredger makes UK shipbuilding history. Dredging and Port Construction 11:-9. 1984 Cuba Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Campbell Thomas, J. and KI M Beachler. 1984. Engineering For Beach Restoration Dredging. Pages 1014-1023 in [No source information available]. 1984 Florida Review Beaches & Nature Parks; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Shoreline Protection; Special Use Permitting; Storms & Hurricanes; Tourism & Recreation
Dodge, R. E. and G. W. Brass. 1984. Skeletal extension, density and calcification of the reef coral, Montastrea annularis: St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. Bulletin of Marine Science 34:288-307. 1984 US Virgin Islands Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Ports & Harbors
Eisenberg, W. SA M. 1984. Tampa Harbor Florida Deepening Project. Pages 973-979 in [No source information available]. 1984 South & Central America; Florida; Mexico Beaches & Nature Parks; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Ports & Harbors
Schneider, K. 1984. A new design of high pressure armoured discharge hose. Dredging and Port Construction 11:-12. 1984 Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Schubert, C. and M. Laredo. 1984. Geology of Aves Island (Venezuela) and subsidence of Aves Ridge, Caribbean Sea. Marine Geology 59:305-318. 1984 South & Central America; Venezuela; Caribbean GIS & Maps Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Storms & Hurricanes; Water Depth & Sea Level
Sedberry, G. R. and R. F. Van Dolah. 1984. Demersal fish assemblages associated with hard bottom habitat in the South Atlantic Bight of the U.S.A. Environmental Biology of Fishes 11:241-258. 1984 US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Complex Habitat & Resources; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Taviani, M. and P. Colantoni. 1984. ( Deep-sea scleractinian paleobiocoenoses from the Malta-Syracuse escarpment, Mediterranean Sea: their structure, age and significance). [Paleobiocoenoses profondes a Scleractiniaires sur l'escarpement de Malte-Syracuse (Mer Mediterranee): leur structure,. Revue - Institut Francais du Petrole 39:547-559. 1984 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Water Depth & Sea Level
Winterer Edward, L. and V. Metzler Christopher. 1984. ORIGIN AND SUBSIDENCE OF GUYOTS IN MID-PACIFIC MOUNTAINS. Journal of Geophysical Research 89:9969-9979. 1984 US Pacific & Hawaii Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Seawater Flow
[No author name available]. 1983. Yanbu: a corner stone of Saudi Arabia's development plan. COHESION 19:-11. 1983 Saudi Arabia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing
Bradstock, M. and D. P. Gordon. 1983. Coral-like bryozoan growths in Tasman Bay, and their protection to conserve commercial fish stocks. New Zealand Journal of Marine & Freshwater Research 17:159-163. 1983 Fish; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Coppes, JA N, AD OL F Lubbers, SO EP AN GA T Soemarto, and SU GI YO Yuwono. 1983. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR THE DREDGING AND RECLAMATION WORKS AT SOUTH BONTANG BAY, INDONESIA. Water Science and Technology 16:407-415. 1983 Indonesia Lab Study Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Mitigation; Natural Gas & Electric Power
Gourlay, M. R. 1983. Interaction between natural processes and engineering works on the leeward side of a coral cay: a case study of Heron Island on the Great Barrier Reef. Page Conventions in IN: PROC. INT. CONF. ON COASTAL AND PORT ENGINEERING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, (COLOMBO, SRI LANKA: MAR. 20-26, 1983). 1983 Australia; Sri Lanka Coastal Engineering; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Shoreline Protection
Lum, D. 1983. Limestone Resources Of Hawaii. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Society 274:1991-1996. 1983 US Pacific & Hawaii Agriculture; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Golf Course Operations; Manufacturing & Trade; Ports & Harbors; Water Depth & Sea Level
[No author name available]. 1982. Galle harbour dredging. DOCK & HARBOUR AUTH63:-140. 1982 Sri Lanka Dredging, Draining, & Filling
[No author name available]. 1982. Sharjah dredging continues without disruption. DOCK & HARBOUR AUTH62:-287. 1982 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Water Depth & Sea Level
Asayama, K. 1982. New flexible joint for dredger discharge lines. Dredging and Port Construction 9:-23. 1982 Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Brown, B. E. and M. C. Holley. 1982. Metal levels associated with tin dredging and smelting and their effect upon intertidal reef flats at ko phuket, Thailand. Coral Reefs 1:131-137. 1982 Thailand Bivalves; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Metals, Electronics, & Machinery Products; Molluscs; Sediment; Skeletal Coral; Stony Coral
Finn, D. P. 1982. Soil loss in developing countries and its relationship to marine resources: examples from East Africa. in [No source information available]. 1982 Agriculture; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Deforestation & Devegetation; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fishing Sector; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Hollett, K. J. and R. Moberly. 1982. Sedimentation, dredging, and spoil disposal in a subtropical estuarine lagoon. Environmental Geology 4:31-42. 1982 US Pacific & Hawaii Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish Harvest; Military; Non-point Source Runoff; Ports & Harbors; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation
Parrish, J. D. 1982. Fishes at a Puerto Rican coral reef: distribution, behavior, and response to passive fishing gear. Caribbean Journal of Science 18:20-Sep. 1982 US Pacific & Hawaii Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing Sector; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Bernard, P. 1981. Numerations bacteriennes dans le lagon du grand Cul-de-Sac marin et sa zone (guadeloupe). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 50:197-212. 1981 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Mangroves; Microorganisms; Sediment
Bernard, P., R. Galzin, and B. Salvat. 1981. Undesirable Affects Of Coral Sand Dredging In The Lagoon Of The Grand Cul-De-Sac Marin In Guadeloupe [Note Sur Les Nuisances Liees Au Prelevement De Sable Corallien Dans Le Lagon Du Grand Cul-De-Sac Marin En Guadeloupe]. Pages 119-123 Revue Internationale d'Oceanographie Medicale. 1981 Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Freeman-lynde, R. P., M. B. Cita, F. Jadoul, E. L. Miller, and W. B. F. Ryan. 1981. Marine geology of the Bahama Escarpment. Marine Geology 44:119-156. 1981 South & Central America; Bahamas; Mexico Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Johnston Jr., S. A. 1981. Estuarine dredge and fill activities: A review of impacts. Environmental Management 5:427-440. 1981 Review Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Nutrients; Sediment; Wetlands
Pudsey, C. J., D. G. Jenkins, and D. Curry. 1981. Sedimentology and palaeontology of samples from the Hellenic Trench. Marine Geology 44:273-288. 1981 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Tilmant, J. T. and G. P. Schmahl. 1981. A comparative analysis of coral damage on recreationally used reefs within Biscayne National Park, Florida. Pages 187-192 in Proceedings of the Fourth International Coral Reef Symposium. 1981 Florida Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Finfish Harvest; Octocoral; Tourism & Recreation
[No author name available]. 1980. Swedish backhoe dredge equal to huge tasks. World dredging & marine construction 16:p.27.. 1980 Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Courtenay Jr, W. R., B. C. Hartig, and G. R. Loisel. 1980. Ecological evaluation of a beach nourishment project at Hallandale ( Broward County), Florida. Volume I. Evaluation of fish populations adjacent to borrow areas of beach nourishment project, Hallandale (Broward County), Florida ( USA). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Dept of Biological Sciences, Miscellaneous Report. 1980 Florida; US East Coast (NC, SC, GA) Beaches & Nature Parks; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fish; Sediment; Substrate
Sartori, RE NZ O. 1980. FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISTRIBUTION OF AHERMATYPIC CORALS ON THE MEDITERRANEAN SEAFLOOR: A PROBABILISTIC STUDY. Deep Sea Research Part A, Oceanographic Research Papers 27:655-663. 1980 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Substrate
Spadoni, RI CH AR D and TH OM AS Campbell. 1980. Coral Reef Protection During Beach Restoration In Florida. Pages 152-159 in Proceedings of SOUTHEASTCON Region 3 Conference. 1980 Florida Field Study & Monitoring Beaches & Nature Parks; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Shoreline Armoring; Shoreline Protection
[No author name available]. 1979. Hawaian deep water port to be built. DOCK & HARBOUR AUTH60:-169. 1979 Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Conti, H., D. G. True, and M. Jansen. 1979. Design Of A Lighweight Portable Single Point Mooring System For U. S. Navy Amphibious Logistic Suport. Pages 131-153 in American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Ocean Engineering Division (Proceedings) OED. 1979 Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Coastal Defense; Military
Rogers, C. S. 1979. The effect of shading on coral reef structure and function. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 41:269-288. 1979 Puerto Rico Algae; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Primary Production; Sediment; Skeletal Coral; Stony Coral
Sheehy Daniel, J. 1979. Fisheries Development: Japan. Water Spectrum 12:9-Jan. 1979 Japan Artificial Habitat; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Echinoderms; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Sea Urchins
Spadoni, R. H. 1979. Reef monitoring of the Delray Beach Erosion Project. SHORE & BEACH 47:-12. 1979 Florida Field Study & Monitoring Beaches & Nature Parks; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Sediment
Bak, R. P. M. 1978. Lethal and sublethal effects of dredging on reef corals. Marine Pollution Bulletin 9:14-16. 1978 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Stony Coral; Zooxanthellae
Dryer, S. and A. Logan. 1978. Holocene reefs and sediments of Castle Harbour, Bermuda. Journal of Marine Research 36:-399. 1978 Bermuda Field Study & Monitoring Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Stony Coral; Substrate
Hermann, F. V., O. Miyamoto, and W. L. Rickard. 1978. Reef Runway! is first in airport design. Civil Engineering 48:-105. 1978 US Pacific & Hawaii Field Study & Monitoring Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Land & Air Transportation
Schlapak, B. R. and J. B. Herbich. 1978. Characteristics of coral and coral dredging. in [No source information available]. 1978 Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Stern, E. M. and W. B. Stickle. 1978. Effects of turbidity and suspended material in aquatic environments. Literature review. in [No source information available]. 1978 Review Dredging, Draining, & Filling
[No author name available]. 1977. Singapore dredge for Maldives. in [No source information available]. 1977 Maldives Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Davis, G. E. 1977. Anchor damage to a coral reef on the coast of Florida. Biological Conservation 11:29-34. 1977 Florida Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Regulations; Stony Coral
Dodge, R. E. and J. Rimas Vaisnys. 1977. Coral populations and growth patterns: responses to sedimentation and turbidity associated with dredging. Journal of Marine Research 35:-715. 1977 Bermuda Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Skeletal Coral; Stony Coral
Dodge, R. E., J. R. Vaisnys. 1977. Coral populations and growth patterns: Responses to sedimentation and turbidity associated with dredging. Journal of Marine Research 35:715-729. 1977 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Garbe, C. W. 1977. Coast development in the Middle East in general, Saudi Arabia in particular. World dredging & marine construction 12:-18. 1977 Middle East; Saudi Arabia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Ports & Harbors; Shoreline Protection; Storms & Hurricanes
Woodland, D. J. and J. N. A. Hooper. 1977. The effect of human trampling on coral reefs. Biological Conservation 11:4-Jan. 1977 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Trampling
Brood, K. 1976. Cyclostomatous Bryozoa from the coastal waters of East Africa. Zoologica Scripta 5:277-300. 1976 US Pacific & Hawaii; Kenya; Indonesia; Philippines Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Griffin, G. M. 1976. Dredge-fill in the coral reef tract of the Northern Florida Keys. in [No source information available]. 1976 Florida Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow
PROEHL', N. 1976. Proehl Cutterhead Moves Through Rock, Clay, Sand. World dredging & marine construction 12. 1976 Dredging, Draining, & Filling
ATJAK, M. G. 1975. Concentrating Ore At Sea. DE INGENIEUR 87. 1975 Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Newton, R. S. and A. Stefanon. 1975. Application of side-scan sonar in marine biology. Marine Biology 31:287-291. 1975 GIS & Maps Commercial Fisheries; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fishing Sector; Sediment
[No author name available]. 1974. First offshore runway grows 30,000 cu. yd. daily. ENR (Engineering News-Record) 193:1974. 1974 US Pacific & Hawaii Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Land & Air Transportation; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Shoreline Protection
Bellaiche, C., M. Gennesseaux, A. Mauffret, and J. P. Rehault. 1974. Prelevements systematiques et caracterisation des reflecteurs acoustiques: nouvelle etape dans la comprehension de la geologie de la Mediterranee occidentale. Marine Geology 16:47-56. 1974 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Matthews, J. L., B. C. Heezen, R. Catalano, A. Coogan, M. Tharp, J. Natland, and M. Rawson. 1974. Cretaceous drowning of reefs on Mid-Pacific and Japanese guyots. Science 184:462-464. 1974 US Pacific & Hawaii; Oman; Japan Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Water Depth & Sea Level
Weydert, P. 1974. Morphologie et sedimentologie de la pente externe de la partie nord du Grand Recif ed Tulear (SW de Madagascar). Nature et repartition des elements organogenes libres. (Morphology and sedimentology of the outer slope of the northern part of the \Grand Rec. Marine Geology 17:299-337. 1974 Madagascar Model; Index or Indicator Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
Bouma, A. H., G. L. Huebner, and B. W. Holliday. 1973. Environmental studies on sediment and reef surveys and dredge discharge distribution. in [No source information available]. 1973 Remote Sensing Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Forestry; Sediment
Brown, CL AU DE and CH AR LE S Grundy. 1973. Shaped Charges Blasting Technique Simplifies, Speeds Dredging Operations. World dredging & marine construction 9:31-33. 1973 Dredging, Draining, & Filling
GORDON, G. and M. K. GORDON. 1973. Island Created For Runway. World dredging & marine construction 9. 1973 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Land & Air Transportation
MASCH, F. D. and N. J. SHANKER. 1973. Circulation In Shallow Estuaries. in PROC. IAHR INT. SYMP. ON RIVER MECHANICS (BANGKOK, THAILAND). 1973 Thailand Model Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Mining; Salinity; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Slater, R. A. and R. H. Goodwin. 1973. Tasman Sea guyots. Marine Geology 14:81-99. 1973 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Water Depth & Sea Level
Davies, T. A., P. Wilde, and D. A. Clague. 1972. Kōko seamount: A major guyot at the southern end of the Emperor seamounts. Marine Geology 13:311-321. 1972 Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Johannes, R. E. 1972. Coral Reefs And Pollution [Marine Pollution And Sea Life]. Pages 364-375 FISHING NEWS LTD., SURREY. 1972 Review Algae; Chemical Use Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish Harvest; Landuse Management; Salinity; Seastars; Sediment; Waterborne Discharges
MARDESICH, JA. 1971. The Design And Construction Of An Underwater Dredge. SAE Pap 710522. 1971 Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Metals, Electronics, & Machinery Products
Ramm, HA NS. 1971. New method for Drilling, Blasting and Dredging of Rock on Sea Bottomright bracket.. Bautechnik 48:264-267. 1971 Saudi Arabia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Ports & Harbors; Stony Coral
ANON,. 1970. Hand- built submarine dredge rebuilds beach. Constr Methods Equip 52:46-48. 1970 Dredging, Draining, & Filling
Pfannenstiel, M. 1970. Das Meer in der Geschichte der Geologie. Geologische Rundschau 60:Mar-72. 1970 Oman Field Study & Monitoring Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Military; Salinity; Sediment
Jordan, G. F., R. J. Malloy, and J. W. Kofoed. 1964. Bathymetry and geology of Pourtales Terrace, Florida. Marine Geology 1:259-287. 1964 Florida Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment
[No author name available]. Erik Viking . . . powerful new dredger for Jeddah port project. INT. DREDGING AND PORT CONSTRUCT., SERIES II 4. Saudi Arabia Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Sediment; Stony Coral
Bird, E. C. F. Southern Arabia. in [No source information available]. Indian Ocean; India; Oman Beaches & Nature Parks; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Surface & Groundwater Flow
Clark, M. R. and A. A. Rowden. Effect of deepwater trawling on the macro-invertebrate assemblages of seamounts on the Chatham Rise, New Zealand. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers Field Study & Monitoring; Index or Indicator Commercial Fisheries; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Finfish Harvest; Fishing Sector; Mineral, Rock, & Metal Mining; Stony Coral; Substrate; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Cook, S. E., K. W. Conway, and B. Burd. Status of the glass sponge reefs in the Georgia Basin. Marine Environmental Research Columbia GIS & Maps Finfish Harvest; Fish; Sediment; Sponges; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Peddicord, R. K. Impacts of open-water dredged material discharge. in [No source information available]. Field Study & Monitoring; Lab Study Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Military; Nutrients
Sera fy, D. K., D. J. Hartzband, and M. Bowen. Aquatic disposal field investigations Eatons Neck disposal site Long Island Sound. !Appendix C: predisposal baseline conditions of benthic assemblages. in [No source information available]. Field Study & Monitoring Bivalves; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Invertebrates; Marine Worms; Sediment
Venes, E. C. Cantilever steel fendering at the Port of Kismayo. Dredging and Port Construction 11:-18. Somalia Dredging, Draining, & Filling

