Lean Manufacturing and Environment
Lean and Environment Toolkit
Chapter 4: Kaizen Events
- Introduction to Kaizen Events
- How to Establish a Lean and Environment Change Management System
- How to Identify and Find Solutions for Lean and Environment Opportunities in Kaizen Events
This chapter looks at one of the main vehicles for change in Lean—kaizen rapid process improvement events—and discusses how to find environmental improvement opportunities, mitigate regulatory constraints, and implement new waste-reduction tools through kaizen events on processes in the value stream.
Kaizen means continual improvement in Japanese. Kaizen events—also known as rapid process improvement events—are a team activity designed to eliminate waste and make rapid changes in the workplace. They are a primary means of implementing other Lean methods, ranging from 6S (5S+Safety) to cellular manufacturing. See Appendix A for more information about kaizen events.
The rapid and fundamental process changes that occur during kaizen events create powerful windows of opportunity to reduce material wastes and pollution, but they also can result in regulatory compliance violations and/or cause health and safety hazards for workers if they are not properly managed. This is especially the case for the 10 Common Manufacturing Processes with Environmental Opportunities listed in Chapter 3.
This chapter presents strategies and tools to help accomplish two objectives:
- Develop a change management system for kaizen events to prevent regulatory compliance issues and maximize waste-reduction benefits; and
- Find opportunities to enhance Lean results and environmental outcomes by asking key questions and deploying new process-improvement tools.
In addition to involving EHS staff in value stream mapping teams (see Chapter 3), there are four steps your company could take to make sure that process changes from kaizen events do not cause unwanted EHS impacts.
- Train Lean team leaders to recognize EHS impacts.
- Identify an EHS contact for kaizen event teams.
- Use an EHS Checklist for Lean events to identify EHS needs.
- Proactively involve EHS staff in Lean events.
While a key strategy for effective Lean and environment integration is to involve EHS staff in planning for and conducting Lean events on processes with environmental opportunities, it is useful for all staff to recognize what process changes can trigger EHS impacts. Simple training can go a long way to help kaizen event team leaders and team members identify issues and operational changes that may require additional EHS expertise. As described in more detail in Chapter 2, consider adding slides to Lean training presentations about how to identify environmental wastes and issues during Lean activities.
|Common Operational Changes That Trigger EHS Involvement|
Changes to the type, volume, or introduction/issuance procedure for chemicals/materials used by employees. Affects chemical exposure, regulatory compliance, and reporting needs.
Changes to the type or volume of waste generated by a process, including all media such as air emissions, water discharges, and liquid and solid waste. Affects compliance with regulatory and permitted limits, as well as pollution control and management capacity.
Changes to the physical layout of the process (e.g., moving work or storage areas), to equipment and technologies used, or to the facility (e.g., moving, replacing, or installing vent hoods, stacks, floor drains, or process tanks). Affects compliance with regulations and permits, as well as work practice requirements.
Use the list of Common Operational Changes That Trigger EHS Involvement as a guide for when to seek additional EHS expertise for Lean events.
If not properly conducted, these types of operational changes could harm the health and safety of workers, or cause violations of EHS regulations. For example, moving hazardous waste collection areas from central locations to work cells could affect compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Similarly, replacing existing, permitted air pollution control equipment with right-sized equipment would require permit modifications under the Clean Air Act.
Lean managers and kaizen team leaders need to know who to contact with EHS questions and needs. Since EHS specialists cannot participate in all Lean events, it can be helpful to assign a general EHS contact to address unexpected issues and concerns that arise during kaizen events. Your company may wish to have a single EHS contact for all events, or assign EHS staff to specific production areas.
Here are a few things to keep in mind when identifying an EHS contact.
- Keep it simple. Have a single point of contact for the event.
- Provide kaizen event team leaders with information on how to reach the EHS contact.
- Assign EHS contacts who can be highly responsive. Even a one-day delay in response to a question or issue can disrupt progress in an event.
An EHS checklist for Lean events is a simple tool to identify operational changes planned during a kaizen event that may cause an EHS impact. Checklists are particularly useful when there is no team member with EHS expertise involved in an event. They also reinforce training information.
See Appendix C for a sample Lean Event EHS Checklist. If your company has other checklists or forms used during Lean events, you could add EHS-related information to them. You may also want to include questions that prompt team members to look specifically for environmental improvement opportunities.
In Chapter 3, you learned how to identify processes with environmental opportunities on value stream maps and that you should involve EHS staff in Lean events on those processes. The Lean Event EHS Checklist can also serve as a trigger for EHS involvement. Kaizen event teams should consult the EHS contact immediately during an event if any EHS involvement flags are triggered when completing the checklist. Failure to involve EHS staff can result in risks due to unsafe work conditions or non-compliance with regulations.
CASE STUDY: GOODRICH CORPORATION
Goodrich, a supplier of products and services to the aerospace industry, began implementing Lean techniques in 1995, adapting tools from the Toyota Production System. Kaizen events serve as the driving force behind a waste elimination-focused culture change with the company conducting over 350 events each. Goodrich has used kaizen events to assess hazardous environmental waste streams, identify and implement pollution prevention and process improvement techniques, and to target environmental, health, and safety (EHS) issues. EHS objectives must be identified for all kaizen events, and efforts must also be made to involve EHS personnel if an event is likely to have important environmental dimensions, risks, or opportunities. Several Goodrich sites have also converted to cellular manufacturing while other facilities have shifted to Lean point of use chemical management systems to eliminate wasted worker movement, which also reduced chemical use.
