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Propham (CASRN 122-42-9)

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Propham; CASRN 122-42-9

Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data, as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process. Sections I (Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects) and II (Carcinogenicity Assessment for Lifetime Exposure) present the conclusions that were reached during the assessment development process. Supporting information and explanations of the methods used to derive the values given in IRIS are provided in the guidance documents located on the IRIS website.


File First On-Line 09/30/1987

Category (section)
Last Revised
Oral RfD Assessment (I.A.) on-line 09/30/1987
Inhalation RfC Assessment (I.B.) no data
Carcinogenicity Assessment (II.) no data

_I.  Chronic Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

_I.A. Reference Dose for Chronic Oral Exposure (RfD)

Substance Name — Propham
CASRN — 122-42-9
Last Revised — 09/30/1987

The oral Reference Dose (RfD) is based on the assumption that thresholds exist for certain toxic effects such as cellular necrosis. It is expressed in units of mg/kg-day. In general, the RfD is an estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of a daily exposure to the human population (including sensitive subgroups) that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime. Please refer to the Background Document for an elaboration of these concepts. RfDs can also be derived for the noncarcinogenic health effects of substances that are also carcinogens. Therefore, it is essential to refer to other sources of information concerning the carcinogenicity of this substance. If the U.S. EPA has evaluated this substance for potential human carcinogenicity, a summary of that evaluation will be contained in Section II of this file.

__I.A.1. Oral RfD Summary

Critical Effect
Experimental Doses*

Increase in male
spleen weight and ChE
depression in females

90-Day Rat Feeding

PPG Industries, 1979

NOEL: 1000 ppm diet
(50 mg/kg/day)

LEL: 2000 ppm diet
(100 mg/kg/day)


*Conversion Factors -- 1 ppm = 0.05 mg/kg/day (assumed rat food consumption)

__I.A.2. Principal and Supporting Studies (Oral RfD)

PPG Industries, Inc. 1979. Accession No. 250614, 250615. Available from EPA. Write to FOI, EPA, Washington, DC 20460.

Sprague-Dawley rats (a minimum of 20/sex/dose) were fed 0, 250, 1000, and 2000 ppm of propham in their diets for 90 consecutive days. The animals were observed daily for behavioral changes and signs of toxicity. At 45 days, there was ChE depression in female rats at 100 mg/kg/day. In male rats, at 100 mg/kg/day, an increase in spleen weight occurred.

__I.A.3. Uncertainty and Modifying Factors (Oral RfD)

UF — An uncertainty factor of 1000 was used to account for the inter- and intraspecies differences and a subchronic to chronic exposure extrapolation. An additional UF of 3 was used to account for the fact that the database lacks important toxicity data (a study in a second mammalian species and a reproduction study).

MF — None

__I.A.4. Additional Studies/Comments (Oral RfD)

Data Considered for Establishing the RfD:

1) 90-Day Feeding - rat: Principal study - see previous description; core grade minimum

Data Gap(s): Chronic Feeding Rat Study; Chronic Feeding Dog Study; Rat Reproduction Study; Rat Teratology Study; Rabbit Teratology

__I.A.5. Confidence in the Oral RfD

Study — Low
Database — Low
RfD — Low

The principal study was of low quality and is given a low confidence rating. The supporting database is incomplete and is given a low confidence rating. Low confidence in the RfD follows.

__I.A.6. EPA Documentation and Review of the Oral RfD

Source Document — This assessment is not presented in any existing U.S. EPA document.

Other EPA Documentation — Pesticide Registration Files

Agency Work Group Review — 09/02/1986, 03/18/1987

Verification Date — 03/18/1987

Screening-Level Literature Review Findings — A screening-level review conducted by an EPA contractor of the more recent toxicology literature pertinent to the RfD for Propham conducted in September 2002 did not identify any critical new studies. IRIS users who know of important new studies may provide that information to the IRIS Hotline at hotline.iris@epa.gov or (202)566-1676.

__I.A.7. EPA Contacts (Oral RfD)

Please contact the IRIS Hotline for all questions concerning this assessment or IRIS, in general, at (202)566-1676 (phone), (202)566-1749 (FAX) or hotline.iris@epa.gov (internet address).

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_I.B. Reference Concentration for Chronic Inhalation Exposure (RfC)

Substance Name — Propham
CASRN — 122-42-9

Not available at this time.

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_II.  Carcinogenicity Assessment for Lifetime Exposure

Substance Name — Propham
CASRN — 122-42-9

This substance/agent has not undergone a complete evaluation and determination under US EPA's IRIS program for evidence of human carcinogenic potential.

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_III.  [reserved]
_IV.  [reserved]
_V.  [reserved]

_VI.  Bibliography

Substance Name — Propham
CASRN — 122-42-9
Last Revised — 02/01/1993

_VI.A. Oral RfD References

PPG Industries, Inc. 1979. Accession No. 250614, 250615. Available from EPA. Write to FOI, EPA, Washington DC 20460.

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_VI.B. Inhalation RfD References


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_VI.C. Carcinogenicity Assessment References


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_VII.  Revision History

Substance Name — Propham
CASRN — 122-42-9

12/01/1989 VI. Bibliography on-line
01/01/1992 IV. Regulatory Action section on-line
02/01/1993 III.A. Health Advisory on-lin
02/01/1993 VI.D. Health Advisory references on-line
04/01/1997 III., IV., V. Drinking Water Health Advisories, EPA Regulatory Actions, and Supplementary Data were removed from IRIS on or before April 1997. IRIS users were directed to the appropriate EPA Program Offices for this information.
12/03/2002 I.A.6. Screening-Level Literature Review Findings message has been added.

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_VIII.  Synonyms

Substance Name — Propham
CASRN — 122-42-9
Last Revised — 09/30/1987

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