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Microbiological and Chemical Exposure Assessment Staff

Jay L. Garland

Title: Division Director

EPA Division: Microbiological and Chemical Exposure Assessment Research Division

EPA Branch: Immediate Office

Dr. Garland worked for over 20 years on NASA’s efforts to develop regenerative, closed-loop life support systems, including testing of recycling systems based on plants and microorganisms, before joining EPA’s Office of Research and Development in 2011. He has authored over 100 scientific papers on various topics, including methods for microbial community analysis, the ecology of plant-associated microorganisms and the recycling of solid and liquid wastes in plant growth systems. His work is committed to the development of sustainable systems using sound ecological principles and innovative technology.


  • Ph.D. Environmental Science, University of Virginia, 1991
  • M.S. Biology (Aquatic Ecology), Virginia Tech, 1985
  • B.S. Zoology, Ohio State University, 1983

Professional Experience:

  • Division Director, USEPA, ORD, NERL-MCEARD, Cincinnati, OH 2011-present
  • Chief Scientist, Biological Program Manager, Dynamac Corporation, Kennedy Space Center, FL 1991-2011

Professional Societies and Affiliations:

  • Courtesy Associate Professor, University of Florida Department of Soil and Water Science (2003-current)
  • Adjunct Faculty Member, University of Tennessee Center for Environmental Biotechnology (1998-present)
  • Visiting Research Fellow, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Amori, Japan. (2005)
  • Visiting Professor, University of Buenos Aires (Buenos Aires, Argentina) (2001-present)
  • Visiting Professor, National University of the South (Bahia Blanca, Argentina) (2010)
  • Guest Professor, University of Innsbruck (Innsbruck, Austria). (2002)
  • American Society of Microbiology International Professorship. (2008)

Select Awards and Honors:

  • NASA Peer Award for exemplary mentoring NASA Planetary Biology Interns (2005)
  • NASA Certificate of Appreciation for setting the highest standard for peer-reviewed publications (2004)
  • NASA Space Flight Awareness Honoree for dedication in support of the space program (2003)
  • NASA Certificate of Recognition for creative development of technical innovation (2003)
  • NASA Certificate of Recognition for creative development of technically significant software (2002)
  • NASA Certificate of Recognition for creative development of technical innovation (1999)
  • Arch T. Colwell Merit Award (1993) Presented to outstanding papers presented at Society for Mobility Engineering Meetings. Garland et al. (1993) paper was 1 of 12 selected from over 2300 papers published at SAE meetings
  • Outstanding Presentation (1991) University of Virginia Environmental Sciences Research Forum. Fred H. Moore Research Fellowship (1991) University of Virginia Environmental Science Dept.,
  • NASA Graduate Student Fellow (1988-1991)
  • NASA Certificate of Recognition for Technical Innovation (1988)

Select Presentations:

  • The Microbiome of Long Term Human Space Missions. Keynote Address to the Annual Meeting of the Danish Microbiological Society. Copenhagen, Denmark (November 2011)
  • Soil Microbial Diversity: Can We See the Forest Amidst the Trees, Plenary Lecture, Argentinean Congress of Microbiology Buenos Aires, Argentina (October 2010)
  • Sustainable, Decentralized Approaches to Water Use. Army Office of Research Workshop on Sustainability. Raleigh. North Carolina (September 2007)
  • The Microbiology of Advanced Life Support Systems. Symposium on Spaceflight Microbiology at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Microbiology. Toronto, Canada (May 2007)
  • "Physiological Profiling of Microbial Communities", Symposium on Functional and Genetic Characterization of Microbial Communities held at the Faculty of Sciences at the Lisbon University Lisbon, Portugal (September 2005)
  • "Microbial Functions in Space", AIAA Humans in Space Symposium. Graz, Austria (May 2005)
  • "Microorganisms and Sustainable Systems" Science and Engineering Challenges to the Development of Sustainable Biobased Industries Training Program. Cornell University Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering. Ithaca, New York (September 2004)
  • "The Assembly of Microbial Communities in Spaceflight Systems: Theory, Experience, and Research Needs". International Space Life Sciences Working Group (ISLSWG) International Workshop on Microbial Ecology and the Space Environment. Tokyo, Japan. (November 2002).
  • "The Microbial Ecology of Prototype Bioregenerative Life Support Systems", Symposium on Extraterrestrial Microbiology at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Microbiology. Salt Lake City, Utah. (May 2002)
  • "Quantifying and Manipulating Microbial Diversity Through Dilution/Extinction". Lund University Microbial Ecology Seminar Series. Lund, Sweden. (May 2002)

