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Bibliometric Analysis for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Office of Research and Development’s Ecological Research Program
April 2007

This is a bibliometric analysis of the papers prepared by intramural and extramural researchers of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Ecological Research Program. For this analysis, 2,152 papers were reviewed, and they were published from 1996 to 2006. These publications were cited 25,677 times in the journals covered by Thomson’s Web of Science1 and Scopus2. Of these 2,152 publications, 1,850 (85.97%) have been cited at least once in a journal.

Searches of Thomson Scientific’s Web of Science and Elsevier’s Scopus were conducted to obtain times cited data for the ecological journal publications. The analysis was completed using Thomson’s Essential Science Indicators (ESI) and Journal Citation Reports (JCR) as benchmarks. ESI provides access to a unique and comprehensive compilation of essential science performance statistics and science trends data derived from Thomson’s databases. For this analysis, the ESI highly cited papers thresholds as well as the hot papers thresholds were used to assess the influence and impact of the ecological papers. JCR is a recognized authority for evaluating journals. It presents quantifiable statistical data that provide a systematic, objective way to evaluate the world’s leading journals and their impact and influence in the global research community. The two key measures used in this analysis to assess the journals in which the EPA ecological papers are published are the Impact Factor and Immediacy Index. The Impact Factor is a measure of the frequency with which the “average article” in a journal has been cited in a particular year. The Impact Factor helps evaluate a journal’s relative importance, especially when compared to other journals in the same field. The Immediacy Index is a measure of how quickly the “average article” in a journal is cited. This index indicates how often articles published in a journal are cited within the same year and it is useful in comparing how quickly journals are cited.

The report includes a summary of the results of the bibliometric analysis, an analysis of the 2,152 ecological research papers analyzed by ESI field (e.g., environment/ecology, geosciences, plant & animal science), an analysis of the journals in which the ecological papers were published, a table of the highly cited researchers in the Ecological Research Program, a list of patents that have resulted from the program, and data on the books, book chapters, and reports produced by the program.

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

  1. More than one-fifth of the ecological publications are highly cited papers. 453 (21.05%) of the ecological papers qualify as highly cited when using the ESI criteria for the top 10% of highly cited publications. This is 2.1 times the 10% of papers expected to be highly cited. 72 (3.35%) of the ecological papers qualify as highly cited when using the ESI criteria for the top 1%, which is 3.4 times the number expected. 10 (0.46%) of these papers qualify as very highly cited when using the criteria for the top 0.1%, which is nearly 5 times the number anticipated. 1 (0.05%) paper actually meets the 0.01% threshold for the most highly cited papers, which is 5 times the expected number for this program.
  2. The ecological papers are more highly cited than the average paper. Using the ESI average citation rates for papers published by field as the benchmark, in 18 of the 20 fields in which the 2,152 EPA ecological papers were published, the ratio of actual to expected cites is greater than 1, indicating that the ecological papers are more highly cited than the average papers in those fields. For all 20 fields combined, the ratio of total number of cites to the total number of expected cites (25,677 to 14,822.74) is 1.73, indicating that the ecological papers are more highly cited than the average paper.
  3. More than one-fifth of the ecological papers are published in high impact journals. 447 of the 2,152 papers were published in the top 10% of journals ranked by JCR Impact Factor, representing 20.77% of EPAs ecological papers. This number is 2.1 times higher than the expected 215.2 papers. 493 of the 2,152 papers appear in the top 10% of journals ranked by JCR Immediacy Index, representing 22.91% of EPAs ecological papers. This number is 2.3 times higher than the expected 215.2 papers.
  4. Fifty-five of the ecological papers qualify as hot papers. Using the hot paper thresholds established by ESI as a benchmark, 55 hot papers, representing 2.56% of the ecological papers, were identified in the analysis. Hot papers are papers that were highly cited shortly after they were published. The number of ecological hot papers identified is 26 times higher than the expected 2.2 hot papers.
  5. The authors of the ecological papers cite themselves much less than the average author. 1,237 of the 25,677 cites are author self-cites. This 4.82% author self-citation rate is well below the accepted range of 10-30% author self-citation rate.
  6. Eighty-four of the authors of the ecological papers are included in ISIHighlyCited.com, which is a database of the worlds most influential researchers who have made key contributions to science and technology during the period from 1981 to 1999.
  7. There was 1 patent issued and 1 patent application filed by investigators from 1996 to 2006 for research that was conducted under EPAs ecological research program.
  8. The 15 books from the program were cited 1,082 times with 12 (1.11%) self-cites, the 74 book chapters were cited 582 times with 29 (4.98%) self-cites, and the 3 reports were cited 166 times with 0 (0%) self-cites. There is no ESI benchmark against which to compare these data.