Management Options

Management Option Description Sources Database Topics
Corporate Response: Develop Outreach with Shipping Businesses This option requires the sanctuary to continue to alert shipping businesses about sanctuary regulations. Such regulations may include vessel waste discharge, ATBA, PSSA, etc. The targeted audiences will include importers, exporters, port authorities, commercial fishing companies, ship insurers. This information can be provided to the audience through NOAA nautical charts, trade publications, newsletters, trade shows, and direct mailings. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Ballast Discharge; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Coastal Engineering; Collaboration & Partnering; Cultural Policies; Decision Support; Docks & Marinas; Environmental Education & Outreach; Finance & Insurance; Infrastructural Policies; Insurance; Manufacturing & Trade; Ports & Harbors; Shipping, Storage, & Warehousing; Transportation; Transportation Policies; Water Resources; Water Transportation; Waterborne Discharges
Damage Assessment, Documentation & Response: Increase Public Grounding Notification Public notification of groundings can be increased through more centralized, accessible notification methods, and public education and outreach. Notification methods could include creating a grounding hotline with a central government agency as the enforcement dispatch center. By centralizing notification methods, public confusion over what agency to contact can be reduced. Education and outreach efforts should focus on the importance of grounding notification and awareness of notification methods (i.e. the hotline). NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Collaboration & Partnering; Cultural Policies; Decision Support; Environmental Education & Outreach; Physical Damage; Security & Public Administration Policies; Small Boats; Transportation Policies; Water Resources; Water Transportation
Damage Assessment, Documentation & Response: Operating Permits for Towing & Salvage Professionals This management option evaluates the need for a permitting system for all towing and salvage operations. This type of permit would require salvage operators to notify injury response when there are groundings. The permit program would also reduce impacts by ensuring operators know the proper practices and use the proper equipment to most effectively minimize damage to the operating area. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boat Movement; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Contact Uses; Dredging Regulations; Physical Damage; Resource Use Management; Special Use Permitting; Water Transportation
Damage Assessment, Documentation & Response: Monitor & Respond to Damages From Fishing Gear When a habitat is damaged or an injury occurs to natural resources as a result of fishing gear, it is beneficial to respond and assess. Responding appropriately is likely to involve other management options such as #91 if the injury was due to a violation. It is important to assess the damage and gather information as to why the injury occurred, so as to be able to find alternative fishing gear or practices that are less likely to cause such damages, for research such as #42. There should be protocols and methodologies for collecting damage assessment data to ensure it can be added to information systems such as #76 to track recovery, especially if repairing or restorative actions are taken. Standardized methods are also important when sharing this information with state and federal fisheries management (#64). NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Artisanal Fishing; Boating Activities; Commercial Fisheries; Contact Uses; Dredging Regulations; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Physical Damage; Recreational Fishing; Resource Use Management; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Damage Assessment, Documentation & Response: Respond to Natural Resource Injuries form Derelict Vessels Semi- permanent/permanent vessels can have a negative impact on the surrounding local environment both due to the effects of shade and from the direct contact with the substrate. Sunken vessels that cannot be seen from the surface may present a danger to navigation. Derelict vessels that do not remain stationary may cause harm in multiple locations before becoming stationary. If fishing gear is still intact, it may cause further biological damage through "ghost fishing (#283). Early response, creating mooring fields, pump-out stations, and providing support for removing derelict vessels, reduces the impact of these vessels. Also, the removal of intrusive vessels will help contribute to the restoration of reef areas to previous conditions. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Artificial Habitat; Artisanal Fishing; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Boat Movement; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Coastal Defense; Commercial Fishing Boats; Coral; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Large Ships; Marine Debris; Military; Physical Damage; Reef Habitat; Reef Life; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Small Boats; Stony Coral; Substrate; Transportation Policies; Water Depth & Sea Level; Water Transportation; Wetlands
Damage Assessment, Documentation & Response: Respond to Natural Resource Injuries from Coastal Construction & Development This involves assessing coral, seagrass, and hard bottom substrate that is impacted during coastal construction repair or alternation. If unacceptable damages are occurring this information will be useful in future permit decision making. If infringements have occurred, this information may be useful for compensatory mitigation and liability for restoration of those natural resources injured. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Civil Engineering & Construction; Coastal Development; Coastal Engineering; Construction Codes & Projects; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Impervious Surfaces; Infrastructural Policies; Infrastructure; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Landscape Changes; Mangroves; Mitigation; Permitting & Zoning; Physical Damage; Physical Variables; Ports & Harbors; Reef Habitat; Remediation; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Shoreline Armoring; Special Use Permitting; Utilities; Utility Line Construction & Maintenance; Wetland & Reef Restoration; Wetlands
Damage Assessment, Documentation & Response: Respond to Natural Resource Injuries from Large Vessel Achoring Damage from freighter anchor is extreme due to the mere weight and size of the anchor and chain. The chain can even be more damaging as it drags along the benthic environment leaving behind catastrophic ruin. This management response would encourage the creation of restoration and monitoring methodologies in shallow reef areas as well as at greater depths. If unacceptable damages are occurring restrictions and regulations prohibiting the use of anchors in high risk areas should be instituted. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Collier, C., Dodge, R., Gilliiam, Gracie, K., Gregg, L., Jaap, W., Mastry, M., and Poulos, N. 2007. Rapid Response and Restoration for coral reef injuries in the southeest Florida. Southeast Florida Coral Reef Initiative.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Cruise Ships; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Large Ships; Physical Damage; Resource Use Management; Transportation; Water Depth & Sea Level; Water Resources; Water Transportation; Wetland & Reef Restoration
Damage Assessment, Documentation & Response: Collaborate with Towing & Salvage Operators in Grounding Notification This option advocates the establishment of rapport between local operators and regulatory agencies. This is achieved through regular meetings and training sessions to emphasize the importance of operator cooperation in regards to vessel groundings. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Activities; Coastal Defense; Collaboration & Partnering; Commercial Fishing Boats; Cruise Ships; Cultural Policies; Environmental Education & Outreach; Large Ships; Military; Oil & Gas Tankers; Physical Damage; Security & Public Administration Policies; Small Boats; Transportation; Transportation Policies; Water Transportation
Damage Assessment, Documentation & Response: Respond to Natural Resource Injuries from Vessel Groundings This option involves assessing conditions and responding, as well as developing methodologies and protocols for coral dominated substrate, seagrass substrate, and mixed substrate. These protocols will help to determine how much damage has been done to the non-living coral framework. Ultimately, fine-tuning these protocols will allow for the most effective assessments. Evaluate these in light of current grounding regulations (#34). NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Collier, C., Dodge, R., Gilliiam, Gracie, K., Gregg, L., Jaap, W., Mastry, M., and Poulos, N. 2007. Rapid Response and Restoration for coral reef injuries in the southeest Florida. Southeast Florida Coral Reef Initiative.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Activities; Collaboration & Partnering; Contact Uses; Coral; Cultural Policies; Dredging Regulations; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Physical Damage; Reef Habitat; Reef Life; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Security & Public Administration Policies; Stony Coral; Wetlands
Damage Assessment, Documentation & Response: Natural Resource Injury Incident Litigation This management option involves sharing information and documentation regarding an injury incident so that litigation teams can proceed with legal action against responsible parties. This is achieved through providing vessel grounding litigation management participation in order to process the information collected during assessment phase of injury to help build a case against the responsible party. Also, it involves providing vessel grounding litigation case management support through providing reports, site reconnaissance, deposition, and witness testimonies in support of litigation. Lastly it would involve documenting and tracking costs along the way from field assessment work, reporting, etc. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Activities; Contact Uses; Mitigation; Monetary Valuation; Physical Damage; Resource Use Management; Security & Public Administration Policies; Security Policies; Valuation
Damage Assessment, Documentation & Response: Develop Chain of Notification for Grounding Incidents This option advocates coordinating with other agencies such as FWC, NOAA, and local coral managers to determine the standard protocol and responsibilities when there are groundings. Through coordination, these agencies can determine threshold levels of damage for different responses and for notifying other agencies higher up the chain. Enhancing inter-agency coordination will be beneficial in terms of dealing with groundings because it will allow the problem to be fixed in a more time-efficient manner. Having a centralized grounding notification system is the first step of this management option, as it ensures all incidents pass through a single agency to determine further actions. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Collaboration & Partnering; Cultural Policies; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Physical Damage; Resource Use Management; Security & Public Administration Policies; Transportation Policies; Water Transportation
Damage Assessment, Documentation & Response: Respond to Natural Resource Injuries from Natural Physical Disturbance There are currently no standardized or uniform protocols to follow after natural or catastrophic events (such as hurricanes). Such protocols need to be developed in order to respond to specific issues that follow catastrophic natural events. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Climate; Dredging Regulations; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Physical & Chemical Environment; Physical Damage; Physical Variables; Resource Use Management; Special Use Permitting; Storms & Hurricanes; Wetland & Reef Restoration
Data Management & Decision Tools: Develop a Geographic Information System Incorporating Satellite and Aerial Images This option involves the acquisition of high-resolution, low altitude photos of management areas and grounding hotspots. These photos can then be used for baseline documentation for natural resource litigation, research, and management decisions. If these images are to be incorporated into larger geodatabase, such as that proposed in # 166, a standardized protocol should be developed in advance, as suggested in management option #166. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Cultural Services; Decision Support; Discharges; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Ecosystem Services; Educational & Research Opportunities; Landscape Changes; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Physical Damage; Resource Use Management; Security & Public Administration Policies
Data Management & Decision Tools: Develop and Maintain Database for Tracking Restoration, Repairs, and Monitoring Activities This response involves adapting NOAAs Damage Assessment Centers seagrass injury assessment team component to local management areas. If previously established, the management option # 165, will allow this data to be compared to previously collected baseline data such as that collected with management option #164. This would also allow for comparisons across different types of data, such as use changes, that would be contained in a #166. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Artificial Habitat; Biological Addition; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Boating Activities; Collaboration & Partnering; Contact Uses; Cultural Policies; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Physical Damage; Pressures; Remediation; Security & Public Administration Policies; Wetland & Reef Restoration
Data Management & Decision Tools: Develop and Maintain Vessel Grounding Database This management approach would involve refining and maintaining a vessel grounding database and adequate staffing for on-going management, GIS processing of archived data, creating products for management case tracking, and developing a database that is user-friendly and useful. If previously established, the management option #165, will allow this data to be combined with similar data from other inventory management options such as #95, and future integration into larger databases, such as that in the management option #85. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Contact Uses; Decision Support; Designated Uses; Dredging Regulations; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Physical Damage; Pressures; Resource Use Management; Responses; Security & Public Administration Policies; Transportation Policies
Develop & Distribute Educational Materials: Establish VHF Radio Stations The local sanctuary staff should work to secure a VHF radio station dedicated to provide information about local boating and water activities in multiple languages. Broadcast messages can include, but are not limited to information about regulations, navigation, resources, weather, and reef conditions. This will help prevent boaters, divers, and fishermen from negatively affecting the ecosystem. Assessments regarding cost and target audience areas must be conducted and external funding pursued to supplement the expense. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Ballast Discharge; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Decision Support; Designated Uses; Environmental Education & Outreach; Fisheries & Hunting Policies; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Security & Public Administration Policies; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Energy Policy & Development: Oil and Gas Rig End of Life As oil production at a given offshore site decreases it becomes necessary to decommission the rigs that were drilling them. It is very expensive to dismantle and transport the rigs back to shore. One such well know case was Shell's Brent Spar 1995. Regulations on the end of life for oil rigs differ by country and even state within the US. The Minerals Management Service has a Rigs-to-Reefs program which supports and encourages the reuse of oil and gas structures for offshore artificial reef developments. If these structures are to be sunk as artificial reefs the normal permit requirements for artificial reefs still apply to ensure the structure will not interfere with navigation channels or degrade the environment. Dauterive, L. 1999. Rigs-to reefs policy, progress, and perspective. Pages 313-318 in SPE/EPA Exploration & Production Environmental Conference.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Artificial Habitat; Biological Addition; Chemical Variables; Civil Engineering & Construction; Construction Codes & Projects; Cultural Services; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Infrastructural Policies; Infrastructure; Littering; Manufacturing & Trade; Marine Debris; Natural Gas & Electric Power; Oil & Gas Industry; Permitting & Zoning; Petroleum Spills; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Provisioning Services; Solid Waste Disposal; Toxics; Utilities; Utility Policies; Waste Management; Water Depth & Sea Level; Water Resources
Environmental Education: Deliver Non-Enforcement Resource Eductaion at the Resource Site Voluntary compliance (#50) is the most desirable form of site protection. Lack of compliance often occurs unintentionally, due to a lack of knowledge and understanding. Law enforcement plays a role by ensuring rules are appropriately followed, but often the preventative component of this enforcement becomes secondary, especially on high use days/areas. Volunteers can assist by answering questions and talking to people recreating about the reef, reef resources, and how to appropriately recreate. Volunteers can watch to ensure people are acting appropriately, that boaters do not go too close to shallow reefs, and that groundings do not occur. Programs such as Team OCEAN have contributed over 15,000 hours to such activities. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Beaches & Nature Parks; Boat Movement; Boating Activities; Collaboration & Partnering; Cultural Policies; Culture; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Education & Information; Environmental Education & Outreach; Finfish Harvest; Invertebrate Harvest; Marine Debris; Recreational Fishing; Recreational Opportunities; Resource Use Management; Social Organizations; Sunscreen Use; Tourism & Recreation; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Trampling
Evaluating Fishing Gear/Method Impacts: Evaluate impacts of existing fishing gear and methods on habitats Research is needed to investigate impact on habitat of commercial and recreation fishing gear and methods. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Biological Harvest; Boating Activities; Commercial Fisheries; Contact Uses; Coral; Culture; Finfish Harvest; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Food & Energy Policies; Food & Raw Materials; Invertebrate Harvest; Live Collection; Physical Damage; Pressures; Recreational Fishing; Reef Habitat; Reef Life; Resource Use Management; Responses; Sectors Filling Human Needs; Socio-Economic Drivers; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Evaluating Fishing Gear/Method Impacts: Conduct research on the ecological impacts on sanctuary preservation areas of baiting fishing and catch-and-release fishing by trolling It is necessary to asses the ecological effects of catchand-release fishing by trolling and bait-fishing in order to make informed decisions regarding their provisions in protected areas. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Aquaculture; Biological Harvest; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Boating Activities; Commercial Fisheries; Contact Uses; Coral; Culture; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Finfish Harvest; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Food & Energy Policies; Food & Raw Materials; Invertebrate Harvest; Live Collection; Physical Damage; Pressures; Recreational Fishing; Reef Habitat; Reef Life; Resource Use Management; Responses; Sectors Filling Human Needs; Socio-Economic Drivers; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Fishing & Harvesting Management: Derelict Fishing Gear & Ghost Fishing The term "ghost fishing" is used to describe the capture of marine organisms by lost or abandoned fishing gear. This is particularly a problem with gillnets, trammel nets and pots. Gear is usually lost because it becomes stuck on rough bottoms containing corals and stones, causing the buoy line to break during retrieval. Nets or pots may continue to fish for years, with captured fish and crustaceans dying and serving as attracting bait for more fish and organisms. Ghost fishing may therefore represent a serious problem in many areas, causing hidden fishing mortality over a long period of time. This management option co-insides with (#63) Respond to Natural Resource Injuries form Derelict Vessels. Cochrane, K.L., editor. 2002. A Fishery Manager's Guidebook. Management Measures and their application. Fisheries Technical Paper 424, FAO, Rome.

