Documents, Tools and Resources
- Papers and Reports
- Emissions Tracking & Reporting
- Methods for Quantifying SF6 Emissions
- Additional Links
Papers and Reports
- Characterizing of Cover Gas and Byproduct Emissions from Secondary Magnesium Ingot Casting at Advanced Magnesium Alloys Corporation (AMACOR) (PDF) (43 pp, 303KB)
This measurement study (USEPA 2009) was conducted on a secondary ingot casting machine located at the AMACOR facility in Anderson, Indiana. The study examined the use of SF6, Novec™ 612, and SO2 as cover gases. Cover gas emissions were continuously monitored through multiple sample points and cover gas mixtures were evaluated. Results indicated that that both the Novec TM 612 cover gas mixture and the SO2 cover gas mixture reduce GHG emissions as compared to SF6 (weighted by cover gas flow) by at least 99 percent and 100 percent, respectively. Extremely low ambient temperatures during this study presented a challenge for implementing the alternative cover gas technologies.
- Characterization of Cover Gas and Byproduct Emissions from Secondary Magnesium Ingot Casting (48 pp, 1.1MB)
In 2007, one of EPA's magnesium recycling partner companies, Garfield Alloys / MagReTech, hosted an industrial scale study of alternative magnesium melt protection technologies and their associated environmental impacts. The demonstration / measurement study evaluated three melt protection technologies; 1) MagReTech's standard SF6/SO2 based cover gas, 2) MTG-Shield™ using Novec™ 612, and 3) Dilute SO2. EPA's analytical team also monitored for occupational exposure risks.
- Characterization of Emissions and Occupational Exposure Associated with Five Melt Protection Technologies for Magnesium Die Casting (PDF) (117 pp, 1.1MB)
EPA, its Partner, Lunt Manufacturing, and a supporting cast of suppliers and researchers from Australia, Canada, Japan, and the U.S. demonstrated and evaluated cutting-edge, "climate-friendly" melt protection technologies that promise significant environmental benefits. Lunt Manufacturing graciously hosted the week-long trial at its Hampshire, Illinois die casting facility in August 2006. EPA’s report includes its first assessment of a "dilute SO2" cover gas technology.
- Characterization of Cover Gas Emissions from U.S. Magnesium Die Casting (PDF) (49 pp, 626K)
This study of magnesium cover gas technologies and emissions to air is a product of the Australian / U.S. Climate Action Partnership. One of EPA’s magnesium die casting partner companies, Intermet, graciously hosted the production scale study at its Hannibal and Palmyra, Missouri sites in October 2003. Magnesium industry suppliers, Advanced Magnesium Technologies, the Cooperative Research Centre for Cast Metal Manufacturing (CAST), and 3M™, contributed to the success of the project by providing cover gases and sharing their technical expertise.
- Measured SF6 Emissions From Magnesium Die Casting Operations (PDF) (5 pp, 118K)
This paper was presented at The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society’s (TMS) 132nd Annual Conference, held in San Diego, California, in March of 2003. The paper describes a study conducted at Product Technologies, one of EPA’s magnesium die casting partners, to measure SF6 degradation and by-products in typical hot-chambered die casting equipment.
- In October 2000, the International Magnesium Association (IMA) and US EPA commenced a collaborative research project with SINTEF Materials Technology in Trondheim, Norway, for the purpose of identifying and testing magnesium melt protection alternatives to sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SINTEF’s report details the main findings of the collaborative project. In short the research findings can be summarized as:
- Three promising SF6 replacements, HFC 134a, HFE 7100 and Novec™612, have been identified and tested in both laboratory and pilot scale for their relative technical and environmental performances.
- All three tested compounds (HFC 134a, HFE 7100 and Novec™612) provide technically better melt protection than SF6 under identical testing conditions.
- All three replacement compounds provide a lower total greenhouse gas impact than SF6.
- It is suggested that, for a site implementation of a new cover gas blend, a gas “optimization” - based on technical and environmental performance but with an element of economic consideration - is necessary.
- View the Report in PDF format:
- Building a Bridge for Climate Protection: U.S. EPA and the Magnesium Industry (PDF) (6 pp, 23K), by Scott C. Bartos (email@example.com)
This paper was presented at the 59th Annual World Magnesium Conference, held in Montreal, Canada by the International Magnesium Association (IMA) in May of 2002. The paper briefly describes the issues surrounding climate change and the magnesium industry, and gives an overview of the SF6 Emission Reduction Partnership for the magnesium industry.
- Update On EPA’s Magnesium Industry Partnership For Climate Protection (PDF) (8 pp, 30K), by Scott C. Bartos (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Presented at the 131st TMS Annual Meeting, February 17-21, 2002 Seattle, Washington.
Emissions Tracking & Reporting
- Throughout the Partnership, EPA’s magnesium industry partners estimated their annual emissions of SF6 in a manner consistent with the IPCC’s Good Practice Guidance and reported their emissions to EPA by March 15 each year. You may download the Partnership’s Microsoft XL-based emission tracking and reporting tool (MS Excel, 9.1MB). Please also refer to the detailed instructions for proper installation and use of the tool (PDF) (13 pp, 611K).
- Under the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, beginning in 2011, magnesium production and processing facilities that meet the applicability criteria are required to estimate and report their GHG emissions. For more information on EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, please see: http://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting.
- EPA collaborated with the International Magnesium Association (IMA), China Magnesium Association (CMA), and Japan Magnesium Association (JMA) to write and publish this technical brochure discussing climate-friendly magnesium melt protection technologies. The Alternatives to SF6 for Magnesium Melt Protection brochure, published in three languages, was introduced to the industry and public at the 63rd Annual World Magnesium Conference in Beijing, China on May 21, 2006.
- The U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory In Brief Brochure (PDF) (8 pp, 2.2MB)
This brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory. Individual greenhouse gases and the emissions sectors are described In Brief. The Fast Facts card provides a summary of data from the most recent “Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks”. Frequently used reference tables and conversions are also provided in this handy brochure.
If you would like to receive free copies of this brochure and Fast Facts card, call the National Center for Environmental Publications and Information at 1-800-490-9198, reference document number EPA 430-F-02-008 (April 2002) or order online.
Method for Quantifying SF6 Emissions
- IPCC Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories See Chapter 3 - Industrial Processes - for discussion of SF6 Emissions from the Magnesium Industry.
- EPA’s Greenhouse Reporting Program See subpart T (Magnesium Production) for GHG emissions calculation methods.