Highly Cited Ecological Publications

All of the journals covered by ESI are assigned a field, and to compensate for varying citation rates across scientific fields, different thresholds are applied to each field. Thresholds are set to select highly cited papers to be listed in ESI. Different thresholds are set for both field and year of publication. Setting different thresholds for each year allows comparable representation for older and younger papers for each field.

The 2,152 ecological research papers reviewed for this analysis were published in journals that were assigned to 20 of the 22 ESI fields. The distribution of the papers among these 20 fields and the number of citations by field are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Ecological Papers by ESI Fields

ESI Field

No. of Citations

No. of EPA Papers

Average Cites/Paper

Environment/Ecology

11,695

1,094

10.69

Plant & Animal Science

4,597

439

10.47

Geosciences

2,297

168

13.67

Multidisciplinary

1,366

26

52.54

Biology & Biochemistry

1,200

59

20.34

Microbiology

975

50

19.50

Engineering

872

96

9.08

Pharmacology & Toxicology

778

19

40.95

Chemistry

578

50

11.56

Agricultural Sciences

370

18

20.56

Clinical Medicine

234

20

11.70

Social Sciences, general

212

35

6.06

Economics & Business

205

22

9.32

Computer Science

120

15

8.00

Mathematics

49

18

2.72

Molecular Biology & Genetics

48

7

6.86

Physics

35

9

3.89

Immunology

17

1

17.00

Materials Science

17

5

3.40

Neuroscience & Behavior

12

1

12.00

 

Total = 25,677

Total = 2,152

11.93

There are 453 (21.05% of the papers analyzed) highly cited EPA ecological papers in 17 of the 20 fields—Environment/Ecology, Plant & Animal Science, Geosciences, Multidisciplinary, Biology & Biochemistry, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Engineering, Microbiology, Agricultural Sciences, Chemistry, Economics & Business, Social Sciences, Clinical Medicine, Computer Science, Mathematics, Materials Science, and Physics—when using the ESI criteria for the top 10% of papers. Table 2 shows the number of EPA papers in those 17 fields that meet the top 10% threshold in ESI. Seventy-two (3.35%) of the papers analyzed qualify as highly cited when using the ESI criteria for the top 1% of papers. These papers cover 11 fields—Environment/Ecology, Multidisciplinary, Plant & Animal Science, Biology & Biochemistry, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Geosciences, Agricultural Sciences, Engineering, Social Sciences, Mathematics, and Materials Science. Table 3 shows the 72 papers by field that meet the top 1% threshold in ESI. The citations for these 72 papers are provided in Tables 4 through 14. There were 10 (0.46%) very highly cited ecological papers in the fields of Agricultural Sciences, Engineering, Environment/Ecology, Materials Science, Pharmacology & Toxicology, and Plant & Animal Science. These papers, which met the top 0.1% threshold in ESI, are listed in Table 15. One (0.05%) of the ecological papers met the top 0.01% threshold in ESI, which is eight times the expected number of papers that should meet this threshold for this analysis. This paper is listed in Table 16.