Select Publications:

  • Garland, J.L., M.C. Zabaloy, M. Birmele, C. Mackowiak, M. Lehman, and S.D. Frey. 2012 Examining N-limited Soil Microbial Activity using Community Level Physiological Profiling based on O2 consumption. Soil Biology Biochemistry 47:46-52
  • Jaroch, D., E. McLamore, W. Zhang, J., Shi, J. Garland, M.K. Banks, D.M. Porterfield, and J.L. Rickus. 2011. Cell mediated deposition of porous silica on bacterial biofilms. Biotech. Bioengineer. 108:2249-2260
  • Montecchia, M.S., O.,S. Correa, M.A. Soria, S.D. Frey, A.F. Garcia, and J.L. Garland. 2011 Multivariate approach to characterizing soil microbial communities in pristine and agricultural sites in Northwest Argentina. Applied Soil Ecology 47:176-183
  • Phlips, E,J., S. Badylak, M. Christman, J. Wolny, J. Brame, J. Garland, L. Hall, J. Hart, J.Landsberg, M. Lasi, J.Lockwood, R. Paperno, D.Scheidt, A.Staples, and K.Steidinger 2010. Scales of temporal and spatial variability in the distribution of harmful algaes species in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA Harmful Algae 10: 277–290
  • Zabaloy, M.C., J.L. Garland and M.A. Gomez. 2010. Assessment of the impact of 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on indigenous herbicide-degrading bacteria and microbial community function in an agricultural soil. Applied Soil Ecology 46:240-246
  • Garland, J.L., C.L. Mackowiak, and M.C. Zabaloy. 2010. Organic waste amendment effects on soil microbial activity in a corn–rye rotation: Application of a new approach to community-level physiological profiling. Applied Soil Ecology 44:262-269)
  • Tansel, B., Sager, J., Garland, J., Xu, S. 2009. Effect of Transmembrane Pressure on Overall Membrane Resistance during Cross Flow Filtration of Solutions with High Ionic Content. Journal of Membrane Science 328:205-210
  • Kilminster, K. and J. Garland 2009. Aerobic heterotrophic microbial activity associated with seagrass roots: effects of plant type and nutrient amendment. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 57:57-68
  • Brown, A., J.L. Garland, and F. P. Day. 2009. Physiological Profiling of Soil Microbial Communities in a Florida Scrub-oak Ecosystem: Spatial Distribution and Nutrient Limitations. Microbial Ecology. 57:14-24
  • Zabaloy, M.C., S.D. Frey, R. M. Lehman, and J. L. Garland . 2008 Optimization of an Oxygen-Based Approach for Community-Level Physiological Profiling of Soils. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 40:2960-2969
  • Tansel, B., Sager, J., Garland, J., Xu, S., Levine, L., Bisbee, P. 2008. Biofouling Affinity of Membrane Surfaces under Quiescent Conditions. Desalination, Vol. 227, pp. 264-273, 2008.
  • Zabaloy, M.C., J.L. Garland, and M.A. Gomez.. 2008. An Integrated Approach to Evaluate the Impacts of the Herbicides Glyphosate, 2,4-D and Metsulfuron-methyl on Soil Microbial Communities in the Pampas Region, Argentina. Applied Soil Ecology 40:1-12
  • Birmele, M., S. Ripp, P.Jegier, M.S. Roberts, G. Sayler, and J.L. Garland. 2008. Characterization and validation of a bioluminescent bioreporter for the direct detection of Escherichia coli. Journal of Microbiological Methods 75: 354–356
  • Smith, D.P., T. Rector, K. Reid-Black, M.Hummerick, R. Strayer, M.Birmele, M.S. Roberts, and J L. Garland. 2008. Redox Control Bioreactor: A Unique Biological Water Processor. Biotechnology & Bioengineering 99:830-845
  • Sharvelle, S. J.L Garland, and M. K. Banks. 2008 Biodegradation of Polyalcohol Ethoxylate by a Wastewater Microbial Consortium. Biodegradation 19:215-221
  • Garland, J.L. 2007. Microbial functions in space: Mars transit to early planetary base exploration missions. Acta Actronautica 60:518-524
  • Cook, K.L., J.L. Garland, A.C. Layton, H.M. Dionisi, L.F. Levine, and G.S. Saylor. 2006 Effect of Structural Diversity on System Stability and Processes in a Model Rhizosphere-Based Wastewater Processing System. Microbial Ecology 52:725-737
  • B. Tansel, J. Sager, J. Garland, S. Xu, L. Levine, and P. Bisbee. 2006. Deposition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and microtopographical changes on membrane surfacxes during intermittent filtration conditions. Journal of Membrane Science 285:225-231
