EPA's Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and Its Potential Impact on Drinking Water Resources

The RealGas and RealGasH2O options of the TOUGH+ code for the simulation of coupled fluid and heat flow in tight/shale gas systems

George Moridis and Craig M. Freeman. Computers and Geosciences. October 2013.


Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,  in consultation with the EPA, has developed and demonstrated new computer codes to the TOUGH+ family of codes. These two equations of state codes, RealGas and RealGasH20, allow the study of flow and transport of fluids and heat over a wide range of time frames and spatial scales in tight and shale gas reservoirs. This work will be used to test different scenarios about how gas, injection fluids or waste water related to hydraulic fracturing operations may impact drinking water resources. The results of this article, combined with other information, will inform the draft assessment report on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources. 

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