Table 2. Number of Highly Cited Ecological Papers by Field (top 10%)

ESI Field

No. of Citations

No. of Papers

Average Cites/Paper

% of Papers in Field

Environment/Ecology

6,376

175

36.43

16.00%

Plant & Animal Science

3,124

111

28.14

25.28%

Geosciences

1,473

39

37.77

23.21%

Multidisciplinary

1,350

20

67.50

76.92%

Biology & Biochemistry

777

9

86.33

15.25%

Pharmacology & Toxicology

688

8

86.00

42.11%

Engineering

633

31

20.42

32.29%

Microbiology

572

11

52.00

22.00%

Agricultural Sciences

322

7

46.00

38.89%

Chemistry

257

6

42.83

12.00%

Economics & Business

163

6

27.17

27.27%

Social Sciences, general

131

10

13.10

28.57%

Clinical Medicine

127

3

42.33

15.00%

Computer Science

114

9

12.67

60.00%

Mathematics

46

6

7.67

33.33%

Materials Science

12

1

12.00

20.00%

Physics

9

1

9.00

11.11%

 

Total = 16,174

Total = 453

35.70

21.05%

Table 3. Number of Highly Cited Ecological Papers by Field (top 1%)

ESI Field

No. of Citations

No. of Papers

Average Cites/Paper

% of EPA Papers in Field

Environment/Ecology

3,027

27

112.11

2.47%

Multidisciplinary

875

6

145.83

23.08%

Plant & Animal Science

843

16

52.69

3.64%

Biology & Biochemistry

477

2

238.50

3.39%

Pharmacology & Toxicology

455

4

113.75

21.05%

Geosciences

319

5

63.80

2.98%

Agricultural Sciences

219

3

73.00

16.67%

Engineering

192

4

48.00

4.17%

Social Sciences, general

63

2

31.50

5.71%

Mathematics

16

2

8.00

11.11%

Materials Science

12

1

12.00

20.00%

 

Total = 6,498

Total = 72

90.25

3.35%

Table 4. Highly Cited Ecological Papers in the Field of Environment/Ecology (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

151

Mason RP

Uptake, toxicity, and trophic transfer of mercury in a coastal diatom. Environmental Science & Technology 1996;30(6):1835-1845.

170

Morel FMM

The chemical cycle and bioaccumulation of mercury. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 1998;29:543-566.

480

Carpenter SR

Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecological Applications 1998;8(3):559-568.

209

Huston MA

Local processes and regional patterns: appropriate scales for understanding variation in the diversity of plants and animals. Oikos 1999;86(3):393-401.

295

Stohlgren TJ

Exotic plant species invade hot spots of native plant diversity. Ecological Monographs 1999;69(1):25-46.

332

Lonsdale WM

Global patterns of plant invasions and the concept of invisibility. Ecology 1999;80(5):1522-1536.

94

Pickett STA

Urban ecological systems: linking terrestrial ecological, physical, and socioeconomic components of metropolitan areas. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 2001;32:127-157.

131

Phillips DL

Uncertainty in source partitioning using stable isotopes. Oecologia 2001;127(2):171-179.

192

Di Toro DM

Biotic ligand model of the acute toxicity of metals. 1. Technical basis. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2001;20(10):2383-2396.

308

Sakai AK

The population biology of invasive species. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 2001;32:305-332.

63

Wu JG

Key issues and research priorities in landscape ecology: an idiosyncratic synthesis. Landscape Ecology 2002;17(4):355-365.

83

Phillips DL

Incorporating concentration dependence in stable isotope mixing models. Oecologia 2002;130(1):114-125.

44

Mazdai A

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in maternal and fetal blood samples. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(9):1249-1252.

44

Cade BS

A gentle introduction to quantile regression for ecologists. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2003;1(8):412-420.

47

Law BE

Changes in carbon storage and fluxes in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine. Global Change Biology 2003;9(4):510-524.

31

Zhu LY

Temporal trends and spatial distributions of brominated flame retardants in archived fishes from the Great Lakes. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(10):2779-2784.

