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Step Two
Trends Analysis
Bulldozer clearing lot of debris

A Citizen's Guide to Achieving a Healthy Community, Economy and Environment
The Nature Conservancy, Center for Compatible Economic Development, 1996.

This guide explores ways to build on the strengths of a local community to achieve the goals of its citizens. It presents the lessons learned from several places where people have found that environmental protection can go hand-in-hand with a prosperous economy. They have learned that economic development is local and that they can look inside their community for leadership and new opportunities.

For more information contact:
The Center for Compatible Economic Development
7 East Market Street, Suite 210
Leesburg, VA 20176
(703) 779-1728
Fax (703) 779-1746

Alternatives to Sprawl Exit EPA Click for Disclaimer
D.Young, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 1995.

This report describes factors contributing to sprawl, economic, social and public health costs associated with sprawl and provides information on several other issues associated with sprawl. The report provides examples and case studies to illustrate alternatives to sprawl.

For more information contact:
The Brookings Institution
1775 Massachusetts Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20036
(202) 797-6000
Fax (202) 797-6004

Community Economic Analysis: A How To Manual
R.J. Hustedde, R. Shaffer, and G. Pulver, 1995.

For more information contact:
North Central Regional Center for Rural Development
Iowa State University
108 Curtiss Hall
Ames, IA 50011-1050
(515) 294-8321

Conserving the Forests of the Chesapeake: The Status, Trends and Importance of Forests for the Bay's Sustainable Future [About PDF, 34 pp., 967KB] Exit EPA Click for Disclaimer
USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area, NA-TP-03-96, 1996.

The report provides an overview of the status and trends of the forest resources within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. It also describes the major conservation issues which face the future health of the Bay's forests.

For more information contact:
Richard Cooksey or Albert Todd
USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area
State and Private Forestry
Chesapeake Bay Program
410 Severn Ave., Suite 109
Annapolis, MD 21430
(800) 968-7229

Cost of Community Services in Southern New England
Commonwealth Research Group, Inc. for Southern New England Forest Consortium, Inc. 1995.

This study provides objective information that evaluates the fiscal contributions of developed land versus forest, farm, and open space land. The towns selected for the study represent a cross-section including rural, transitional, and urban communities. Towns of varying stages of development will be able to compare these results to their own communities.

For more information contact:
Southern New England Forest Consortium
P. O. Box 760
Chepachet, RI 02814
(401) 568-1610
(800) 772-TREE

Governing for Results Exit EPA Click for Disclaimer
Oregon Progress Board, 1996.

This handbook on using benchmarks for planning and governing draws on the experiences of the Oregon Progress Board and other state and local officials.

For more information contact:
Oregon Progress Board
775 Summer Street, NE
Salem, OR 97310
(503) 986-0123

Inside the Black Box: Making Transportation Models Work for Livable Communities
E. Beimborn and R. Kennedy, Citizens for a Better Environment and The Environmental Defense Fund, 1996.

This report provides information on forecasting transportation demand and its effect on land use as used by transportation planners. The report aims to bring to light the assumptions underlying the urban transportation modeling process and how it works. It also suggests improvements to correct some of the common biases and other problems which affect the forecasts that modeling produces. It gives commissioners, planners and citizens specific suggestions for how to advocate ways to improve the modeling being done in their region to ensure greater accuracy and sensitivity to land use and transportation policies which promote alternatives to driving.

For more information contact:
Citizens for a Better Environment
152 W. Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 510
Milwaukee, WI 53204
(414) 271-7280
Excerpt available at: http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/CUTS/primer.htm Exit EPA Click for Disclaimer

Land, Infrastructure, Housing Costs and Fiscal Impacts Associated with Growth: The Literature on the Impacts of Sprawl versus Managed Growth
R.W. Burchell and D. Listokin, 1995.

Where? In what form? At what density? These concerns really do matter when analyzing the effects of development on land consumption, infrastructure requirements, housing costs, and fiscal impacts. This paper attempts to summarize the existing literature on development form and costs. It also provides a research methodology for looking into the issues surrounding this topic. Four areas of the impact of development form are analyzed:(1) land consumption; (2) infrastructure requirements; (3) housing costs; and (4) fiscal impacts.

