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Great Lakes Ecological Protection and Restoration

Table of Contents

Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8

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Great Lakes Report to Congress 1994


February 1994
EPA 905-R-94-004

End Notes

Chapter One

Figure 1-1. The Great Lakes Watershed

Environment Canada, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Brock University, and Northwestern University, "The Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book" (Toronto: Environment Canada, Ontario Region, and Chicago: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Great Lakes National Program Office, 1987).

Figure 1-2. Depth Profile of the Great Lakes and Summary of Their Physical Features

U S. Army Corps of Engineers, The Laurentian Great Lakes, Miscellaneous Facts and Figures, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Level Regulation Plan. SO- 901 (1974).

Quinn, F., "Hydraulic Residence Times for The Laurentian Great Lakes." "Journal of Great Lakes Research" 18(1) (1992), pp. 22-28.

Figure 1-3. Average Mercury Concentrations In Walleye From Lake St. Clair

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, "Toxic Chemicals in the Great Lakes and Associated Effects" (Environment Canada, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and Health and Welfare Canada, 1991).

Chapter Two

Figure 2-1. Simplified View of the Great Lakes Food Web

Colborn, T.E., Davidson, A., Green, S.N., Hodge, R A., Jackson, C.J., and Liroff, R.A., "Great Lakes. Great Laegacy?" (Conservation Foundation: Washington, DC, and the Institute for Research on Public Policy: Ottawa, Ontario, 1990).

Figure 2-2. Lake Ontario Food Web Biomagnification, 1982

Environment Canada and Department of Fisheries and Oceans as cited in "Toxic Chemicals in the Great Lakes and Associated Effects" (Environment Canada, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and Health and Welfare, 1991), p. 11.

Figure 2-3. Contaminants in Herring Gull Eggs, Sister Island, Green Bay

"Bishop, C. and Weseloh, D.V. Contaminants in Herring Gulls from the Great Lakes", Environment Canada, Catalogue No. EN1-12/90-2E (1990), p. 6-7.

Figure 2-4. Contaminants in Bloater Chubs, Southeast Lake Michigan

Data provided by Hesselberg, R.J., U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, National Fisheries Research Center - Great Lakes, Ann Arbor, MI (1991).

Table 2-1. Examples of Great Lakes Fish Consumption Advisories

Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Division of Water Pollution Control, "Illinois Water Quality Report, 1988-1989" (Springfield, IL: Illinois EPA, 1990).

Indiana Department of Environmental Management (DEM), "1986-87 305(b) Report" (Indianapolis, IN: Indiana DEM).

Michigan Department of Natural Resources (DNR), Surface Water Quality Division, "Michigan 305(b) Report" Volume 11 (Lansing, MI: Michigan DNR, 1990).

Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (PCA), "The l990 Report to the Congress of the United States of America by the State of Minnesota Pursuant to Section 305(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Act" (Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota PCA, 1990).

New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC), Bureau of Monitoring & Assessment Division of Water, "New York State Water Quality 1990" (Albany, NY: New York State DEC, April 1990).

Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Division of Water Quality Planning & Assessment, "Ohio Water Resource Inventory" (Cincinnati, OH: Ohio EPA, 1990).

Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources (DER), Bureau of Water Quality Management, "Water Quality Assessment 305(b) Report" (Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania DER, 1990).

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR), "Wisconsin Water Quality Assessment Report to Congress 1990" (Madison, WI: Wisconsin DNR, 1990).

Data from Nonpoint Source Bulletin Board System (BBS), U.S. EPA-Risk Assessment and Management Branch, 1992.

Figure 2-5. Sediment Contamination in the Lower Detroit River, as Suggested by Impacts on Bottom Dwelling Organisms

Thornley, S., "Macrobenthos of the Detroit and St. Clair Rivers with Comparisons to Neighboring Waters." "Journal of Great Lakes Research" 11 (1985), pp. 290-296.

Figure 2-6. Presettlement Extent of the Black Swamp in Northwestern Ohio

Colborn et al., (1990), p.144, from Forsyth, J.L, "The Black Swamp." Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey (1960); in Herdendorf, C.E., "The Ecology of the Coastal Marches of Lake Erie: A Community Profile." "Biological Report" 85:7.9 (Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1987), p.140.

Figure 2-7. Entry Periods of Exotic Species

Mills, E., Leach, J., Carlton, J.T., and Secor, C., "Exotic species in the Great Lakes: a history of biotic crises and anthropogenic introductions. "(Great Lakes Fishery Commission Report, 1992)", p.117.

Figure 2-8. Entry Routes of Exotic Species


Figure 2-9. Types of Exotic Species


Figure 2-10. Lake Trout With Lamprey Wounds, Eastern Lake Superior

Curtis, G.L., "Recovery of Offshore Lake Trout Population in Eastern Lake Superior." Journal of Great Lakes Research 16, no. 2 (1990), pp. 279-287.

Figure 2-11. Estimated Total Phosphorus Loading to Lake Erie

1988 and 1989 data provided by Dolan, D., IJC's Great Lakes Regional Office. Earlier data from IJC's "Water Quality Board Report on Great Lakes Water Quality," 1987. Data were originally developed by US. and Canadian monitoring programs.

Figure 2-12. Spring Phosphorus Levels in Lake Erie's Central Basin

Data provided by Bertram, P., US. EPA-Great Lakes National Program Office, 1991.

Figure 2-13. Sport Angler Harvest of Walleye From Ohio Waters, Lake Erie

Personal communication, January, 1992, with Carl Baker, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife.

Figure 2-14. Oxygen Depletion Rate for the Bottom Waters of Lake Erie's Central Basin

Makarewicz, J.C. and Bertram, P., "Evidence for the Restoration of the Lake Erie Ecosystem." "BioScience" 41, no.4 (1991), pp.216-223.

Chapter Five

Figure 5-1. Great Lakes Harbors With The Most Recorded Oil and Chemical Spills, January 1980- September 1989

U.S. Coast Guard Report to U.S. Senate Oversight of Government Management Subcommittee, April 1990.

Chapter Six

Figure 6-1. PCB Levels in Coho Salmon

Data provided by DeVault, D., U.S. EPA-Great Lakes National Program Office, 1991. Fish collection by State environmental agencies with laboratory analysis by the Food and Drug Administration.

Figure 6-2. PCB Levels In Lake Trout, Lake Michigan

Data provided by DeVault, D., U.S. EPA-Great Lakes National Program Office, 1991.

Hesselberg, R.J., Hickey, J P., Nortrup, D.A., and Willford, W.A., "Contaminant Residues in the Bloater "(Coregonus Hoyi)" of Lake Michigan, 1969-1986." "Journal of Great Lakes Research" 1, no. 1 (International Association Great Lakes Research, 1990), pp. 121-129.

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