While involvement of EHS staff can sometimes result in the identification of constraints to making certain operational changes, their participation can also expand the solution set. In some cases, EHS staff may even be able to work with regulatory agencies to tailor permit requirements and compliance strategies to accommodate your plant’s Lean operating environment (see Air Permitting Strategies textbox below).
|Air Permitting Strategies to Reduce Constraints to Making Operational Changes|
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and various States have pioneered innovative approaches to air permitting that can streamline a plant’s ability to make many types of operational changes. Many of these flexible air permitting techniques are being piloted by companies implementing Lean. To learn more about innovations in air permitting, use the form found at http://www.epa.gov/lean/auxfiles/contactlm.htm to get in touch with an EPA Lean and environment specialist.
While the last chapter described how to identify processes with EHS opportunities in value stream maps, this chapter presents several tools and resources for finding Lean and environment opportunities within specific processes targeted for kaizen implementation. These resources include:
- Questions to Identify Lean-Environment Opportunities;
- Hierarchical Process Mapping to Drill Down from Value Stream Maps; and
- Process-Specific Pollution Prevention Resources.
These kaizen implementation resources can help Lean teams discover ways to improve environmental and operational performance. They are particularly useful when planning for kaizen events and during initial brainstorming activities.
Asking the right questions when preparing for and conducting a kaizen event can uncover hidden waste reduction opportunities, such as chemicals that could harm human health and the environment, water and energy utilities, and compliance support infrastructure and costs that may be buried in facility overhead.
The Key Questions for Identifying Lean-Environment Opportunities listed below can assist your kaizen team to explicitly identify and consider opportunities to boost environmental performance while also enhancing operational performance.
|Key Questions for Identifying Lean-Environment Opportunities|
Chemicals and Materials Use
The value stream mapping tools described in Chapter 3 can help identify which processes generate large amounts of environmental wastes. Sometimes, however, it is useful to drill down further to identify the specific sources of waste within a single process. This detailed information can be particularly useful when preparing for or conducting a kaizen improvement event.Hierarchical process mapping is one tool to conduct this more detailed analysis and thereby uncover new waste-reduction opportunities.
Hierarchical process mapping is a tool that creates a workflow diagram to bring forth a clearer understanding of steps within a specific process (1). For example, a plating process might involve several individual operations. A hierarchical process map presents process steps in tiers—it presents a high-level map of up to six process steps, and then maps the specific steps that lie within each high-level step, and so on with tiers of increasing detail. Figure 8 shows how hierarchical process mapping can be used to drill down within a process in a value stream.
Figure 8: Drilling Down with Hierarchical Process Mapping
There are six main steps associated with process mapping.
- Resource inputs and non-product outputs such as pollution and scrap for each process step;
- Resource and cost accounting data; and
- Regulatory issues and requirements.
Process mapping captures this information in Process Step Description and Accounting Sheets, as in the template and example below (see Figures 9 and 10).
Figure 9: Process Step Description and Accounting Sheet (Template)
Your Lean implementation team can use process mapping sheets based on this template to collect data about one or more processes in a value stream, find the root causes of environmental wastes, and understand the full costs and requirements associated with these wastes. With that information, you can target kaizen events on the specific process steps that are the largest sources of waste.
Figure 10: Process Step Description and Accounting Sheet (Sample)
Over the past 20 years, manufacturing assistance programs and environmental agencies have assembled vast libraries of information on process-specific technologies, tools, techniques, and work practices that can improve your operational performance and cause less harm to worker health and the environment. These resources are particularly relevant to the 10 manufacturing processes with environmental opportunities described in Chapter 3.
See the textbox below and Appendix D for more information about these pollution prevention resources. Future versions of the Lean and Environment Toolkit may include information and tools for increasing the Lean and environmental improvement results when applying Lean methods to specific types of processes, such as chemical management, painting, and electroplating.
|Sources of Information on Process Improvement and Pollution Prevention|
There are numerous resources available on specific process improvement and pollution prevention techniques and technologies. Two examples are given below. For a list of additional resources please see Appendix D.
Kaizen events are a team-based activity to eliminate waste and make rapid changes in the workplace through the targeted use of Lean methods. If not properly managed, the operational changes made through kaizen events could harm the health and safety of workers, or result in violations of regulatory compliance requirements.
To prevent these problems, it is important to establish an effective EHS change management system for Lean events. This can involve four steps.
- Train kaizen event team leaders to identify operational changes that may trigger EHS involvement. These include changes that affect chemical exposure, compliance with regulations and permits, pollution control management capacity, and work practice requirements.
- Identify a responsive EHS contact that Lean managers and kaizen team leaders can contact with EHS questions and needs.
- Fill out a Lean Event EHS Checklist for each Lean event. This simple tool identifies operational changes planned during a kaizen event that may warrant the involvement of EHS expertise.
- Involve EHS representatives in Lean events early on to anticipate and address potential EHS compliance issues and avoid risks to workers.
Tools to support the planning and implementation of kaizen events include:
- Questions to identify Lean-environment opportunities in kaizen events;
- Hierarchical process mapping, which can drill down from value stream maps to uncover specific sources of waste within a single process; and
- Process-specific pollution prevention resources to improve business results and cause less harm to human health and the environment.
(1) This section draws on pioneering work on process mapping by Robert B. Pojasek (www.pojasek-associates.com). See Robert B. Pojasek, “Mapping Information Flow Through the Production Process,” Environmental Quality Management, 13 (3), 2004.