  • Birmele, M., M. Roberts, and J. Garland 2006. Characterization of methods for determining sterilization efficacy and reuse efficiency of oxygen biosensor multiwell plates. J. Microbiological Methods. 67:619-623
  • Rector, T.J., J.L. Garland, and S.O. Starr. 2006. Dispersion characteristics of a rotating hollow fiber membrane bioreactor: Effects of module packing density and rotational frequency. Journal of Membrane Science 278:144-150
  • Ripp, S. P. Jegier, M. Birmele, M., C.M.Johnson, K.A. Daumer, A. Fraley, J. L. Garland, and G. S. Sayler. 2006. Linking bacteriophage infection to quorum sensing signaling and bioluminescent bioreporter monitoring for direct detection of bacterial agents. J. Applied Microbiology 100:488-499
  • Vega, E., J. Smith, J. Garland, A. Martos, and S.D. Pillai. 2005. Variability of virus attachment patterns to buterhead lettuce. J. Food Protection 68:2112-2117
  • Matos, A. L. Kerkhof, and J.L. Garland. 2005. Effects of microbial community diversity on the survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the wheat rhizosphere. Microbial Ecology 49:257-264
  • Väisänen, R.K., M.S. Roberts, J.L. Garland, S.D. Frey, and L.A. Dawson. 2005. Physiological and molecular characterization of microbial communities associated with different water-stable aggregate size fractions. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 37:2007-2016
  • Tansel, B., J. Sager, J. Garland, R.F. Strayer, L. Levine, M. Roberts, M. Hummerick, and J. Bauer. 2005. Integrated evaluation of a sequential membrane filtration system for recovery of bioreactor effluent during long space missions. Journal of Membrane Science 255:117-124.
  • Garland, J.L., T. Rector, and M. Anderson. 2005. The Effects of Alternative Biological Primary Processing Approaches on the Efficiency of an Integrated Water Processing System. SAE Paper # 2005-ICES-160
  • Levine, L.H., J. L. Garland and J. V. Johnson. 2005. Simultaneous quantification of poly-dispersed *anionic, amphoteric and nonionic surfactants in waste water samples using C18-HPLC-quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A. 1062:217-225
  • Matos, A., and J.L. Garland. 2005. The Effects of Community versus Single Strain Inoculants on the Biocontrol of Salmonella and Microbial Community Dynamics in Alfalfa Sprouts. Journal of Food Protection 68:40-48
  • Gomez, E., J.L. Garland, and M.S. Roberts. 2004. Microbial structural diversity estimated by dilution-extinction of phenotypic traits along a land-use intensification gradient. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 49:253-259
  • Blum, L., M.S. Roberts, J.L. Garland, and A.L. Mills. 2004. Distribution of microbial communities associated with the dominant high marsh plant and sediments of the United States East Coast. Microbial Ecology 48:375-388
  • Rector, T., J. Garland, R. Strayer, M. Hummerick, M. Robert and L. Levine. Design and preliminary evaluation of a novel gravity independent rotating biological membrane reactor. 2004 34th ICES. SAE paper # 2004-01-2463
  • Roberts, M.S, J.L. Garland, and A.L. Mills. 2004. Microbial Astronauts: Assembling Microbial Communities for Advanced Life Support Systems. Microbial Ecology 4:137-149
  • Gomez E. , J.L. Garland and M. Conti. 2004. Reproducibility in the response of soil bacterial community-level physiological profiles from a land use intensification gradient. Applied Soil Ecology 26:21-30
  • Garland, J.L., L. H. Levine, N. C. Yorio, and M.E. Hummerick 2004. Response of Graywater Recycling Systems Based on Hydroponic Plant Growth to Three Classes of Surfactants Water Research 38:1952-1962
  • Ripp, S., K. A. Daumer, T. McKnight, L. H. Levine, J. L. Garland, M. L. Simpson, and G. S. Sayler. 2003. Bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit sensing of microbial volatile organic compounds. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology 30(11): 636-642.