Seas At Risk. 2009. Moving Towards Low Impact Fisheries In Europe Policy Hurdles & Actions.

Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Apex Fish Predators; Aquaculture; Arthropods; Artificial Habitat; Artisanal Fishing; Biological Addition; Biological Harvest; Commercial Fisheries; Corallivorous Fish; Discharges; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Invertivorous Fish; Large Herbivorous Fish; Littering; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Marine Debris; Piscivorous Fish; Planktivorous Fish; Provisioning Services; Recreational Fishing; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Fishing & Harvesting Management: Research Low-impact Fishing Gear & Methods Facilitating research to develop gear designs and fishing methods that minimize impacts is multifaceted. Ideal fishing gear is selective for the target species and sizes, with negligible direct or indirect impact on non-target species, sizes and habitats; but also efficient, giving quality, high catches at the lowest possible cost. Newly developed low-impact gear allows fishermen to fulfill their needs, providing food and income, while lessening the unintended environmental impact of those activities, like by-catch. Before an agency should promote new fishing gear or methods research is important to ensure there are no un-intended environmental tradeoffs. Biodegradable fishing line, modified traps, and buoy lines are examples of gear types that could be studied. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Seas At Risk. 2009. Moving Towards Low Impact Fisheries In Europe Policy Hurdles & Actions.

Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Artisanal Fishing; Biological Harvest; Boat Movement; Commercial Fisheries; Contact Uses; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Improved Technology; Invasive Species; Invertebrate Harvest; Live Collection; Marine Debris; Physical Damage; Recreational Fishing; Reef Habitat; Resource Use Management; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Implementing Notification and Response Protocols: Implement Eyes on the Water This plan would entail teaming with volunteers and education staff to develop a volunteer training program to help report groundings. Training would include: incident recognition, documentation, and notification. Possible volunteers could be pulled from Team OCEAN, Reef Medics, Mote Marine Laboratory, professional fishing guides, etc. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Activities; Collaboration & Partnering; Contact Uses; Cultural Policies; Culture; Physical Damage; Pressures; Resource Use Management; Responses; Sectors Filling Human Needs; Security & Public Administration Policies; Social Organizations; Socio-Economic Drivers
Implementing Notification and Response Protocols: Coordinate with Other Management and Enforcement Agencies to Develop Standardized Vessel Grounding and Spill-Response Protocols This plan aims to coordinate with other management and enforcement agencies to create uniform spill response and vessel grounding protocols. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Activities; Collaboration & Partnering; Contact Uses; Cultural Policies; Dredging Regulations; Energy Policy & Development; Food & Energy Policies; Physical Damage; Pressures; Resource Use Management; Responses; Security & Public Administration Policies
Injury Prevention: Assist Education and Outreach This plan is to help prevent groundings. This can be achieved through providing products and information such as statistics, avoidance techniques, and legal/financial consequences. Such information would be provided for media, interest groups, periodicals, publications, and environmental organizations. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Activities; Broadcasting, Publishing, & Libraries; Contact Uses; Cultural Policies; Culture; Dredging Regulations; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Education & Information; Environmental Education & Outreach; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Physical Damage; Pressures; Resource Use Management; Responses; Sectors Filling Human Needs; Socio-Economic Drivers
Injury Prevention: Assist Waterway Marking/Management This management options involves reporting incidents to identify hotspots of seagrass and coral that have been negatively impacted by vessel groundings. This can be achieved through properly marking waterways develop regional patterns for vessel groundings. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Activities; Contact Uses; Dredging Regulations; Physical Damage; Pressures; Resource Use Management; Responses
Injury Prevention: Minimize or Eliminate Impact from , Derelict or Sunken Vessels This option intends to reduce the effects of vessel impacts through creating mooring fields, pump-out stations, and providing support for removing derelict vessels. Actions such as these are important for reducing contact and waste impacts from live-aboard vessels. Also, the removal of intrusive vessels will help contribute to the restoration of reef areas to previous conditions. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Boating Activities; Contact Uses; Dredging Regulations; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Health Policies; Infrastructural Policies; Physical Damage; Pressures; Resource Use Management; Responses; Transportation Policies; Waste Management Policies; Wetland & Reef Restoration
Marine Zoning: Utilize Marine Protected Areas for Research and Monitoring Research and monitoring of marine protected areas determine the degree to which the zones meet goals and objectives for protecting natural resources, as well as human-use patterns, attitudes and compliance. Once data is gathered from within the protected zone it can than be compared to comprable data from outside the protected zone, as a control. It is necessary to compile and review data on use patterns to determine where additional Special-Use Areas would be appropriate. Research in the protected area should be non-invasive. It is important to make the protected area available for external research as well. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Biological Harvest; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Collaboration & Partnering; Contact Uses; Decision Support; Designated Uses; Discharges; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Educational & Research Opportunities; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Fish; Invasive Species; Invertebrates; Landscape Changes; Marine Protected Areas; Marine Vertebrates; Permitting & Zoning; Physical Damage; Resource Use Management; Special Use Permitting; Wetlands
Marine Zoning: Special Use Areas Special use areas are set aside for specific scientific or educational purposes. This is in order to encourage the recovery or restoration of injured or degraded resources. Also, the areas may be designated to facilitate access to, or use of, resources, and prevent other user conflicts. Special-use areas are achieved through a variety of methods such as: placing/maintaining buoys along zone boundaries; adjusting boundaries if necessary; evaluating allowable activities within zone boundaries; identifying potential areas that need additional zoning; reviewing the effectiveness of the zoning; and revising NOAA and GIS charts; and determining/establishing appropriate zones for high-impact or user-conflict activities. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Biological Addition; Biological Harvest; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Biomedical Research Policies; Complex Habitat & Resources; Contact Uses; Cultural Services; Decision Support; Designated Uses; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Education & Information; Educational & Research Opportunities; Environmental Education & Outreach; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Health Policies; Marine Protected Areas; Permitting & Zoning; Physical Damage; Provisioning Services; Resource Use Management; Scientific Research; Social Organizations; Special Use Permitting; Supporting Services; Wetland & Reef Restoration
Marine Zoning: Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) Wildlife Management Areas include bird nesting, resting, or feeding areas, turtle nesting beaches, and other sensitive habitats including shallow flats that are important feeding areas for fish. These areas seek to provide protection for endangered/threatened species or their habitats while at the same time providing opportunity for public use. Wildlife Management Areas are achieved through placing and maintaining buoys along zone boundaries; implementing management responsibilities; adjusting existing zone boundaries if needed; evaluating allowable activities within the boundaries and make changes if needed; identifying potential areas that need additional zoning; monitoring the effectiveness of current zones; and revising GIS and NOAA charts. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Beaches & Nature Parks; Biological Harvest; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Boating Activities; Coastal Defense; Contact Uses; Cultural Services; Decision Support; Designate Protected Species; Designated Uses; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Entertainment & Accommodation Services; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Fisheries & Hunting Policies; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Marine Birds; Marine Protected Areas; Permitting & Zoning; Physical Damage; Recreational Fishing; Recreational Opportunities; Resource Use Management; Sea Turtles; Tourism & Recreation; Trampling; Water Transportation; Wetlands
Marine Zoning: Sanctuary Preservation Areas (SPAs) This is a type of Marine Zoning used by the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS). SPAs focus on the protection of shallow, heavily used reefs where conflicts occur between user groups, and where concentrated visitor activity leads to resource degradation. They are designed to enhance the reproductive capabilities of renewable resources, protect areas critical for sustaining and protecting important marine species, and reduce user conflicts in high-use areas. This is accomplished through a prohibition of consumptive activities within these areas. They have been chosen based on the status of important habitat, the ability of a particular area to sustain and protect the habitat, the level of visitor use, and the degree of conflict between consumptive and non-consumptive users. The actual size and location of these zones have been determined by examination of user patterns, aerial photography, and ground-truthing of specific habitats. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Aquaculture; Aquarium & Pet Trade; Aquarium Stock; Artisanal Fishing; Beaches & Nature Parks; Biological Addition; Biological Harvest; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Boat Movement; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Coastal Defense; Coastal Development; Coastal Engineering; Commercial Fisheries; Commercial Fishing Boats; Complex Habitat & Resources; Cruise Ships; Cultural Services; Decision Support; Designated Uses; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Educational & Research Opportunities; Entertainment & Accommodation Services; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Finfish Harvest; Fisheries & Hunting Policies; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Invertebrate Harvest; Landscape Changes; Large Ships; Live Collection; Marine Protected Areas; Oil & Gas Tankers; Ornamental Jewelry & Art; Permitting & Zoning; Physical Damage; Public Administration; Recreational Fishing; Recreational Opportunities; Resource Use Management; Security; Small Boats; Souvenir & Decorative Trade; Supporting Services; Tourism & Recreation; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Trampling; Travel Services & Tour Operators; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Water Resources; Water Transportation
Marine Zoning: Existing Management Areas The Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS) uses this zoning category to identify areas that are managed by other agencies where restrictions already exist. These zones delineate the existing jurisdictional authority of other agencies (i.e., State parks, aquatic preserves, sanctuaries, and other restricted areas). Management of these areas within the Sanctuary may require additional regulations or restrictions to adequately protect resources. Any additional management measures will be developed and implemented in coordination with the agency having jurisdictional authority. Their function is not to establish another layer of bureaucracy, but to recognize established management areas and, at a minimum, to complement the existing management programs, ensuring cooperation and coordination with other agencies. Existing Management Areas will be maintained through revising GIS and NOAA charts. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Beaches & Nature Parks; Biological Harvest; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Boating Activities; Coastal Defense; Contact Uses; Decision Support; Designate Protected Species; Designated Uses; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Entertainment & Accommodation Services; Environmental Education & Outreach; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Fisheries & Hunting Policies; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Marine Protected Areas; Permitting & Zoning; Recreational Fishing; Resource Use Management; Tourism & Recreation; Water Transportation
Marine Zoning: Permitting Application & Award This management approach is important because permits assure protection and conservation of coral resources from harmful activities and practices. Within sanctuary waters, special use permits (#157) can be used to allow scientists and others to conduct necessary work while following permitting regulations to reduce the impact of that work. General permits are often required for altering land-use, construction projects and certain discharges. To be eligible for a permit, the operator may be required to conduct impact assessments, institute best management practices and conduct monitoring of the project. Though permits are a necessary precaution, the process can be streamlined through ensuring clear submittal requirements, and reducing redundancy. Redundancy often occurs when multiple agencies must approve a permit, a single point of contact and standard, inter-agency protocols can reduce unnecessary redundancy. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Biological Addition; Biological Harvest; Building & Home Construction; Coastal Development; Collaboration & Partnering; Cultural Policies; Discharges; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Impervious Surfaces; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Landscape Changes; Landuse Management; Permitting & Zoning; Physical Damage; Point Source Discharges; Public Administration; Resource Use Management; Scientific Research; Security & Public Administration Policies; Special Use Permitting
Marine Zoning: Ecological Reserves (ERs) Ecological Reserves set aside areas with minimal human interference. These reserves aim to enhance and protect biodiversity through encompassing large, contiguous habitats. The goal of ecological reserves is to encourage spawning, nurseries, and residence areas that contribute to genetic protection of fish and marine life. Ecological Reserves can be achieved through a variety of methods such as: placing/maintaining buoys along zone boundaries; adjusting boundaries if necessary; evaluating allowable activities within zone boundaries; identifying potential areas that need additional zoning; reviewing the effectiveness of the zoning; and revising NOAA and GIS charts. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Biochemical & Genetic Resources; Biological Addition; Biological Harvest; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Coastal Defense; Commercial Fishing Boats; Complex Habitat & Resources; Cruise Ships; Decision Support; Designated Uses; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Finfish Harvest; Fisheries & Hunting Policies; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Invertebrate Harvest; Large Ships; Live Collection; Marine Protected Areas; Oil & Gas Tankers; Permitting & Zoning; Physical Damage; Provisioning Services; Resource Use Management; Security Policies; Small Boats; Tourism & Recreation; Trampling; Water Transportation
Monitor & Research: Research Historical Hydrology This activity involves a historical assessment of the hydrology of the surrounding water area around the sanctuary as it has affected water quality and biological communities within the sanctuary. It will clarify the role of freshwater inflows and water quality from local freshwater bodies. Also, this activity will examine the effects of structural modification and changes in quality, quantity, timing and distribution of freshwater releases from existing structures and will examine land-based practices affecting the water quality of runoff. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Applied Chemicals; Chemical Variables; Coastal Development; Coastal Engineering; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Hydrologic Management; Impervious Surfaces; Infrastructural Policies; Landscape Changes; Landuse Management; Physical Variables; Salinity; Seawater Flow; Shoreline Armoring; Stormwater Management; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Water; Water Depth & Sea Level; Water Transportation; Waterborne Discharges
Monitor & Research: Biological Status and Trends Monitoring This activity produces long-term comprehensive information on sanctuary-wide status and trends of biological resources. Data that could be collected on coral reef communities includes but is not limited to species abundance and density, biodiversity, benthic cover, coral condition, growth, recruitment, predation, and grazing. Mangroves and seagrasses should also be monitored. With adequate baseline data, changes in community structure and biocriteria can be identified and restoration or protection efforts can be taken. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Algae; Anemones & Zooanthids; Apex Fish Predators; Aquaculture; Aquarium Stock; Biochemical & Genetic Resources; Biocriteria; Biological Harvest; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Bivalves; Calcareous Macroalgae; Contact Uses; Coral; Coralline Algae; Cyanobacteria; Decision Support; Echinoderms; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Fish; Fishing Sector; Food & Energy Policies; Hydrocoral; Invasive Species; Invertebrates; Large Herbivorous Fish; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Mangroves; Marine Birds; Marine Products; Marine Vertebrates; Marine Worms; Microorganisms; Molluscs; Octocoral; Octopus & Squid; Ornamental Jewelry & Art; Pathogens; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics Sources; Physical Damage; Primary Production; Provisioning Services; Resource Use Management; Sea Turtles; Sea Urchins; Seagrasses; Seastars; Skeletal Coral; Small Herbivorous Fish; Snails & Conch; Sponges; Stony Coral; Tunicates; Wetlands; Whales & Dolphins
Monitor & Research: Survey and Collect Anecdotal Information Anecdotal information is to be solicited from experts and amateur public participation through surveys and workshops. Persons of interest include fishermen, recreational divers, recreational dive facilities, salvors and other locals with knowledge of marine resources in the area. Information they provide can help identify marine cultural and natural resources and help update resource inventory. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Artisanal Fishing; Biological Harvest; Boating Regulations; Coastal Engineering; Collaboration & Partnering; Commercial Fisheries; Contact Uses; Cultural Policies; Cultural Protections; Cultural Services; Decision Support; Designated Uses; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Educational & Research Opportunities; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Fisheries & Hunting Policies; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Marine Products; Permitting & Zoning; Physical Damage; Provisioning Services; Recreational Fishing; Recreational Opportunities; Resource Use Management; Responses; Security & Public Administration Policies; Tourism & Recreation; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Valuation; Water Transportation
Monitor & Research: Monitor Use Patterns on Artificial and Natural Reefs This management option seeks to provide data for decisions concerning creating new artificial reefs. Use data is important because justification for artificial reefs extends from their ability to shift use pressures (diving, fishing, etc.) from natural reefs. Once an artificial reef is decided on there is much more data to collect and factors to consider when deciding where the artificial reef (#189). NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Artificial Habitat; Biological Addition; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Boating Activities; Civil Engineering & Construction; Coastal Defense; Complex Habitat & Resources; Coral; Cultural Services; Decision Support; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Fishing Sector; Military; Museums, Amusement Parks, Historical Sites; Provisioning Services; Recreational Fishing; Recreational Opportunities; Reef Habitat; Reef Life; Security; Security & Public Administration Policies; Supporting Services; Tourism & Recreation; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Transportation; Travel Services & Tour Operators; Valuation; Wetland & Reef Restoration
Regulatory Review and Development: Change Personal Watercraft & Other Small Vessels Practices This activity would aim to reduce noise and pollution, and conflicts among PWC users, the resources, and Sanctuary users. Practices could be changed through requiring certain training to drive such vessels, or restricting which types can be used in designated coastal areas. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boat Movement; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Contact Uses; Designated Uses; Physical Damage; Recreational Fishing; Small Boats; Tourism & Recreation; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Water Transportation
Regulatory Review and Development: Develop Mobile Source Discharge Controls Pollution discharge controls regulate where different types of discharges are allowed and what acceptable quantities released are. Typically discharge controls target point sources in the form of effluent pipes (#280), but discharges also occur from mobile sources such as boats and ships. There may need to be revisions on where depositing fish, fish parts, bait, cooling water, engine exhaust, deck wash, and effluent can be released. In many areas, these items are often excluded as prohibited, and they should possibly be included. Pollution discharge controls are different from Water Quality Standards (#22) which set acceptable environmental limits and leave it up to the manager to meet those criteria. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Artisanal Fishing; Ballast Discharge; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Chemical Variables; Coastal Engineering; Commercial Fisheries; Commercial Fishing Boats; Cruise Ships; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Docks & Marinas; Finfish Harvest; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Food & Energy Policies; Large Ships; Littering; Oil & Gas Tankers; Physical Damage; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Ports & Harbors; Recreational Fishing; Small Boats; Tourism & Recreation; Wastewater Discharge; Water Transportation; Waterborne Discharges
Regulatory Review and Development: Change Salvaging & Towing Practices This option seeks to protect natural resources and reduce damage resulting from improper vessel salvage methods. In the past, salvage techniques have caused collateral damage when removing vessels grounded on the reef. These injuries often occur in the immediate area surrounding the grounded vessel but can be avoided with the use of proper salvage techniques developed with reef resources in mind. The principal causes of collateral injuries are dragging a vessel off the reef instead of floating it off; the use of steel towing cables that can drop on or drag across the substrate, impacting and dislodging resources (reef structure, corals, and sponges); and propwash and surge, generated by tugboat propellers, that displace sediment and dislodge organisms. To avoid or minimize collateral injuries, a reconnaissance survey should be conducted while the vessel is grounded to evaluate reef resources in the immediate area surrounding the vessel and determine an appropriate extraction route. Bunker fuel and cargo may need to be offloaded. Floating or buoyed towlines should be used instead of steel cables, and towing activities should be conducted at or near high tide to facilitate floating the vessel. Before and during the extraction, global positioning system (GPS) coordinates at the bow and stern of the vessel should be recorded to assist with future injury assessment. GPS tracking should be operating on the grounded vessel during egress from the site and on all salvage vessels or tugboats involved with the salvage operation. The outbound path for vessel extraction may also need to be buoyed, to help avoid or identify injuries that may occur during the salvage operation. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boat Movement; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Coastal Engineering; Collaboration & Partnering; Contact Uses; Decision Support; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Education & Outreach; Improved Technology; Infrastructural Policies; Physical Damage; Resource Use Management; Security & Public Administration Policies; Trampling; Transportation; Transportation Policies; Water Transportation
Regulatory Review and Development: Evaluate Vessel Grounding Regulations In many areas, there are already regulations that target prop scarring to seagrasses and the seabed. Current boat grounding regulations should be evaluated to determine if additional regulations would be beneficial. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Coastal Development; Contact Uses; Cruise Ships; Cultural Services; Culture; Decision Support; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Physical Damage; Ports & Harbors; Recreational Fishing; Recreational Opportunities; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Security & Public Administration Policies; Security Policies; Small Boats; Tourism & Recreation; Transportation; Water Resources; Water Transportation; Wetlands
Regulatory Review and Development: Evaluate Artificial Reef Regulations Discharge/depositing of materials and constructions on the seabed are both prohibited without permits, regulating the construction of new artificial reefs. Likewise, existing artificial reefs are protected through permit requirements for any alternation of the seabed. There are still further considerations for protecting artificial reefs. Artificial reef materials and construction choices are very important and may change based on the specific location and desired impacts. An artificial reef to attract recreational fishing differs from one for recreational divers or shoreline storm protection. Many artificial reefs were formally large ships, oil rigs or other types of waste that have been decommissioned and would be too large and expensive to dismantle on land. In these cases it is important to put restrictions on the sinking process to ensure there wont be any type of chemical leakage and that the structure is stable on the seabed. (#189) (#190) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2007. National Artificial Reef Plan: Guidelines for Siting, Construction, Development, and Assessment of Artificial Reefs. US Department of Commerce.

NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Artificial Habitat; Coastal Defense; Contact Uses; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Dredging Regulations; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Large Ships; Oil & Gas Industry; Permitting & Zoning; Physical Damage; Recreational Fishing; Solid Waste Disposal; Special Use Permitting; Tourism & Recreation; Waste Management; Waterborne Discharges
Regulatory Review and Development: Evaluate Channel & Reef Navigation Markers This option would evaluate the need for proper marking to ensure better navigation. There are many types of markers, including buoys, charts, beacons, and GPS mapping. Such markers can also be used to advocate prohibition on vessel speeds greater than idle speed in areas designated as idle-speed only/no-wake and around shallow reef locations. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Beach & Land Formation; Boat Movement; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Coastal Development; Contact Uses; Cultural Services; Culture; Decision Support; Designated Uses; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Dredging Regulations; Permitting & Zoning; Physical Damage; Provisioning Services; Public Administration; Recreational Fishing; Recreational Opportunities; Security & Public Administration Policies; Small Boats; Tourism & Recreation; Trampling; Transportation Policies; Water Depth & Sea Level; Water Resources; Water Transportation
Regulatory Review and Development: Evaluate Coral Touching Regulations Currently touching, removing, damaging, distributing, and injuring any living or dead coral or coral formation is prohibited in Sanctuary Preservation Areas and Ecological Reserves. An investigation will be conducted to consider extending this prohibition to high-use, sensitive and vulnerable areas. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Beaches & Nature Parks; Contact Uses; Coral; Decision Support; Dredging Regulations; Physical Damage; Skeletal Coral; Stony Coral; Tourism & Recreation; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Trampling
Regulatory Review and Development: Evaluate Dredging Regulations Dredging is oftentimes prohibited with certain exceptions. Dredging regulation often falls under other controls over the alteration of the seabed, discharging or depositing materials. At times dredging is necessary for navigation or other activities, necessitating .permitting mechanisms for allowing otherwise prohibited activities. Revising the regulations to help eliminate negative dredge-and-fill activities within a certain distance of corals would be beneficial because it would help promote the reestablishment of sensitive benthic communities. Reservoirs may require periodic dredging to remove sediment that may have collected. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Beach & Land Formation; Beaches & Nature Parks; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Coastal Engineering; Construction Codes & Projects; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Decision Support; Discharge Limitations; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Hydrologic Management; Mining; Mining Policies; Physical Damage; Point Source Discharges; Ports & Harbors; Provisioning Services; Resource Use Management; Sand & Rock Production; Security & Public Administration Policies; Special Use Permitting; Substrate; Transportation; Utility Line Construction & Maintenance; Water Transportation
Regulatory Review and Development: Evaluate Fishing Gear/Fishing Methods Regulations In most regions there are already regulations that prohibit fishing methods that incorporate explosives, poisons, oil, and bleach. Further investigation may reveal additional methods, materials, or gear that should be prohibited as well. Regulations should aim to increase the use of low-impact gear (#194) in place of more destructive gear and methods. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Cochrane, K.L., editor. 2002. A Fishery Manager's Guidebook. Management Measures and their application. Fisheries Technical Paper 424, FAO, Rome.

Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Biological Harvest; Commercial Fisheries; Contact Uses; Decision Support; Finfish Harvest; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Food & Energy Policies; Invertebrate Harvest; Live Collection; Physical Damage; Recreational Fishing; Resource Use Management; Security & Public Administration Policies; Toxics; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Resource Use Management: Fisheries Catch Quotas Quotas designate the Total Allowable Catch (TAC) allocated to an operating unit such as a country, a vessel, a company or an individual fisherman (individual quota) depending on the system of allocation. Quotas may or may not be transferable, inheritable, and tradable. While generally used to allocate total allowable catch, quotas could be used also to allocate fishing effort or biomass. Seas At Risk. 2009. Moving Towards Low Impact Fisheries In Europe Policy Hurdles & Actions.

Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Apex Fish Predators; Artisanal Fishing; Biological Harvest; Bivalves; Boat Movement; Boating Activities; Commercial Fisheries; Commercial Fishing Boats; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fisheries & Hunting Policies; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Food & Raw Materials; Invertebrate Harvest; Invertivorous Fish; Large Herbivorous Fish; Live Collection; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Marine Products; Molluscs; Octopus & Squid; Piscivorous Fish; Planktivorous Fish; Provisioning Services; Recreational Fishing; Snails & Conch; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Resource Use Management: Fisheries Management Enforcement Marine protected areas and other types of coastal zone management areas have fisheries management policies that must be enforced in addition to the broader Statues, Regulation and Permit Requirements (#91). Illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) fishing is a major problem worldwide. Management area policies must be enforced to have an impact on the fisheries stock. Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Artisanal Fishing; Biological Harvest; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Commercial Fisheries; Decision Support; Designated Uses; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Finfish Harvest; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Invertebrate Harvest; Live Collection; Marine Protected Areas; Mitigation; Permitting & Zoning; Physical Damage; Public Administration; Recreational Fishing; Resource Use Management; Security Policies; Special Use Permitting; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Resource Use Management: Marine Heritage Resource Protections This management option involves protecting underwater items/sites that have historical, cultural, archaeological, or paleontological significance. This response advocates permits for action that may degrade the resource. This can be accomplished through creating an MHR field unit, monitoring MHR site degradation, and evaluating excavation and mitigation techniques. Field units can help conduct field research and coordinated, permitted research activities. Experts relating to archaeological research underwater can also be hired with additional funding. Through evaluation of excavation techniques, new technologies can be suggested such as: turbidity screens, sediment removal equipment, and seagrass restoration/relocation protocols to lead to less disturbance. Inventory and decision tools can also be used in the aid of Maritime Heritage Resource protection. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Civil Engineering & Construction; Construction Codes & Projects; Cultural Policies; Cultural Protections; Cultural Services; Decision Support; Designated Uses; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Ecosystem Services; Educational & Research Opportunities; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Mitigation; Physical Damage; Pipelines; Reef Life; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Security & Public Administration Policies; Special Use Permitting; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Utility Line Construction & Maintenance; Valuation; Wetlands
Resource Use Management: Develop Live Collection Regulations Live collection is often more destructive than capture of food fishes because of the destructive methods used to remove live fish and invertebrates from the reef habitat. These methods include use of cyanide and explosives. Current methods should be assessed and alternatives should be developed or collection prohibited. World Resource Institute International Marinelife Alliance, editor. 1997. Sullied Seas. WRI, Washington D.C.

Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Aquarium & Pet Trade; Biochemical & Genetic Resources; Biological Harvest; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Commercial Fisheries; Contact Uses; Educational & Research Opportunities; Finfish Harvest; Fisheries & Hunting Policies; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Invertebrate Harvest; Live Collection; Marine Products; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics Sources; Physical Damage; Resource Use Management; Scientific Research; Sponges; Toxics; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Wholesale & Retail Trade
Resource Use Management: Develop Regulations for Sponge Fisheries Sponges play a vital role on reefs, providing structure, food and filtration. Depending on the method of removal, this process can be very destructive to other reef fauna and habitat. Research is needed to compare impacts of different sponge fishing methods in different areas. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Biochemical & Genetic Resources; Biological Harvest; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Boring Sponges; Commercial Fisheries; Contact Uses; Culture; Cyanobacteria; Educational & Research Opportunities; Encrusting Sponges; Finfish Harvest; Fisheries & Hunting Policies; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Fishing Sector; Invertebrate Harvest; Live Collection; Marine Products; Microorganisms; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics Sources; Physical Damage; Resource Use Management; Scientific Research; Sponges; Tourism & Recreation; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Tube, Barrel, & Finger Sponges
Restoration: Beach Vegatation Restoration Natural beaches are often host to important costal dune ecosystems. Due to tourism, much of the vegetation that comprises these dune ecosystems may be compromised. The natural vegetation provides an important ecosystem service, with roots providing deep stabilization against physical damage and removal of that sand. Without such vegetation sand and dunes can be completely washed away during hurricanes and other surge events. The dunes themselves offer some protection to nearby inland infrastructure during these same storm events. When the beach past the dunes is for public access it is beneficial to build raised walk-overs over the dune vegetation. This prevents trampling, which leads to dune blowouts. Natural Resources Conservation Service, editor. 2007. Native Plants for Coastal Dune Restoration: What, When, and How for Florida. US Department of Agriculture.

Beaches & Nature Parks; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Culture; Deforestation & Devegetation; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Invasive Species; Landscape Changes; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landuse Management; Physical Damage; Regulating Services; Storms & Hurricanes; Tourism & Recreation; Trampling
Restoration: Beach Renourishment and Nourishment Beaches are subject to natural accretion and erosion. Tourism is often best supported by wide, accessible, public sandy beaches. Beaches can be restored to counteract natural erosion by transporting large quantities of sand onto the beach. This sand often comes from nearby dredging. Caution should be used when restoring long sections of beaches, as often the area above the mean high tide line is littoral, or privately owned, and restoration of these beaches can impact these property rights, see "Stop the Beach Renourishment, Inc. v. Florida Department of Environmental Protection (2010) U.S. Supreme Court decision." Beach protection or nourishment offers an alternative to this often expensive and abrupt type of renourishment, nourishment involves practices which encourage coastal accretion and discourage erosional forces. See "Florida's Beach and Shore Preservation Act" for some restrictions on this. NOAA Coastal Services Center. Beach Nourishment: A Guide for Local Government Officials. Coastal Services Center Accessed 6/17/2011.