41

Li HB

Use and misuse of landscape indices. Landscape Ecology 2004;19(4):389-399.

42

Wu JG

Effects of changing scale on landscape pattern analysis: scaling relations. Landscape Ecology 2004;19(2):125-138.

52

Gurevitch J

Are invasive species a major cause of extinctions? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 2004;19(9):470-474.

141

Hites RA

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the environment and in people: a meta-analysis of concentrations. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(4):945-956.

15

Zhu LY

Brominated flame retardants in sediment cores from lakes Michigan and Erie. Environmental Science & Technology 2005;39(10):3488-3494.

17

Hoh E

Brominated flame retardants in the atmosphere of the east-central United States. Environmental Science & Technology 2005;39(20):7794-7802.

21

Bossdorf O

Phenotypic and genetic differentiation between native and introduced plant populations. Oecologia 2004;144(1):1-11.

4

Stoddard JL

Setting expectations for the ecological condition of streams: The concept of reference condition. Ecological Applications 2006;16(4):1267-1276.

4

Kania-Korwel I

Distribution of chiral PCBs in selected tissues in the laboratory rat. Environmental Science & Technology 2006;40(12):3704-3710.

8

Groffman P

Ecological thresholds: the key to successful environmental management or an important concept with no practical application? Ecosystems 2006;9(1):1-13.

8

Garrison AW

Probing the enantioselectivity of chiral pesticides. Environmental Science & Technology 2006;40(1):16-23.

Table 5. Highly Cited Ecological Papers in the Field of Multidisciplinary (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

236

Matson PA

Agricultural intensification and ecosystem properties. Science 1997;277(5325):504-509.

228

Stoddard JL

Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe. Nature 1999;401(6753):575-578.

124

Wolfenbarger LL

Biotechnology and ecology–The ecological risks and benefits of genetically engineered plants. Science 2000;290(5499):2088-2093.

90

Clark JS

Ecological forecasts: an emerging imperative. Science 2001;293(5530):657-660.

90

McKane RB

Resource-based niches provide a basis for plant species diversity and dominance in arctic tundra. Nature 2002;415(6867):68-71.

107

Kolar CS

Ecological predictions and risk assessment for alien fishes in North America. Science 2002;298(5596):1233-1236.

Table 6. Highly Cited Ecological Papers in the Field of Plant & Animal Science (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

109

Hairston NG

Zooplankton egg banks as biotic reservoirs in changing environments. Limnology and Oceanography 1996;41(5):1087-1092.

182

Burkholder JM

Pfiesteria piscicida and other Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates: behavior, impacts, and environmental controls. Limnology and Oceanography 1997;42(5):1052-1075.

99

Moran MA

Carbon loss and optical property changes during long-term photochemical and biological degradation of estuarine dissolved organic matter. Limnology and Oceanography 2000;45(6):1254-1264.

126

Zak DR

Elevated atmospheric CO2, fine roots and the response of soil microorganisms: a review and hypothesis. New Phytologist 2000;147(1):201-222.

61

Sponseller RA

Relationships between land use, spatial scale and stream macroinvertebrate communities. Freshwater Biology 2001;46(10):1409-1424.

68

Burkholder JM

Overview and present status of the toxic Pfiesteria complex (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 2001;40(3):186-214.

71

Wiens JA

Riverine landscapes: taking landscape ecology into the water. Freshwater Biology 2002;47(4):501-515.

41

Roy AH

Stream macroinvertebrate response to catchment urbanisation (Georgia, USA). Freshwater Biology 2003;48(2):329-346.

42

Andersen CP

Source-sink balance and carbon allocation below ground in plants exposed to ozone. New Phytologist 2003;157(2):213-228.

14

Roepke TA

Estradiol and endocrine disrupting compounds adversely affect development of sea urchin embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations. Aquatic Toxicology 2005;71(2):155-173.

4

Corstanje R

Typha latifolia and Cladium jamaicense litter decay in response to exogenous nutrient enrichment. Aquatic Botany 2006;84(1):70-78.