For more information contact:
Lincoln Institute of Land Policy
113 Brattle Street
Cambridge, MA 02138-3400
(617) 661-3016
Fax (617) 661-7235

Manual of Build-Out Analysis
J. Lacy, Center for Rural Massachusetts, 1992

This manual describes the planning tool known as the Build-Out Analysis. The manual describes the data requirements, materials, and techniques necessary to complete both the graphic and numerical portions of the analysis. It is targeted at Planning Boards and Commissions, conservation and citizen groups concerned with growth management, and professionals in the planning field. The information is applicable to anywhere the necessary data can be assembled.

For more information contact:
Center for Rural Massachusetts
Department of Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning
109 Hills North
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, MA 01003
(413) 545-2612
(413) 545-1795 fax

Measuring Change in Rural Communities: A Workbook for Determining Demographic, Economic, and Fiscal Trends
R. Rasker, J.Johnson, V.York, The Wilderness Society, 1994.

This document provides the framework for analyzing economic, demographic and fiscal trends at the community level. The purpose of the workbook is to help rural residents gather and understand information about the make-up of their communities and how the communities may have changed over time. Exercises in the workbook are designed to assist users in working through social, demographic, and economic data. The document also suggests ways of interpreting and presenting the information so that it is useful in discussions of basic issues confronting many rural communities today, particularly the challenges of providing long-term economic stability and needed services.

For more information contact:
Sonoran Institute
7650 E. Broadway, Suite 203
Tucson, AZ 85710
(520) 290-0828
Fax (520) 290-0969

Measuring Community Success and Sustainability: An Interactive Workbook Exit EPA Click for Disclaimer
North Central Regional Center for Rural Developments.

This report helps communities learn how to measure the local or regional impacts of development that enhances rural communities.

For more information contact:
North Central Regional Center for Rural Development
Iowa State University
108 Curtiss Hall
Ames, IA 50011-1050
(515) 294-8321
Fax (515) 294-3180

Modernizing State Planning Statutes (PAS 462/463) Exit EPA Click for Disclaimer
APA Planning Advisory Service

These papers represent some of the most advanced thinking on legislative reform in the areas of regional tax-base sharing, state and regional roles in transportation and land use, and sustainable development among others.

For more information contact:
American Planning Association Exit EPA Click for Disclaimer

Monitoring Land Supply with Geographic Information Systems: Theory, Practice, and Parcel-Based Approaches
Editors: Anne Vernez Moudon and Michael Hubner, 2000.

Monitoring the supply of developable land and its capacity to accommodate growth within urbanizing regions is an increasingly important component of land use planning and growth management programs. This volume reviews the current state of the art in land monitoring, particularly new GIS tools and data resources. Chapters address technical and methodological frameworks for data collection, analysis and application to specific policy concerns; case studies of successful land monitoring programs; and thematic topics ranging from database design to urban simulation modeling. Appendices offer detailed findings of a national survey of land supply monitoring programs.

For more information contact:
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
custserv@wiley.com or 1-800-225-5945

Planners Guide to Sustainable Development (PAS 467) Exit EPA Click for Disclaimer
Kevin J. Krizek, APA Planning Advisory Service

This report urgers planners to incorporate sustainable development objectives into their everyday work.

For more information contact:
American Planning AssociationExit EPA Click for Disclaimer

Take Charge: Economic Development in Small Communities Exit EPA Click for Disclaimer
J. Ayres, R. Cole, C. Hein, S. Huntington, W. Kobberdahl, W. Leonard, D. Zetocha, 1995.

This document (in a three-ring binder format) is an educational program designed to enable leaders, decision - makers and residents in small communities better face the future. It will assist leaders to analyze the community, think about alternatives and plan an action strategy for community economic development. It will help rural residents take charge of their community's destiny. The program includes agendas, worksheets and example strategies which can be used by community groups.

For more information contact:
North Central Regional Center for Rural Development
Iowa State University
108 Curtiss Hall
Ames, IA 50011-1050
(515) 294-8321

The Community Energy Workbook
Alice Hubbard and Clay Fong, Rocky Mountain Institute

This book outlines a comprehensive, step-by-step process for achieving sustainable, community-wide energy savings.

The Costs of Alternative Development Patterns: A Review of the Literature
J.E. Frank, The Urban Land Institute, Washington, DC., 1989.

This article provides an overview of the literature surrounding the costs of alternative development patterns. It provides a variety of case studies and examples which would assist a community in developing their own trends statement.

For more information contact:
The Urban Land Institute
1025 Thomas Jefferson Street, NW
Suite 500 West
Washington, DC 20007-5201
(800) 321-5011

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