Beach & Land Formation; Beaches & Nature Parks; Culture; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Recreational Opportunities; Shoreline Armoring; Shoreline Protection; Sunscreen Use; Tourism & Recreation
Restoration: Restore Reef Habitat and Salvage Benthic Inhabitants Injured by Physical Damage This management approach involves salvaging, maintenance, and re-stabilization or injured resources by management staff and private contractors in order to rescue and provide first aid following physical damage such as vessel groundings. This can be achieved using Reef Medics and other volunteer programs because these groups have experience with vessel navigation and operation, snorkeling, and SCUBA diving. Also, it allows for researchers to collect living coral material when relocation of such organisms is not possible. Salvage and re-stabilization is not limited to the living coral; octocorals, seagrasses, and the non-living framework may all be damaged of destabilized from groundings or other physical impacts. In addition to the habitat's structural integrity, it is important to re-establish aesthetics and ecological functionality. Funds from mitigation and case settlements should be used for this work, as long term costs of restoration and monitoring can be extensive. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Collier, C., Dodge, R., Gilliiam, Gracie, K., Gregg, L., Jaap, W., Mastry, M., and Poulos, N. 2007. Rapid Response and Restoration for coral reef injuries in the southeest Florida. Southeast Florida Coral Reef Initiative.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Boating Activities; Coastal Engineering; Collaboration & Partnering; Contact Uses; Coral; Cultural Policies; Cultural Services; Culture; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Educational & Research Opportunities; Octocoral; Physical Damage; Reef Habitat; Reef Life; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Security & Public Administration Policies; Skeletal Coral; Stony Coral; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Water Transportation; Wetland & Reef Restoration; Wetlands
Water Quality Management: Reduce Pollution & Discharges from Marinas & Live-Aboards This management option strives to reduce and eliminate the discharge of wastewater and pollution within zones near corals. In many instances, "no-discharge" zones already exist and are simply poorly enforced. In other instances the discharge limits are not stringent enough. Successful regulation requires marinas to be equipped with the proper infrastructure to support transfer of wastewater from vessels to shore-side for treatment. This infrastructure includes: pump-out facilities and mobile pump-out services. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Biological Addition; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Coastal Engineering; Cyanobacteria; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Docks & Marinas; Health; Health Policies; Marine Debris; Microorganisms; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Pathogens; Physical Damage; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Ports & Harbors; Resource Use Management; Sewage Treatment; Solid Waste Disposal; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Waterborne Discharges
Waterway Management: Waterway Management/Marking Plan Proper waterway markings provide coherent guidance for boats. Clearly-marked waterway exits and entrances reduce the probability of damage to reefs from boat gear damage, boat movement, trampling, and ballast discharge. Waterway marking can be achieved through surveying damage from propeller scarring and vessel groundings, enhancing channel marking aids, assessing the effectiveness of channel marking, and through removing waterway obstructions. "Hotspots" where many incidents have been reported should be considered for further marking, especially those that are in high use areas. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boat Movement; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Contact Uses; Decision Support; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Physical Damage; Resource Use Management; Trampling; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Water; Water Transportation
Waterway Management: Stream Bank Riparian Plantings Planting native vegetation and trees in riparian zones helps to reduce erosion within channels. Such vegetation helps anchor the soil and sediment in place. Planting in riparian zones goes in hand with Remove Previous Canal and Irrigation Infrastructure (#274). This management option can be exercised in streams, canals used for boat passage, stormwater drainage ditches, or in agricultural irrigation channels. Center for Watershed Protection. 2008. Guanica Bay watershed management plan.

Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Agriculture; Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Boat Movement; Boating Activities; Carbon Storage & Cycling; City Planning; Civil Engineering & Construction; Coastal Development; Construction Codes & Projects; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Food & Energy Policies; Forestry; Hydrologic Management; Infrastructural Policies; Infrastructure; Irrigation; Landscape Changes; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landuse Management; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Primary Production; Provisioning Services; Sediment; Stormwater Management; Supporting Services; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Transportation; Utilities; Water; Water Resources; Water Transportation; Waterborne Discharges
Waterway Management: Boat Access Plan An optimal boat access strategy involves conducting a survey of all public and private boat access points throughout the area. Once entry and exit sites are identified, channel markings can be placed accordingly. An effective strategy must also consider boat access needs, location, and intensity of use. This will help to efficiently mark the waterways so that there can be a reduction in damage to reefs, seagrasses and wetlands. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Artisanal Fishing; Boat Movement; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Commercial Fisheries; Contact Uses; Cultural Policies; Culture; Decision Support; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Landscape Changes; Physical Damage; Public Administration; Recreational Fishing; Resource Use Management; Security; Security & Public Administration Policies; Tourism & Recreation; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Trampling; Transportation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage; Water; Water Resources; Water Transportation
Waterway Management: Remove Previous Canal and Irrigation Infrastructure Canal and irrigation infrastructure typically includes concrete structures to control the flow of water. These low head dams, bulkheads, concrete footers, and other structures act as constricting forces in channels. This constriction leads to debris becoming lodged and thus changing the erosive forces. In turn, banks become destabilized. Channel erosion then increases along with bed scour and sediment transport. Removing these structures and making banks more gradual has the added benefit of allowing for riparian vegetation to be planted, which acts as a natural buffer. Center for Watershed Protection. 2008. Guanica Bay watershed management plan.

Agriculture; Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Boat Movement; Boating Activities; City Planning; Civil Engineering & Construction; Coastal Engineering; Construction Codes & Projects; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Food & Raw Materials; Hydrologic Management; Impervious Surfaces; Infrastructural Policies; Irrigation; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Landscape Changes; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Controls; Physical Damage; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Small Boats; Substrate; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Transportation; Water; Water Resources; Water Transportation; Waterborne Discharges
Waterway Management: Manage Canal Water Quality This management option addresses water quality issues that may arise from nearshore, confined areas, specifically dead-end canals. This management response does not focus on wastewater discharges into canals, but instead on the hydrologic structure and orientation of the canal itself. Physical problems with canal orientation can lead to such problems as low flushing and build-up of weed wrack. This is a problem because the build-up of weed wrack consumes oxygen and releases nutrients as it decays. When combined with low flushing and circulation, dead end canals have decreased oxygen concentrations, accelerated eutrophication, and accumulate organic materials, pollutants and sediment. To improve the current canal system, management can inventory and map canals to identify high risk hotspots and candidates for future canal restoration projects. Canals are typically constructed to best suit the water access needs of local homes and businesses. Preventing high risk canals from being constructed, or placing certain requirements on their construction through permitting is one way to reduce future problem spots. Some design strategies include: Construct non-linear canals without right-angles and flared inlets oriented to prevailing winds. Instead of dead-ends, canals should include a flow through water exchange system or install mechanical pumps. Canals should be as wide as possible in relation to depth and length. Canal depth should be uniform or progressively shallower away from the parent waterbody, with sloping banks (eliminate requirements for navigable depths to shoreline). Some canal improvement strategies include: Implement weed gates, air curtains, and aeration systems. Direct all stormwater and effluent away from canal systems. Reduce bulkheading and restore native vegetative buffers (#1). Promote diversity of substrates and habitats. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Applied Chemicals; Biological Monitoring & Restoration; Boat Movement; Boating Activities; Building & Home Construction; Chemical Variables; City Planning; Civil Engineering & Construction; Coastal Development; Coastal Engineering; Construction Codes & Projects; Decision Support; Deforestation & Devegetation; Discharge Limitations; Discharges; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Docks & Marinas; Ecosystem Monitoring & Restoration; Environmental Monitoring & Restoration; Fishing Sector; Food & Energy Policies; Hydrologic Management; Improved Technology; Infrastructural Policies; Infrastructure; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Landscape Changes; Landscaping & Household Services; Landuse Management; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Physical Damage; Physical Variables; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Ports & Harbors; Provisioning Services; Regulating Services; Seawater Flow; Shoreline Armoring; Shoreline Protection; Small Boats; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Tourism & Recreation; Transportation; Transportation Policies; Utilities; Utility Policies; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Water; Water Depth & Sea Level; Water Resources; Water Transportation; Waterborne Discharges; Wetland & Reef Restoration; Wetlands
Waterway Management: Mooring Buoy Management Installing mooring buoys is encouraged in order to prevent damage to corals from anchors. Areas that experience a lot of traffic from recreation and fishing will experience damage from vessel groundings and boat gear. Mooring buoys help to minimize damage to corals and at the same time provide access to water resources. Mooring buoys protect as well as lower resource-use conflicts. Mooring buoy management is achieved through maintaining existing mooring buoys; assessing current buoy technology; reviewing visitor-use and boating data; developing sitting criteria; recommending new sites; conducting site assessments; installing additional buoys; and implementing vessel size limits in high-use and sensitive areas. NOAA Marine Sanctuary Program. 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. National Ocean Service, Key West, FL.

Altmeier, Bernie. FKNMS Mooring Buoy Mainenance. NOAA: FKNMS Mooring Buoy Manual Accessed 3/23/2011.

The Coral Reef Alliance (CORAL) the Tour Opperators' Iniative (TOI) and The Center for Environmental Leadership in Business (CELB). 2003. A Practical Guide to Good Practice: Managing Environmental Impacts In The Marine Recreation Sector.

Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Artisanal Fishing; Biological Harvest; Boating Activities; Boating Regulations; Contact Uses; Cultural Services; Designated Uses; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Educational & Research Opportunities; Environmental Education & Outreach; Physical Damage; Recreational Fishing; Recreational Opportunities; Resource Use Management; Small Boats; Tourism & Recreation; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Transportation; Water Resources; Water Transportation

Laws

Legal Citation Purpose of Law Management Organization Database Topics
25-Year Permits for Maintenance Dredging in Deepwater Ports; Deepwater Ports Maintenance Dredging and Disposal Manual, 62-045 Florida Administrative Code. 62-45.001 Authority, Intent and Policy. (1) This chapter is promulgated under the authority of Sections 403.061(26) and 403.816(1), F.S. (2) It is the intent of this chapter to establish a permitting system for maintenance dredging in deep water commercial navigation areas of the ports listed in Rule 62-45.020, F.A.C. This chapter incorporates standards and criteria which recognize the present most beneficial use of these waters for deep water commercial navigation. Since the implementation of a comprehensive maintenance dredging management plan is a major factor in determining the adequacy of a long-term maintenance dredging program, it is the further intent of this chapter to give a position of prominence to such a plan within this permit system. (3) It is the policy of the Department to provide a regulatory process which will enable the ports to conduct maintenance dredging in an environmentally sound, expeditious and efficient manner.62-45.020 Scope. (1) The permit system established by this chapter applies only to the ports of Ft. Pierce, Jacksonville, Miami, Palm Beach, Panama City, Pensacola, Port Canaveral, Port Everglades, Port Manatee, Port St. Joe, St. Petersburg, and Tampa. (2) The activities which may be included within a permit issued under this chapter are limited to maintenance dredging and disposal of the maintenance dredged material. (3) Applicants for permits under this chapter are limited to the port authorities or private interests using the port for deep water commercial shipping and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The Department shall not issue separate permits to the port authority or private interests and the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers when the responsibility of maintenance dredging or the disposal of the maintenance dredged material from the port is shared by any of the parties. The permit, if issued, shall clearly specify the duties and responsibilities of each party. (4) A permit may be issued for any length of time up to 25 years. There shall be no more than one such permit for each of the ports listed in subsection (1). (5) The area within which work under this permit system may take place is limited to the federally maintained, port authority maintained, or private interest maintained navigation channels, turning basins, or harbor berths associated with deep water commercial navigation and associated dredged material disposal sites. Eligible port maintenance dredging areas are depicted on NOS Charts Nos. 11491 (Port of Jacksonville), 11478 (Port Canaveral), 11475 (Fort Pierce Harbor), 11466 (Port of Palm Beach), 11468 (Port of Miami), 11470 (Port Everglades), 11413 (Tampa Bay, Northern Part), 11414 (Tampa Bay, Southern Part), 11393 (Port St. Joe), 11391 (Panama City), and 11383 (Port of Pensacola) on file with the Department and adopted here by reference. Copies are available at cost upon request from the Office of Beaches and Coastal Systems, 3900 Commonwealth Boulevard, MS 300, Tallahassee, Florida 32399-3000.

Application to Coral Reefs:Proper, environmentally sound, dredging and disposal of dredged material, as reviewed by permit processers, will limit the amount of sediment and nutrients released to open water. The process will be particularly applicable to coral reefs for the dredging and disposal of Miiami harbor.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
US State Waters
Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Large Ships; Nutrients; Oil & Gas Tankers; Ports & Harbors; Resource Use Management; Sediment
Administrative fines for damaging State Lands of products thereof, 18-14 Florida Administrative Code. 18-14.003 Violations. It shall be a violation of this rule for any person or the agent of any person to knowingly refuse to comply with any provision of Chapter 253, F.S., willfully violate any provision of Chapter 253, F.S., or to willfully damage state land (the ownership or boundaries of which have been established by the state) or products thereof, by doing any of the following: (1) Fill, excavate, or dredge, including prop dredging in a manner which produces a defined channel, on state land without the lease, license, easement or other form of consent required by the Board. (2) Remove, in violation of state or federal law, any product from state land without written approval or specific exemption from the Board or Department. (3) Discharge contaminants, wastes, effluents, sewage or any other pollutant as defined in Chapter 376 or Chapter 403, F.S., on, under or over state land; when such discharge is in violation of Chapter 403 or conditions of a permit issued pursuant to that chapter, or conditions of a lease or easement issued pursuant to Chapter 253, F.S. - 37 (4) Maintain, place or build permanent or temporary structures, including, but not limited to, additions to existing structures; all structures whose use is not water-dependent; sanitary septic systems; fences, docks and pilings; houses; oil rigs; and utility installations on or over state land without consent or authority from the Board or Department. (5) Place garbage, refuse, or debris on or over state land without approval by the Board or Department. (6) Any other willful act that causes damage to state land, or products thereof, when such activity occurs without the required approval by the Board or Department.

Application to Coral Reefs:Controlling and limiting excavation and dredging, as well as discharge of contaminants, wastes, sewage, and other pollutants will assist in keeping sediment and pollutants from reaching the coral reefs and causing degradation of reef organisms..

Legislative Actions:

Comments:Administrative Fines for Damaging State Lands or Products Thereof
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
US State Waters
Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Ballast Discharge; Coastal Engineering; Commercial Fisheries; Construction Codes & Projects; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Educational & Research Opportunities; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Petroleum Spills; Recreational Opportunities; Resource Use Management; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Substrate; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
Amendment to the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Regulations revising the boundary of the northernmost area to be avoided off the coast of Florida, Federal Register § Volume 65, Number226 (2000). NOAA, in conjunction with the US Coast Guard, proposed to revise the northernmost area to be avoided (ATBA) off the coast of the Florida Keys. The change was expected to increaase maritime safety and to avoid harm to the marine environment and its resources.