4

Howarth RW

Nitrogen as the limiting nutrient for eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems: evolving views over three decades. Limnology and Oceanography 2006;51(1):364-376.

4

Wang L

Effects of levels of human disturbance on the influence of catchment, riparian, and reach-scale factors on fish assemblages. American Fisheries Society Symposium 2006;2006(48):199-219.

4

Paerl HW

Anthropogenic and climatic influences on the eutrophication of large estuarine ecosystems. Limnology and Oceanography 2006;51(1):448-462.

5

Herlihy AT

Landscape clusters based on fish assemblages in the conterminous USA and their relationship to existing landscape classifications. American Fisheries Society Symposium 2006;2006(48):87-112.

9

Kaufmann PR

Geomorphic and anthropogenic influences on fish and amphibians in pacific northwest coastal streams. American Fisheries Society Symposium 2006;2006(48):429-455.

Table 7. Highly Cited Ecological Papers in the Field of Biology & Biochemistry (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

321

Aber J

Nitrogen saturation in temperate forest ecosystems–hypotheses revisited. Bioscience 1998;48(11):921-934.

156

Driscoll CT

Acidic deposition in the northeastern United States: sources and inputs, ecosystem effects, and management strategies. Bioscience 2001;51(3):180-198.

Table 8. Highly Cited Ecological Papers in the Field of Pharmacology & Toxicology (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

235

Nimrod AC

Environmental estrogenic effects of alkylphenol ethoxylates. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 1996;26(3):335-364.

141

Oberdorster G

Pulmonary effects of inhaled ultrafine particles. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 2001;74(1):1-8.

27

Oberdorster G

Principles for characterizing the potential human health effects from exposure to nanomaterials: elements of a screening strategy. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2005;2:Art. No. 8.

52

Monteiro-Riviere NA

Multi-walled carbon nanotube interactions with human epidermal keratinocytes. Toxicology Letters 2005;155(3):377-384.

Table 9. Highly Cited Ecological Papers in the Field of Geosciences (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

86

Chase TN

Simulated impacts of historical land cover changes on global climate in northern winter. Climate Dynamics 2000;16(2-3):93-105.

69

Marchesiello P

Open boundary conditions for long-term integration of regional oceanic models. Ocean Modelling 2001;3(1-2):1-20.

84

Pielke RA

Influence of the spatial distribution of vegetation and soils on the prediction of cumulus convective rainfall. Review of Geophysics 2001;39(2):151-177.

39

Marchesiello P

Equilibrium structure and dynamics of the California Current System. Journal of Physical Oceanography 2003;33(4):753-783.

41

Cohen WB

An improved strategy for regression of biophysical variables and Landsat ETM+ data. Remote Sensing of Environment 2003;84(4):561-571.

Table 10. Highly Cited Ecological Papers in the Field of Agricultural Sciences (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

62

Goldstein AH

Effects of climate variability on the carbon dioxide, water, and sensible heat fluxes above a ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada (CA). Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 2000;101(2-3):113-129.

49

Davidson EA

Belowground carbon allocation in forests estimated from litterfall and IRGA-based soil respiration measurements. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 2002;113(1-4):39-51.

108

Law BE

Environmental controls over carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange of terrestrial vegetation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 2002;113(1-4):97-120.

Table 11. Highly Cited Ecological Papers in the Field of Engineering (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

69

Wu J

Hierarchy and scaling: extrapolating information along a scaling ladder. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 1999;25(4):367-380.

68

Douglas EM

Trends in floods and low flows in the United States: impact of spatial correlation. Journal of Hydrology 2000;240(1-2):90-105.

47

Schultz MM

Fluorinated alkyl surfactants. Environmental Engineering Science 2003;20(5):487-501.

8

Byun D

Review of the governing equations, computational algorithms, and other components of the models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Applied Mechanics Reviews 2006;59(1-6):51-76.

