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Heat Island Effect

Federal, State, and Local Actions

Across the United States, stakeholders ranging from government agencies to corporations have advanced urban heat island reduction strategies, including urban forestry, green roofs, cool roofs, and cool pavements. Efforts range from voluntary initiatives, such as cool pavement demonstration projects, to policy actions, such as requiring cool roofs via building codes. 

Some communities have elected to implement both voluntary and policy initiatives. These efforts can complement each other, or an initiative that begins as a voluntary activity could become required over time. 

Heat island mitigation activities can be undertaken at the federal, state, and local levels. The links below take you to more detail on past, current, and planned activities at each of these levels.


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