Application to Coral Reefs:The amendments directly protect coral reefs because the change of the nothernmost area presented in the regulation as Area To Be Avoided resulted in large vessels not entering the area that had been the site of large vessel groundings.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in conjunction with the US Coast Guard

Jurisdiction:
US Coral Reefs; State Coastal Waters; US State Waters; Designated Marine Areas
Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Boat Movement; Civil Engineering & Construction; Commercial Fishing Boats; Coral; Cruise Ships; Fish; Large Ships; Oil & Gas Tankers; Physical Damage; Reef Inhabitants; Transportation Policies; Water Transportation
Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserve, 18-18 Florida Administrative Code. 18-18.001 Intent. (1) The Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserve, the boundaries of which are fully described in Rule 18-18.002, F.A.C., was established for the purpose of preserving and enhancing Biscayne Bay and all natural waterways tidally connected to the bay in an essentially natural condition so that its biological and aesthetic values may endure for the enjoyment of future generations. (2) These rules shall apply to all lands public and private within the boundaries of the preserve. However, privately owned uplands shall be excluded from these rules except as otherwise provided for herein. (3) In promulgating and implementing these rules, it is the intent of the Department to construe the provisions of Sections 258.397 and 258.35 through 258.46, F.S., together and to apply the more stringent statutory provisions for the maintenance of the preserve. (4) The preserve shall be administered and managed in accordance with the following goals: (a) To preserve, protect, and enhance Biscayne Bay and all natural waterways tidally connected to the bay by reasonable regulation of human activity within the preserve through the development and implementation of a comprehensive management program; (b) To protect and enhance the waters of the preserve so that the public may continue to enjoy the traditional recreational uses of those waters such as swimming, boating and fishing; (c) To coordinate with federal, state, and local agencies to aid in carrying out the intent of the legislature in creating the preserve; (d) To use applicable federal, state, and local management programs, which are compatible with the intent and provisions of the Act and these rules, to assist in managing the preserve; (e) To encourage activities that protect or enhance the biological and aesthetic values of the preserve, including but not limited to the modification of existing manmade conditions towards their natural condition, when reviewing applications or developing and implementing management plans for the preserve; (f) To preserve and promote indigenous life forms and habitats including but not limited to sponges, soft corals, hard corals, seagrasses, mangroves, mud flats, marine reptiles, game and non-game fish species, marine mammals, tropical marine invertebrates, birds and shellfish; (g) To acquire additional title interests in land wherever such acquisitions would serve to protect or enhance the biological or aesthetic values of the preserve.

Application to Coral Reefs:Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserve protection of water quality will contribute to a lowering of contaminants leaving the preserve on tides and thus limiting the contaminants that reach off-shore ecosystems including the FKNMS and the reef system within the sanctuary.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:This chapter establishes the rules to protect the Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserve, which was established for the purpose of preserving and enhancing Biscayne Bay and all natural waterways tidally connected to the bay in an essentially natural condition so that its biological and aesthetic values may endure for the enjoyment of future generations.
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
Designated Marine Areas
Accidental & Illegal Harvest; Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Ballast Discharge; Boat Movement; Coastal Development; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Environmental Education & Outreach; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Finfish Harvest; Hydrologic Management; Landuse Management; Mangroves; Marine Birds; Marine Debris; Nutrients; Point Source Discharges; Recreational Opportunities; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Seawater Flow; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Small Boats; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
Chapter 10: Open shorelines, 12 Virgin Islands Code. The seashore has always provided recreation, meditation, and physical therapy to the residents of the USVI. The shoreline provides access to the sea and a way of life for fisherman.The law requires that the public be given access to shorelines of the USVI for use and enjoyment.

Application to Coral Reefs:The limitation on barriers, obstructions, and retraints to beach access will have a minor role in protecting coral reefs because sedimentation that would have been associated with that minor construction will not occur.

Legislative Actions:No person, firm, corporation, association or other legal entity shall create, erect, maintain, or construct any obstruction, barrier, or restraint of any nature whatsoever upon, across or within the shorelines of the USVI as defined in this section, which would interfere with the right of the public individually and collectively. to use and enjoy any shoreline.

Comments:
US Virgin Islands, Department of Planning and Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
US Virgin Islands
Coastal Development; Coastal Engineering; Construction Codes & Projects; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Fish; Mangroves; Marine Vertebrates; Recreational Opportunities; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses
Chapter 3: Trees and vegetation next to waterways, 12 Virgin Islands Code. Establishes buffer zone for protecting natural watercourses from vegetation clearing. The buffer zone either 30 feet from the center of the natural watercourse, or 25 feet from its edge, whichever is greater.

Application to Coral Reefs:Assists in erosion control and can protect reefs from harmful sedimentation, if the stream or river sediment is capable of reaching the coral reef. Vegetation along river and stream banks will remove nutrients and assist in preventing eutrophocation of waters that can reach coral reefs.

Legislative Actions:Enforcement is by conservation officers with assistance from local police when required. Penalties are fines of not more than $100, or 180 days in jail, or both

Comments:Permits can be obtained if the purpose of clearing is for development.
US Virgin Islands, Department of Planning and Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
US Virgin Islands
Building & Home Construction; Coastal Development; Construction Codes & Projects; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landscaping & Household Services; Landuse Management; Resource Use Management; Shoreline Protection; Wetlands
Conceptual Agency Review, 62-029 Florida Administrative Code. This chapter is limited in application to dredge and fill permit applications for projects in the geographical territory of the Northwest Florida Water Management District which, pursuant to Section 373.4145, F.S., are to be reviewed and processed under the rules authorized and adopted under Sections 403.91-.929, F.S. (1984 Supp.), as amended. (1) The purpose of this rule is to establish those procedures applicable to review of requests for conceptual agency review pursuant to Section 380.06(9), F.S., for projects that undergo development of regional impact review (DRIs). (2) Conceptual agency review is a licensing action and approval or denial shall constitute final agency action. (3) Under this rule, applicants who must obtain construction or operation permits for potential sources of water pollution or for dredging and filling activities may apply for conceptual agency review of certain aspects of a proposed development, including the location, densities, intensity of use, character and major design features.

Application to Coral Reefs:Limited to projects in Northwest Florida.

Legislative Actions:The legislation applies only to dredge and fill projects in the area of the Northwest Florida Water Mkanagement District.

Comments:The purpose of this rule is to establish those procedures for dredge and fill permit applications for projects in the geographical territory of the Northwest Florida Water Management District that require conceptual agency review of certain aspects of a proposed development, including the location, densities, intensity of use, character and major design features.
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
Docks & Marinas; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Ports & Harbors; Sediment; Shoreline Protection
Dredge and Fill Activities, 62-312 Florida Administrative Code. This part provides the requirements and procedures for obtaining permits and jurisdictional declaratory statements from the Department pursuant to Sections 403.91 through 403.929, F.S. Dredging or filling which is grandfathered by subsections 403.913(6), (8) and (9), F.S., is governed by Rules 62-312.150 and 62-312.160, F.A.C. The requirements of this part are in addition to and not in lieu of the water quality standards which are required by other portions of these sections. Except for the definitions contained in Rule 62-312.020, F.A.C., which shall also apply to activities regulated under Part IV of Chapter 373, F.S., the provisions of this Part shall only apply to activities in the geographical territory of the Northwest Florida Water Management District and to activities grandfathered under Sections 373.414(9), (11), (12)(a), (13), (14), (15) and (16), F.S. Specific Authority 373.414(11)-(16), 373.4145, 403.805(1) FS. Law Implemented 373.409, 373.413, 373.414(9), (11), (12)(a), (13), (14), (15), (16), 373.4145, 373.416, 373.418, 403.061, 403.813, 403.814 FS. HistoryNew 12-10-84, Amended 8-7-85, Formerly 17-12.010, 17-312.010, Amended 10-3-95.

Application to Coral Reefs:The permit reviewers will require BMP for dredge and fill activities. This will include siltation reduction methods that will keep sediment, nutrient and other contaminants from leaving the work site and getting into the water column and potentially reaching sensitive ecosysten, including coral reefs.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:This part provides the requirements and procedures for obtaining permits and jurisdictional declaratory statements from the Department for dredge and fill activities.
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters; US State Waters
Complex Habitat & Resources; Cruise Ships; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Large Ships; Nutrients; Oil & Gas Tankers; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Ports & Harbors; Sediment; Toxics
Environmental resource permitting procedures, 62-343 Florida Administrative Code Annotated (2003). The rule provides the procedural requirements for processing environmental resource permits and obtaining formal determinations of the landward extent of wetlands and surface waters.

Application to Coral Reefs:Requiring permits for projects related to environmental resources will indirectly protect environmental habitats. The permits are related to stormwater managemnt systems including discharges to wetlands. The permit conditions can limit toxics, nutrients and sediment that would be discharged to the environment if the rule were not in place.

Legislative Actions:The rule is procedural and does not have fines or penalties.

Comments:
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters
Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Building & Home Construction; Construction Codes & Projects; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Landuse Management; Mangroves; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Permitting & Zoning; Point Source Discharges; Ports & Harbors; Road Construction & Maintenance; Seagrasses; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Wetlands
Environmental Resource Permitting, 62-330 Florida Administrative Code Annotated (2005). Under the Chapter, DEP exercises its independent authority under Part IV, Chapter 373, F.S., to regulate surface water management systems, including activities in, on or over wetlands or other surface waters. The term "surface water management system" or "system" include stormwater mangement systems, dams, impoundments, reservoirs, appurtenant works, or works, or any combination thereof, and includes dredging and filling. "Dredging" means excavation, by any means, in surface waters or wetlands

Application to Coral Reefs:Regulating stormwater management systems, dams, reservoirs and dredging will contribute to controlling contaminates from entering estuarine and marine environments and protect ecosystems including coral reefs.,

Legislative Actions:Individual permits will contain the conditions for environmental protection.

Comments:
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters; Designated Marine Areas
City Planning; Construction Codes & Projects; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Mangroves; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Pipelines; Ports & Harbors; Resource Use Management; Road Construction & Maintenance; Sediment; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Utility Line Construction & Maintenance; Wastewater Discharge
Estuaries and Clean Waters Act of 2000, 33 United States Code §§ 2901 et seq. Creates a federal interagency council that includes the Director of the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Secretary of Army for Civil Works, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The council is charged with developing a national estuary habitat restoration strategy and providing grants to entities to restore and protect estuary habitat to promote the strategy.

Application to Coral Reefs:Protecting water quality in estuaries will help mitigate the impacts of water pollution which inturn would help mitigate ocean acidification.

Legislative Actions:The Act authorized the formation of the Estuary Habitat Restoration Council that was responsible for developing a National Habitat Restoration Strategy.

Comments:
US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Army Corps of Engineers, Department of Agriculture, US Environmental Protection Agency, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Jurisdiction:
United States
Ballast Discharge; Building & Home Construction; Collaboration & Partnering; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Educational & Research Opportunities; Environmental Education & Outreach; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Finfish Harvest; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Forestry; Funding & Donations; Mangroves; Marine Birds; Mining; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Remediation; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Solid Waste Disposal; Waste Management; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
Florida Aquatic Preserves, 18-20 Florida Administrative Code. 18-20.001 Intent. (1) All sovereignty lands within a preserve shall be managed primarily for the maintenance of essentially natural conditions, the propagation of fish and wildlife, and public recreation, including hunting and fishing where deemed appropriate by the Board, and the managing agency. (2) Aquatic preserves which are described in Part II of Chapter 258, Florida Statutes, were established for the purpose of being preserved in an essentially natural or existing condition so that their aesthetic, biological and scientific values may endure for the enjoyment of future generations. (3) The preserves shall be administered and managed in accordance with the following goals: (a) To preserve, protect, and enhance these exceptional areas of sovereignty submerged lands by reasonable regulation of human activity within the preserves through the development and implementation of a comprehensive management program; (b) To protect and enhance the waters of the preserves so that the public may continue to enjoy the traditional recreational uses of those waters such as swimming, boating, and fishing; (c) To coordinate with federal, state, and local agencies to aid in carrying out the intent of the Legislature in creating the preserves; (d) To use applicable federal, state, and local management programs, which are compatible with the intent and provisions of the act and these rules, and to assist in managing the preserves; (e) To encourage the protection, enhancement or restoration of the biological, aesthetic, or scientific values of the preserves, including but not limited to the modification of existing manmade conditions toward their natural condition, and discourage activities which would degrade the aesthetic, biological, or scientific values, or the quality, or utility of a preserve, when reviewing applications, or when developing and implementing management plans for the preserves; (f) To preserve, promote, and utilize indigenous life forms and habitats, including but not limited to: sponges, soft coral, hard corals, submerged grasses, mangroves, salt water marshes, fresh water marshes, mud flats, estuarine, aquatic, and marine reptiles, game and non-game fish species, estuarine, aquatic and marine invertebrates, estuarine, aquatic and marine mammals, birds, shellfish and mollusks; (g) To acquire additional title interests in lands wherever such acquisitions would serve to protect or enhance the biological, aesthetic, or scientific values of the preserves; (h) To maintain those beneficial hydrologic and biologic functions, the benefits of which accrue to the public at large. (4) Nothing in these rules shall serve to eliminate or alter the requirements or authority of other governmental agencies, including counties and municipalities, to protect or enhance the preserves provided that such requirements or authority are not inconsistent with the act and this chapter.

Application to Coral Reefs:By maintaining coastal aquatic preserves in their natural condition, mangrove forests, wetlands and submerged aquatic vegetation will perform the functions of being sediment traps and removing some contaminants such as nutrients. Therefore, they will not reach marine ecosystems including coral reefs.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:Aquatic preserves which are described in Part II of Chapter 258, Florida Statutes, were established for the purpose of being preserved in an essentially natural or existing condition so that their aesthetic, biological and scientific values may endure for the enjoyment of future generations.  All sovereignty lands within a preserve shall be managed primarily for the maintenance of essentially natural conditions, the propagation of fish and wildlife, and public recreation, including hunting and fishing where deemed appropriate by the Board, and the managing agency.
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters
Building & Home Construction; Coastal Development; Docks & Marinas; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Educational & Research Opportunities; Environmental Education & Outreach; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Landuse Management; Mangroves; Marine Birds; Ports & Harbors; Recreational Opportunities; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Waste Management Policies
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Regulations, Federal Register § Volume 66, Number 11 (2001). NOAA established the Tortugas Ecological Reserve (a no-take zone) in the Tortugas region (Tortugas or region) of the Florida Keys to protect significant coral resources and to protect an area that serves as a source of biodiversity for the Sanctuary as well as for the southwest shelf of Florida. Establishment of the Reserve included expansion of the Sanctuary boundary to ensure that the Reserve protects sensitive coral habitats lying outside the existing boundary of the Sanctuary.

Application to Coral Reefs:The Regulation protects significant coral resources and many marine species by providing a no-take zone.

Legislative Actions:The regulation increased the no-take zones to 24 areas. Fishing is prohibited in Tortugas north for areas that are within State waters. Diving is prohibited in Tortugas south.

Comments:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Jurisdiction:
US State Waters; Designated Marine Areas
Biological Harvest; Bivalves; Boating Activities; Commercial Fisheries; Coral; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Environmental Education & Outreach; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Invertebrate Harvest; Invertebrates; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Marine Protected Areas; Molluscs; Octopus & Squid; Recreational Fishing; Reef Habitat; Reef Inhabitants; Sea Urchins; Seastars; Snails & Conch; Sponges; Stony Coral; Tourism & Recreation; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Regulations; Anchoring on Tortugas Bank, Federal Register § Volume 63, Number 158 (1998). The regulation reinstates and makes permanent the temporary prohibition on anchoring by vessels 50 meters or greater in registered length on the Tortugas Bank west of the Dry Tortugas National Park within the Sanctuary.