  • Garland, J.L. M. S. Roberts, L.H.Levine, and A. L. Mills. 2003. Community-Level Physiological Profiling Using an Oxygen-Sensitive Fluorophore in a Microtiter Plate. Applied & Environmental Microbiology 69:2994-2998
  • Matos, A., J.L. Garland, and W. Fett. 2002. Composition and physiological profiling of sprout-associated microbial communities. Journal of Food Protection 65:1903-1908
  • Klamer, M., M.S. Roberts, L.H. Levine, B.G. Drake, and J.L. Garland. 2002. Influence of elevated CO2 on the fungal community in a coastal scrub oak forest soil investigated with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Applied & Environmental Microbiology 68:4370-4376
  • Strayer, R.F., B.W. Finger, M.P. Alazraki, K. Cook, and J.L. Garland. 2002. Recovery of resources for advanced life support applications: effect of retention time on biodegradation of two crop residues in fed-batch, continuous stirred tank reactor. Bioresource Technology 84:119-127
  • Garland, J.L., M.P. Hummerick, L.H. Levine, and V. Krumins. 2002. The effect of microbial growth on feed stability and delivery in a denitrifying fixed bed reactor designed for space flight to recycle graywater. SAE Technical Paper 02-01-2354
  • Garland, J.L. and L.H. Levine. 2002. Cleansing agents for human hygiene in space travel: considerations for biological processing of water. SAE Technical Paper 02-01-2352
  • Kish, A.L., M.P. Hummerick, M.S. Roberts, J.L. Garland, S. Maxwell, and A.L. Mills 2002. Biostability and microbiology of shuttle crew refuse. SAE Technical Paper 02-01-2356
  • Levine, L.H., J.L. Garland, and J.V. Johnson. 2002. HPLC/ESI-Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry for Characterization and Direct Quantification of Amphoteric and Nonionic Surfactants in Aqueous Samples Analytical Chemistry 74: 2064-2071
  • O’Connell, S.P. and J.L. Garland. 2002 Dissimilar response of microbial communities in Biolog GN and GN2 plates. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34:413-416
  • Garland, J.L., K.L. Cook, J.L. Adams, and L. Kerkhof. 2001. Culturability as an indicator of succession in microbial communities. Microbial Ecology 42:150-158
  • Garland, J.L., A.L. Mills, and J.S. Young. 2001 Relative effectiveness of kinetic analysis versus single point readings for classifying environmental samples based on community-level physiological profiles (CLPP). Soil Biol. Biochem. 33:1059-1066
  • Hummerick, M.P., J.J. Judkins, J.L. Garland, and L.H. Levine. 2001. Microbial requirements for optimal surfactant degradation in a denitrifying, fixed-bed reactor. SAE Technical Paper 012206
  • Franklin, R.B., J.L. Garland, C.H. Bolster, and A.L. Mills. 2000. The impact of dilution on microbial community structure and functional potential: a comparison of numerical simulations and batch culture experiments, Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67:702-712
  • Garland, J.L., L. Levine, N. C. Yorio, J. L. Adams, and K. L. Cook. 2000. Graywater processing in recirculating hydroponic systems: phytotoxicity, surfactant degradation, and bacterial dynamics Water Research 34:3075-3086
  • Kerkhof, L., M. Santoro, and J.L. Garland. 2000 Molecular characterization of baceria in the rhizosphere during processing of hygiene water by a plant production system. FEM Microb. Lett. 194:95-101.
  • Levine, L.H., J. Judkins, and J.L. Garland. 2000. Determination of anionic surfactants during wastewater recycling by ion-pair chromotagraphy with suppressed conductivity detection. J. of Chromotagraphy 874:207-215
  • Garland, J.L. and R.M. Lehman. 1999. Dilution/extinction of community phenotypic characters to estimate relative structural diversity in mixed communities. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 30:333-343

Published & Presented Research (1999-Present)

Contact Info:

Jay Garland
Microbiological and Chemical Exposure Assessment Research Division
National Exposure Research Laboratory
Office of Research and Development
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
27 W. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45268

Telephone: 513-569-7334

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