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As nanotechnology progresses from research and development to commercialization and use, it is likely that manufactured nanomaterials and nanoproducts might result in exposure to humans. Potential sources of human exposure to nanomaterials include workers exposed during the production and use of nanomaterials, general population exposure from releases to the environment during the production or use in the workplace, and direct general population exposure during the use of commercially available products containing nanoscale materials. Research is needed to identify potential sources, pathways, and routes of exposure, potential tools and models that may be used to estimate exposures, and potential data sources for these models. Tools and resources for assessing releases and exposures, including metrics and sensors, analysis of physical and chemical properties, and population sensitivities need to be developed, along with engineering controls and pollution prevention devices capable of minimizing releases and exposures to nanomaterials.