Application to Coral Reefs:Prohibition on anchoring protects coral reefs and benthic habitats from physical damage.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Jurisdiction:
US Coral Reefs; US Federal Waters; US State Waters; Designated Marine Areas
Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Commercial Fishing Boats; Complex Habitat & Resources; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Fish; Invertebrates; Marine Protected Areas; Recreational Fishing; Reef Habitat; Reef Inhabitants; Resource Use Management; Sediment; Substrate; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Transportation Policies; Water Transportation
General permit for activities seaward of the coastal construction control line, 62B-34 Florida Administrative Code Annotated (2010). To implement the provisions of Section 161.053(19) F. S. providing General Permits for activities performed seaward of the Coastal Construction Control line. Persons wishing to use one or more of the General Permits as set forth in Part II of this rule chapter shall be subject to the notice provisions of subsection 62B-34.030(4) F. A. C. before any activity is conducted as authorized herein.The general conditions provided pursuant to Section 62-B34-0.50, F. A. C. , shall apply to all of the General Permits issued under this rule chapter. Strict compliance with all of the terms, conditions, requirements, limitations, and restrictions applicable to a desired General Permit under this rule chapter is required to qualify for such a permit.

Application to Coral Reefs:The rule requires erosion control BMP. Therefore, sediment from construction will not enter the marine environment and damage coral reefs.

Legislative Actions:Civil fines are applicable for work done that was not authorized in the permit.

Comments:
Florida Departrment of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters
Beaches & Nature Parks; Coastal Defense; Coastal Development; Coastal Engineering; Complex Habitat & Resources; Construction Codes & Projects; Docks & Marinas; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landuse Management; Mangroves; Ports & Harbors; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Sediment; Shoreline Armoring
Mangrove Trimming and Preservation Act, 403.9321-403.9333 Florida Administrative Code Annotated (1996). It is the intent of the Legislature to protect and preserve mangrove resources valuable to our environmentand economy from unregulated removal, defoliation, and destruction.

Application to Coral Reefs:Protection and preservation of wetland systems, including mangroves, allow the systems to act as buffers to remove nutrients and sediment that could reach coral reefs and cause damage.

Legislative Actions:Permits are required prior to any trimming. A Professional Mangrove Trimmer must be present when work is being performed. Penalties can include restoration and/or mitigation.

Comments:
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters; US State Waters; Designated Marine Areas
Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Apex Fish Predators; Building & Home Construction; Coastal Development; Construction Codes & Projects; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Landuse Management; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Marine Birds; Non-Monetary Valuation; Nutrients; Ports & Harbors; Resource Use Management; Sediment; Shoreline Protection
National Marine Sanctuaries Act of 1972, 16 United States Code §§ 1431-1445. Authorizes the Secretary of Commerce to designate and manage areas of the marine environment with special national significance due to their conservation, recreational, ecological, historical, scientific, cultural, archeological, educational, or esthetic qualities as National Marine Sanctuaries.

Application to Coral Reefs:Protects marine resources, such as coral reefs, sunken historical vessels, or unique habitats.

Legislative Actions:NOAA may impose civil penalties up tp $130,000 per day per violation. Criminal penalties were added in the 2000 amendments for interfering or resisting with any enforcement of the NMSA, or providing false information to the Secretary or any officer authorized to enforce NMSA. The 2000 amendments made it illegal to offer for sale, purchase, import, or export, any sanctuary resource and increased enforcement authority.

Comments:There are 13 marine sanctuaries in the National Marine Sactuary System, six of which were created after 1990. Each sanctuary has a separarte staff and program in its local region.
National Oceanic Aatmospheric Administration

Jurisdiction:
Designated Marine Areas
Apex Fish Predators; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Boating Regulations; CO2; Coastal Development; Commercial Fishing Boats; Coral; Corporate Responses; Designate Protected Species; Designated Uses; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Educational & Research Opportunities; Environmental Education & Outreach; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Large Ships; Marine Birds; Marine Protected Areas; Nutrients; Ocean Acidity; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Political Pressure; Recreational Opportunities; Remediation; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Sediment; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Wetlands
Proposed Coral Reef Conservation Act Amendments of 2005, 2007 and 2009,. To preserve, sustain, and restore the condition of coral reef ecosystems, to promote the wise management and sustainable use of coral reef ecosystems, to benefit local communities and the Nation, to develop sound scientific information on the condition of coral reef ecosystems and threats to the ecosystems, to assist in the preservation of coral reefs by supporting and financing conservation programs including local and non-governmental programs, establish a formal mechanism for collecting and allocating monetary donations from the private sector to be used for coral reef conservation projects

Application to Coral Reefs:When passed, the Amendments, among other issues, would reauthorize the Coral Reef Conservation Act of 2000 and authorize appropriations through fiscal 2012 for the coral reef conservation program and community- based planning grants. Will authorize activities designed to minimize the likelihood of vessel impacts or other physical dammage to coral reefs, including activities to identify certain at-risk coral reefs. Promote international cooperation, codify the US Coral Reef Task Force.

Legislative Actions:Provided funding for matching grants, encouraged education and outreach, encouaged cooperative conservation and management through partnerships with other federal, state, regional and local partners including citizen groups.

Comments:The amendments would not add regulations to the Act.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Jurisdiction:
US Coral Reefs
Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Ballast Discharge; Boat Movement; CO2; Coral; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Educational & Research Opportunities; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Recreational Opportunities; Reef Habitat; Reef Inhabitants; Sediment; Tourism & Recreation; Water Transportation
Regulation of stormwater discharge, 62-25 Florida Administrative Code Annotated (1988). The discharge of untreated stormwater may reasonably be expected to be a source of pollution of waters of the state and is, therefore, subject to Department regulation. The Departmnet shall prevent pollution of waters of the state by discharges of stormwater, to ensure that the designated most beneficial uses of waters, as prescribed by Chapter 62-302, F.A.C., are protected. A permit under this chapter will be required only for new stormwater discharge facilities as defined herein. This provision shall not affect the Department's authority to require appropriate corrective action, pursuant to Sections 403.121-.161.F.S., whenever existing facilities cause or contribute to violations of state water quality standards. Stormwater discharges to groundwaters shall be regulated under the provisions of Chapters 62-520 and 62-522, F.A.C., and other applicable rules of the Department. The Department intends that, to the greatest extent practicable, the provisions of this chapter be delegated to either local governments or water management districts seeking such delegation.

Application to Coral Reefs:Limiting the contaminants and their concentrations in stormwater discharge will reduce the contamination reaching various habitats, including coral reefs.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:
Floridfa Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
US State Waters
Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Building & Home Construction; Construction Codes & Projects; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Impervious Surfaces; Landuse Management; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Sediment; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge
Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, 33 United States Code § 1252. This law prohibits the discharge of any type of refuse matter in U.S. waters without permission (section 13). In addition, the excavation, fill, or alteration of the course, condition, or capacity of any port, channel, river, or other areas within the limits of this law is prohibited. This law prohibits the construction or alteration of a structure in wetlands of the U.S. (sections 9 and 10). Construction in wetlands and waters of the U.S. requires a permit from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Application to Coral Reefs:Under section 10, excavation or fill within navigable waters requires approval of the Chief of Engineers and concerns about contaminated sediments with dredge and fill projects in navigable waters is addressed within the permitting process. Indirect protection of coral reefs is offered by the Act and its prohibition of dumping refuse into navigable waters and the process of anaylzing sediment in proposed dredge and fill operations.

Legislative Actions:Violations of the law are punished under section 309 of the Clean Water Act and section 205 of National Fishing Enhancement Act. Fines imposed for violation will not be less than $10,000 per violation or more than $25,000 per violation.

Comments:Many states, including Florida, require additional permits for constuction of docks, piers, wharfs, jetties and other structures in navigable waters and wetlands in addition to the Corps of Engineers permit. Authority to issue permits for discharge of refuse matter under section 13 was modified by the amendments to Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and established the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit process. The Act was initially established to protect interstate commerce in navigable waters. The permit review process involves factors including economics, aethetics, general envitonmental concerns, historical values, water quality, and fish and wildlife impact before project approval is granted.
US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and US Coast Guard

Jurisdiction:
United States
Coastal Development; Coastal Engineering; Construction Codes & Projects; Ditching & Soil Disturbance; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Landuse Management; Large Ships; Marine Debris; Marine Protected Areas; Oil & Gas Tankers; Permitting & Zoning; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Political Pressure; Ports & Harbors; Resource Use Management; Sediment; Transportation Policies; Waste Management Policies
Rules and Procedures for Application for Coastal Construction Permits, 62B-041 Florida Administrative Code. No coastal construction shall be conducted without a permit issued by the Department under this chapter, unless it is determined that the coastal construction does not fall within the requirements of section 161.041, F.S., or unless the interior tidal water body is exempted by the Department pursuant to subsection 161.041(1), F.S.

Application to Coral Reefs:Requiring a permit with regulatory review of the construction project will assist in minimizing potential adverse environmental impacts from the work and such potential detrimental portions of the project (e.g. sedimentation) will not enter the marine environment resulting in ecosystem damage.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:No coastal construction shall be conducted without a permit issued by the Department under this chapter, unless it is determined that the coastal construction does not fall within the requirements of section 161.041, F.S., or unless the interior tidal water body is exempted by the Department pursuant to subsection 161.041(1), F.S.
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters
Building & Home Construction; Coastal Development; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Ports & Harbors; Resource Use Management; Seawater Flow; Sediment
Rules and Procedures for Coastal Construction and Excavation, 62B-033 Florida Administrative Code (2008). (1) The beach and dune system is an integral part of the coastal system and represents one of the most valuable natural resources in Florida, providing protection to adjacent upland properties, recreational areas, and habitat for wildlife. A coastal construction control line (CCCL) is intended to define that portion of the beach and dune system which is subject to severe fluctuations caused by a 100-year storm surge, storm waves, or other forces such as wind, wave, or water level changes. These fluctuations are a necessary part of the natural functioning of the coastal system and are essential to post-storm recovery, long term stability, and the preservation of the beach and dune system. However, imprudent human activities can adversely interfere with these natural processes and alter the integrity and functioning of the beach and dune system. The control line and 50-foot setback call attention to the special hazards and impacts associated with the use of such property, but do not preclude all development or alteration of coastal property seaward of such lines. (2) In order to demonstrate that construction is eligible for a permit, the applicant shall provide the Department with sufficient information pertaining to the proposed project to show that adverse and other impacts associated with the construction have been minimized and that the construction will not result in a significant adverse impact. (3) After reviewing all information required pursuant to this rule chapter, the Department shall: (a) Deny any application for an activity which either individually or cumulatively would result in a significant adverse impact including potential cumulative effects. In assessing the cumulative effects of a proposed activity, the Department shall consider the short-term and long-term impacts and the direct and indirect impacts the activity would cause in combination with existing structures in the area and any other similar activities already permitted or for which a permit application is pending within the same fixed coastal cell. The impact assessment shall include the anticipated effects of the construction on the coastal system and marine turtles. Each application shall be evaluated on its own merits in making a permit decision; therefore, a decision by the Department to grant a permit shall not constitute a commitment to permit additional similar construction within the same fixed coastal cell. (b) Deny any application for an activity where the project has not met the Departments siting and design criteria; has not minimized adverse and other impacts, including stormwater runoff; or has not provided mitigation of adverse impacts. (4) The Department shall issue a permit for construction which an applicant has shown to be clearly justified by demonstrating that all standards, guidelines, and other requirements set forth in the applicable provisions of Part I, Chapter 161, F.S., and this rule chapter are met, including the following: (a) The construction will not result in removal or destruction of native vegetation which will either destabilize a frontal, primary, or significant dune or cause a significant adverse impact to the beach and dune system due to increased erosion by wind or water; (b) The construction will not result in removal or disturbance of in situ sandy soils of the beach and dune system to such a degree that a significant adverse impact to the beach and dune system would result from either reducing the existing ability of the system to resist erosion during a storm or lowering existing levels of storm protection to upland properties and structures; (c) The construction will not direct discharges of water or other fluids in a seaward direction and in a manner that would result in significant adverse impacts. Forthe purposes of this rule section, construction shall be designed so as to minimize erosion induced surface water runoff within the beach and dune system and to prevent additional seaward or off-site discharges associated with a coastal storm event. (d) The construction will not result in the net excavation of the in situ sandy soils seaward of the control line or 50-foot setback; (e) The construction will not cause an increase in structure-induced scour of such magnitude during a storm that the structure-induced scour would result in a significant adverse impact; (f) The construction will minimize the potential for wind and waterborne missiles during a storm; (g) The activity will not interfere with public access, as defined in Section 161.021, F.S.; and (h) The construction will not cause a significant adverse impact to marine turtles, or the coastal system. (5) In order for a manmade frontal dune to be considered as a frontal dune defined under Section 161.053(6)(a)1., F.S., the manmade frontal dune shall be constructed to meet or exceed the protective value afforded by the natural frontal dune system in the immediate area of the subject shoreline. Prior to the issuance of a permit for a single-family dwelling meeting the criteria of Section 161.053(6)(c), F.S., the manmade frontal dune must be maintained for a minimum of 12 months and be demonstrated to be as stable and sustainable as the natural frontal dune system. (6) Sandy material excavated seaward of the control line or 50-foot setback shall be maintained on site seaward of the control line or 50-foot setback and be placed in the immediate area of construction unless otherwise specifically authorized by the Department. (7) Swimming pools, wading pools, waterfalls, spas, or similar type water structures are expendable structures and shall be sited so that their failure does not have adverse impact on the beach and dune system, any adjoining major structures, or any coastal protection structure. Pools sited within close proximity to a significant dune shall be elevated either partially or totally above the original grade to minimize excavation and shall not cause a net loss of material from the immediate area of the pool. All pools shall be designed to minimize any permanent excavation seaward of the CCCL. (8) Major structures shall be located a sufficient distance landward of the beach and frontal dune to permit natural shoreline fluctuations, to preserve and protect beach and dune system stability, and to allow natural recovery to occur following storm-induced erosion. Where a rigid coastal structure exists, proposed major structures shall be located a sufficient distance landward of the rigid coastal structure to allow for future maintenance or repair of the rigid coastal structure. Although fishing piers shall be exempt from this provision, their foundation piles shall be located so as to allow for the maintenance and repair of any rigid coastal structure that is located in close proximity to the pier.(9) If in the immediate area a number of existing major structures have established a reasonably continuous and uniform construction line and if the existing structures have not been unduly affected by erosion, except where not allowed by the requirements of Section 161.053(6), F.S., and this rule chapter, the Department shall issue a permit for the construction of a similar structure up to that line. (10) In considering applications for single-family dwellings proposed to be located seaward of the 30-year erosion projection pursuant to Section 161.053(6), F.S., the Department shall require structures to meet criteria in Section 161.053(6)(c), F.S., and all other siting and design criteria established in this rule chapter. (11) In considering project impacts to native salt-tolerant vegetation, the Department shall evaluate the type and extent of native salt-tolerant vegetation, the degree and extent of disturbance by invasive nuisance species and mechanical and other activities, the protective value to adjacent structures and natural plant communities, the protective value to the beach and dune system, and the impacts to marine turtle nesting and hatchlings. The Department shall restrict activities that lower the protective value of natural and intact beach and dune, coastal strand, and maritime hammock plant communities. Activities that result in the removal of protective root systems or reduce the vegetations sand trapping and stabilizing properties of salt tolerant vegetation are considered to lower its protective value. Construction shall be located, where practicable, in previously disturbed areas or areas with non-native vegetation in lieu of areas of native plant communities when the placement does not increase adverse impact to the beach and dune system. Planting of invasive nuisance plants, such as those listed in the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Councils 2005 List of Invasive Species Categories I and II, will not be authorized if the planting will result in removal or destruction of existing dune-stabilizing native vegetation or if the planting is to occur on or seaward of the dune system. A copy of this list is available on the Internet at www.fleppc.org; or can be obtained by writing to the Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Beaches and Coastal Systems, 3900 Commonwealth Boulevard, Mail Station 300, Tallahassee, Florida 32399-3000; or by telephoning (850) 488-7708. Special conditions relative to the nature, timing, and sequence of construction and the remediation of construction impacts shall be placed on permitted activities when necessary to protect native salt-tolerant vegetation and native plant communities. A construction fence, a designated location for construction access or storage of equipment and materials, and a restoration plan shall be required if necessary for protection of existing native salt-tolerant vegetation during construction. (12) Special conditions relative to the nature, timing, and sequence of construction shall be placed on permitted activities when necessary to protect marine turtles and their nests and nesting habitat. In marine turtle nesting areas, all forms of lighting shall be shielded or otherwise designed so as not to disturb marine turtles. Tinted glass or similar light control measures shall be used for windows and doors which are visible from the nesting areas of the beach. The Department shall suspend any permitted construction when the permittee has not provided the required protection for marine turtles and their nests and nesting habitat.

