Contaminated Sediments Program
- Great Lakes Monitoring
- Monitoring and Assessment Water Quality
- Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)
Table of Contents
Sediment Assessment and Remediation Report
Guidance for In-Situ Subaqueous Capping of
Michael R. Palermo and Steve Maynord
U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station
U.S. Army Engineer Division, Great Lakes and Ohio River
Danny D. Reible
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana
This document provides technical guidance for subaqueous, in-situ capping as a remediation technique for contaminated sediments. The document was prepared as a part of studies conducted for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) under the Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) Program, administered by USEPA's Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO), in Chicago, Illinois. This is one of a series of guidance documents developed by the ARCS Engineering/ Technology Work Group (ETWG) to evaluate the feasibility of remediation alternatives and technologies.
This report was written by Dr. Michael R. Palermo, Research Civil Engineer, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES); Dr. Steve Maynord, Research Hydraulic Engineer, WES; Mr. Jan Miller, Environmental Engineer, U.S. Army Engineer Division, Great Lakes and Ohio River; and Dr. Danny D. Reible, Louisiana State University. Contributions of Mr. Tommy Myers, Mr. James Clausner, and Mr. Paul Gilbert, all of WES, and Mr. David Petrovski, USEPA Region 5, are also acknowledged. Appendix B was prepared with the partial support of the US Environmental Protection Agency through the Hazardous Substance Research Center/South and Southwest and through cooperative agreement CR 823029-01-0 from the National Risk Management and Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio. Appendix C was prepared by Dr. Hoe Peter Ling and Dr. Dov Leshchinsky, both of the University of Delaware, under contract with WES.
The first draft of this document was prepared for EPA technical review in 1995. A second draft was prepared for an in-situ capping seminar held by EPA Region 5 in Chicago in November 1996. This final report addresses comments received from the seminar participants. The report number EPA 905-B96-004 was assigned in 1996, and this number was retained for final publication.
In-Situ Capping is defined as the placement of a subaqueous covering or cap of clean isolating material over an in-situ deposit of contaminated sediment. ISC is a potentially economical and effective approach for remediation of contaminated sediment. A number of sites have been remediated by in-situ capping operations worldwide. This document provides technical guidance for subaqueous, in-situ capping as a remediation technique for contaminated sediments. The document was prepared as a part of the studies conducted for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) under the Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) Program, administered by USEPA's Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO), in Chicago, Illinois.
Caps for in-situ sediment remediation may be constructed of clean sediments, sand, gravel, or may involve a more complex design with geotextiles, liners and multiple layers. In-situ capping can provide several primary functions: physical isolation of the contaminated sediment from the benthic environment; stabilization of contaminated sediments, preventing resuspension and transport to other sites; and, reduction of the flux of dissolved contaminants into the water column. To achieve these results, an in-situ capping project must be treated as an engineered project with carefully considered design, construction, and monitoring. The basic criterion for a successful capping project is simply that the cap required to perform some or all of these functions be successfully designed, placed, and maintained.
This document provides descriptions of the processes involved with in-situ capping, identification of the design requirements of an in-situ capping project, and a recommended sequence for design. Detailed guidance is provided on site and sediment characterization, cap design, equipment and placement techniques, and monitoring and management considerations.
This report should be cited as follows:
Palermo, M., Maynord, S., Miller, J., and Reible, D. 1998. "Guidance for In-Situ Subaqueous Capping of Contaminated Sediments," EPA 905-B96-004, Great Lakes National Program Office, Chicago, IL.