Jump to main content.

Great Lakes Ecological Protection and Restoration

Table of Contents

Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8

exit EPA (About PDF)

Return to Index

Great Lakes Report to Congress 1994


February 1994
EPA 905-R-94-004

Chapter 7

To carry out its focus on the Great Lakes, EPA has during recent years consistently increased expenditures for activities concerned with this ecosystem. This chapter discusses the Agency's expenditures on Great Lakes activities, including expenditures by categories (such as State cooperative efforts, judicial enforcement, research, and general administration) specified in Section 118(c)(10) of the Clean Water Act, which defines this report.

EPA Great Lakes Funding

During recent years, EPA has steadily increased funding to the Great Lakes Program. EPA spent more than $41 million on an Agency-wide basis during FY 1991. This includes the Great Lakes Program and other activities related to the Great Lakes. This level of effort was increased by more than 50 percent in 1992. The Administration's 1993 budget called for a further increase to more than $61 million.

State Cooperative Efforts

One major element of EPA's increased funding to the Great Lakes Program is increased resources to State agencies expressly for development and implementation of Remedial Action and Lakewide Management Plans. In 1989 and 1990, funding to States for these ecosystem restoration efforts totalled just under $500,000. During 1992, the Agency increased funding for Remedial Action Plans and Lakewide Management Plans to over $9 million.


Funding for the Agency's research activities pertaining to the Great Lakes has also increased, from $2.4 million in 1991 to over $9 million in 1992. The Administration's 1993 budget sought a further increase.


The Clean Water Act specifies that this report provide expenditures on "judicial enforcement" pertaining to Great Lakes water quality. Judicial enforcement is a subset of enforcement activities which also include administrative actions. While the Agency does not have an estimate of expenditures solely for judicial enforcement activities, this report can cite resources applied to the enforcement, as a whole, in the Great Lakes watershed. Resources have steadily increased for five years. In 1989, $2.6 million was expended on enforcement in the Great Lakes watershed. This increased to $4.9 million in 1992.

General Administration

The Clean Water Act also specifies that this report provide expenditures for "general administration." This report defines general administrative expenditures as consisting of funds in the "salaries and expenses" classification. As the Agency has focused more personnel on the Great Lakes ecosystem, these have risen, as shown in Figure 7-5.

Local Navigation

Jump to main content.