Application to Coral Reefs:Regulation of coastal construction through permit review and modification will protect coastal ecosystems from degradation and loss and in doing so protects other marine ecosystems including coral reefs.

Legislative Actions:Chapter 62B-33 Florida Administrative Code, provides the design and siting requirements that must be met to obtain a coastal construction control line permit.Approval or denial of a permit application is based upon a review of the potential impacts to the beach dune system, adjacentproperties, native salt resistant vegetation, and marine turtles.

Comments:The Coastal Construction Control Line (CCCL) is an essential element of Florida's coastal management program. It provides protection for Florida's beaches and dunes while assuring reasonable use of private property. Recognizing the value of the state's beaches, the Florida legislature initiated the Coastal Construction Contorl Line Program to protect the coastal system from improperly sited and designed structures which can destabilize or destroy the beach and dune system. Once destabilized, the valuable natural resources are lost, as are its important values for recreation, upland property protection and environmental habitat. Adoption of a coastal construction line establishes an area of jurisdiction in which special siting and design criteria are applied for construction and related activities.These standards may be more stringent than those already applied in the rest of the coastal building zone because of the greater forces expected to occur in the more seaward zone of the beach during a storm event.
Florida State Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters; Designated Marine Areas
Beach & Land Formation; Building & Home Construction; City Planning; Civil Engineering & Construction; Coastal Development; Construction Codes & Projects; Cruise Ships; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Hydrologic Management; Landuse Management; Mangroves; Marine Protected Areas; Oil & Gas Tankers; Pipelines; Ports & Harbors; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Seawater Flow; Sediment; Shoreline Armoring; Shoreline Protection; Storms & Hurricanes; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Water Depth & Sea Level
Significant amendments to the National Marine Sanctuaries Act of 1972. Amendments of 1980 were PL 96-332, 1984 were PL98-498, 1988 were Title II of PL 100-627, 1992 were PL 102-587, 1996 were PL 104-283 and for 2000 were PL106-513,. Title III of the Marine Protection, Reseach and Sanctuaries Act was amended to create the National Marine Sanctuaries Program. The amendments of 1980 mandated the terms of designation to include the geographic area included within the sanctuary and the characteristics of the area that give it conservation, recreational, ecological, or esthetic value, and the types of activities that would be subject to regulation to protect those characteristics. The 1984 amendments required a Resource Assessment Report documenting present and potential use of the area. 1998 amendments established a special use permit for commercial operations, added a section that a vessel or person causing damage to the resources of a sanctuary would be liable for both response and cleanup costs as well as damages for any sanctuary resource destroyed. Amendments of 1992 provided that Title III may be cited as 'The National Marine Sanctuaries Act." Also, federal agencies had to be consistent with the National Environmental Policy Act in commenting on proposed designations.

Application to Coral Reefs:Strenghtened the protectinon of marine sanctuaries and their resources. Some specific purposes of the Act that add to coral reef protection include; to identify and designate national marine sanctuaries of the marine environment, to maintain the natural b

Legislative Actions:

Comments:
National Oceanic Aatmospheric Administration

Jurisdiction:
Designated Marine Areas
Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Ballast Discharge; Boating Activities; Collaboration & Partnering; Commercial Fisheries; Commercial Fishing Boats; Construction Codes & Projects; Coral; Cruise Ships; Deforestation & Devegetation; Economic Markets & Policies; Educational & Research Opportunities; Environmental Education & Outreach; Environmental Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Large Ships; Mangroves; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Oil & Gas Tankers; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Recreational Fishing; Recreational Opportunities; Reef Habitat; Reef Inhabitants; Reef Life; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Wetland & Reef Restoration
Sovereign submerged lands management, 18-21 Florida Administrative Code Annotated (2006). To manage, protect, and enhance sovereignty lands so that the public may continue to enjoy traditional uses, including, but not limited to, navigation, fishing and swimming, public drinking water supply, shellfish harvesting, public recreation, and fish and wildlife propagation and management.

Application to Coral Reefs:Permitting activities on submerged lands owned by Florida will improve water quality which will indirectly protect reef systems.

Legislative Actions:These rules are to implement the administration and management responsibilities of the board and department regarding sovereign submerged lands. Responsibility for environmental permitting of activities and water quality protection on sovereign lands is vested with the Department of Environmental Protection. These rules are considered cumulative.

Comments:
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters
Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Aquaculture; Beach & Land Formation; Coastal Defense; Commercial Fisheries; Construction Codes & Projects; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Energy Policy & Development; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Pipelines; Point Source Discharges; Ports & Harbors; Recreational Fishing; Recreational Opportunities; Resource Use Management; Seawater Flow; Sediment; Shoreline Protection; Trawling & Fishing Gear Damage
Surface water quality standards, 62-302 Florida Administrative Code Annotated (2008). The Chapter establishes the minimum concentrations of contamination that are allowable to protect the designated uses of a waterbody. Designated uses include public drinking water supplies, propagation of fish and wildlife, agricultural, recreation, industrial, and navigation.

Application to Coral Reefs:Protecting surface waters by limiting the concentration of pollutants that can be present will control the concentrations of those pollutants that will reach estuarine and marine environments, thus protecting the associated ecosystems, including coral reefs.

Legislative Actions:Penalties are not presented in the Rule. Specific requirements and penalties are addrressed in individual permits. The Rule relies heavily on biocriteria including acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, Shannon-Weaver Diversity Index. Section 400 presents the classes of Florida waters; Class I potable water supplies, Class II shellfish propagation or harvesting, Class III recreation, propagation and maintenance of a healthy, well-balanced population of fish and wildlife, Class IV agricultural water supplies, Class V navigation, utility and industrial use.

Comments:
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters; US State Waters; Designated Marine Areas
Biocriteria; Biological Monitoring, Mapping, & Scientific Research; Civil Engineering & Construction; Coastal Development; Commercial Fisheries; Complex Habitat & Resources; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Deforestation & Devegetation; Designate Protected Species; Discharge Limitations; Dive, Snorkeling, & Swimming Tourism; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Drinking Water Supply; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Impervious Surfaces; Invertebrates; Irrigation; Landuse Management; Molluscs; Non-point Source Controls; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Pipelines; Point & Mobile Source Controls; Point Source Discharges; Ports & Harbors; Recreational Fishing; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Shoreline Armoring; Small Boats; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Toxics; Waste Management Policies
Surface waters of the State, Florida Administrative Code Annotated §§ Chapter 62-301 (1996). It is the intent of this Chapter to define the landward externt of surface waters of the state. Te findings, declarations, and intentfor this Chapter are the same as those for Chapter 62-302 F. A. C.

Application to Coral Reefs:By defining the landward extent of surface waters of the State using dominant plant species, the guidance in the Chapter will include wetlands and transitional zones on many occasions. Through the protection of these areas, filtration of sediment and nutrients will be maintained and two of the harmful parameters for coral reefs will be reduced.

Legislative Actions:The Chapter is a guidance document and does not contain penalties. The Chapter provides a list of plant species for use with the guidance as well as the methods of calculating the areas of state waters.

Comments:
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters; US State Waters; Designated Marine Areas
Arthropods; Ballast Discharge; Beaches & Nature Parks; Biotechnology Research & Development; Building & Home Construction; Coastal Development; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Forestry; Invertebrates; Landscape Conservation & Restoration; Landuse Management; Mangroves; Marine Birds; Marine Vertebrates; Molluscs; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Petroleum Spills; Pipelines; Ports & Harbors; Recreational Fishing; Resource Use Management; Sea Turtles; Seagrasses; Sediment; Shoreline Armoring; Small Boats; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Utility Line Construction & Maintenance; Wastewater Discharge; Wetlands; Whales & Dolphins
The DPNR states that wetlands in the Virgin Islands are covered by the Clean water Act and the Endangered and Indigenous Species Act of 1990 (Title 12, Chapter 2, US Virgin Island Code,. To protect wetlands and wetland species from degradation, loss as a result of dredging and filling.

Application to Coral Reefs:Protection of wetlands assists in controlling sedimentation and nutrient runoff from terrstrial locations, thus protecting coral reefs that are influenced by terrestrial sources.

Legislative Actions:

Comments:The wetlands portion of the USVI Division of Environmental Protection website was under construction at the time of this atlas preparation.  However, it appears that DEP works with the USACE and USEPA on matters related to wetlands.
US Virgin Islands, Department of Planning and Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
US Virgin Islands
Building & Home Construction; Coastal Development; Coastal Engineering; Construction Codes & Projects; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Educational & Research Opportunities; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Mangroves; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Recreational Opportunities; Resource Use Management; Seagrasses; Shoreline Armoring; Wetlands
The Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Protection Act, Public Law 101-605 (H.R. 5909 United States Code (1990). To protect the resources of the area delineated in section 5(b) of the Act, to educate and interpret for the public regarding the Florida Keys marine environment, and to manage such human uses of the Sanctuary consistent with the Act. Nothing in the Act is intended to restrict activities that do not cause adverse effects to the resources or property of the Sanctuary or that do not pose harm to the users of the Sanctuary.

Application to Coral Reefs:The Sanctuary sets aside the coral reef system that is the thrid largest coral reef barrier in the world. Included in the FKNMS are Key Largo Marine Sanctuary containing 103 square nautical miles of coral reefs and Looe Key National Marine Sanctuary containing 5.32 squared nautical miles of coral reefs.The Act protects the reefs from anchoring directly into the coral formation and taking coral dead or alive in the Sanctuary. From Miami to the Marquesas Keys there are over 6000 patch reefs. The Act also protects mangrove islands and submerged aquatic vegetation, both potential buffers for the reef system against eutrophication and sediment deposition. The Act prohibits oil and hydrocarbon exploration, mining or altering the seabed, restricts large shipping traffic, and restricts the discharge of pollutants, futher protecting mangroves, and submerged aquatic vegetation.

Legislative Actions:The Act required the preparation of a comprehensive mangement plan and implementing regulations to protect Sanctuary resources.

Comments:Large vessel groundings on coral reefs in the Florida Keys was a major driver for the designation of the Sanctuary. In 1989, there were three groundings of large commercial vessels on the coral reef tract within an eighteen day period.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration as lead agency and Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission, and Monroe County as Co-Trustees

Jurisdiction:
US Coral Reefs; US Federal Waters; US State Waters; Designated Marine Areas
Anchoring & Vessel Grounding; Ballast Discharge; Boating Regulations; Complex Habitat & Resources; Coral; Economic Markets & Policies; Educational & Research Opportunities; Environmental Education & Outreach; Existence Value & Sense of Place; Finfish Harvest; Fish; Fishing & Harvesting Management; Invertebrate Harvest; Large Ships; Marine Debris; Marine Protected Areas; Recreational Opportunities; Reef Habitat; Reef Inhabitants; Reef Life; Shoreline Protection; Substrate; Tourism & Recreation Policies; Water Transportation
Uniform Mitigation Assessment Method, Florida Administrative Code Annotated §§ Chapter 62-345 (2005). Establishes a methodology that provides a standard procedure for assessing the functions provided by wetlands and other surface waters, the amount that those functions are reduced by a proposed impact, and the amount of mitigation necessary to offset that loss.

Application to Coral Reefs:Protecting wetlands provides wetland areas that can act as buffers against nutrients, pollutants and contaminants from reaching habitats including coral reefs.

Legislative Actions:The Chapter is administrative and provides methods to assess wetland value and appropriate mitigation to offset impact.

Comments:
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
State Coastal Waters
Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Building & Home Construction; Civil Engineering & Construction; Coastal Development; Coastal Engineering; Complex Habitat & Resources; Construction Codes & Projects; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Docks & Marinas; Dredging Regulations; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Forestry; Land-Based Civil Engineering; Landuse Management; Mangroves; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Oil & Gas Research & Exploration; Pipelines; Ports & Harbors; Recreational Opportunities; Resource Use Management; Road Construction & Maintenance; Seagrasses; Sediment; Shoreline Armoring; Surface & Groundwater Flow; Utility Line Construction & Maintenance; Wetlands
Water quality based effluent limitations, 62-650 Florida Administrative Code Annotated (1996). To implement the provisions of Section 403.051, 403.085 through 403.088 concerning the development of effluent limitations for wastewater facilities.

Application to Coral Reefs:The Florida Air and Water Pollution Act establishes that no wastes are to be discharged to any waters of the state without first being given the degree of treatment necessay to protect the beneficial uses of such water. Requiring treatment of industrial and domestic waste water indirectly protects adjoining ecosystem, such as reefs, by limiting the pollutant that reach these other systems.

Legislative Actions:The Department shall not issue a permit for a discharge to waters of the state, unless the Department has established an efflent limit for those pollutants in the discharge that are present in quantities or concentrations which can be reasonably expected to cause or contribute, directly or indirectly, to a violation of any water quality standard established in rule 62-302. The effluent limit may be a technology based effluent limit (TBEL), a water quality based effluent limit (WQBEL) determined by a Level 1 process, or where applicable, a WQBEL determined by a Level 2 process.

Comments:
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Jurisdiction:
US State Waters; Designated Marine Areas
Agriculture, Aquaculture, & Forestry Policies; Applied Chemicals; Building & Home Construction; Cleaner & Solvent Use; Coal Mining; Construction Codes & Projects; Dam Construction & Maintenance; Domestic Animal Waste; Dredging, Draining, & Filling; Fertilizer & Pesticide Use; Finfish & Shellfish Stock; Fish; Food, Beverage, & Tobacco Products; Irrigation; Landuse Management; Lobster, Crab, & Shrimp; Metals, Electronics, & Machinery Products; Mineral, Rock, & Metal Mining; Non-point Source Runoff; Nutrient & Contaminant Processing; Nutrients; Physical & Chemical Water Quality Criteria; Point Source Discharges; Road Construction & Maintenance; Sediment; Sewage Treatment; Solid Waste Disposal; Utility Line Construction & Maintenance; Waste Management Policies; Wastewater Discharge; Waterborne Discharges; Wholesale & Retail Trade; Wood, Plastics, & Chemical Products

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