Table 12. Highly Cited Ecological Papers in the Field of Social Sciences, general (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

29

Irwin EG

Interacting agents, spatial externalities and the evolution of residential land use patterns. Journal of Economic Geography 2002;2(1):31-54.

34

Irwin EG

The effects of open space on residential property values. Land Economics 2002;78(4):465-480.

Table 13. Highly Cited Ecological Papers in the Field of Mathematics (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

6

Hall P

Theory for penalised spline regression. Biometrika 2005;92(1):105-118.

10

Stein ML

Space-time covariance functions. Journal of the American Statistical Association 2005;100(469):310-321.

Table 14. Highly Cited Ecological Papers in the Field of Materials Science (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

12

Teng XW

Synthesis of porous platinum nanoparticles. Small 2006;2(2):249-253.

Table 15. Very Highly Cited Ecological Papers (top 0.1%)

ESI Field

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

Agricultural Sciences

108

Law BE

Environmental controls over carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange of terrestrial vegetation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 2002;113(1-4):97-120.

Engineering

8

Byun D

Review of the governing equations, computational algorithms, and other components of the models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Applied Mechanics Reviews 2006;59(1-6):51-76.

Environment/ Ecology

480

Carpenter SR

Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecological Applications 1998;8(3):559-568.

295

Stohlgren TJ

Exotic plant species invade hot spots of native plant diversity. Ecological Monographs 1999;69(1):25-46.

332

Lonsdale WM

Global patterns of plant invasions and the concept of invisibility. Ecology 1999;80(5):1522-1536.

308

Sakai AK

The population biology of invasive species. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 2001;32:305-332.

141

Hites RA

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the environment and in people: a meta-analysis of concentrations. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(4):945-956.

Materials Science

12

Teng XW

Synthesis of porous platinum nanoparticles. Small 2006;2(2):249-253.

Pharmacology & Toxicology

52

Monteiro-Riviere NA

Multi-walled carbon nanotube interactions with human epidermal keratinocytes. Toxicology Letters 2005;155(3):377-384.

Plant & Animal Science

9

Kaufmann PR

Geomorphic and anthropogenic influences on fish and amphibians in pacific northwest coastal streams. American Fisheries Society Symposium 2006;2006(48):429-455.

Table 16. Extremely Highly Cited Ecological Paper in the Field of
Environment/Ecology (top 0.01%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

141

Hites RA

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the environment and in people: a meta-analysis of concentrations. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(4):945-956.

Ratio of Actual Cites to Expected Citation Rates

The expected citation rate is the average number of cites that a paper published in the same journal in the same year and of the same document type (article, review, editorial, etc.) has received from the year of publication to the present. Using the ESI average citation rates for papers published by field as the benchmark, in 18 of the 20 fields in which the EPA ecological papers were published, the ratio of actual to expected cites is greater than 1, indicating that the ecological papers are more highly cited than the average papers in those fields (see Table 17). For all 20 fields combined, the ratio of total number of cites to the total number of expected cites (25,677 to 14,822.74) is 1.73, indicating that the ecological papers are more highly cited than the average paper.

Table 17. Ratio of Actual Cites to Expected Cites for Ecological Papers by Field

ESI Field

Total Cites

Expected Cite Rate

Ratio

Agricultural Sciences

370

89.69

4.12

Biology & Biochemistry

1,200

711.40

1.69

Chemistry

578

458.80

1.26

Clinical Medicine

234

175.05

1.34

Computer Science

120

37.60

3.19

Economics & Business

205

79.52

2.58

Engineering

872

342.64

2.54

Environment/Ecology

11,695

8,240.65

1.42

Geosciences

2,297

1,165.41

1.97

Immunology

17

14.49

1.17

Materials Science

17

11.10

1.53

Mathematics

49

18.48

2.65

Microbiology

975

570.06

1.71

Molecular Biology & Genetics

48

171.63

0.28

Multidisciplinary

1,366

108.84

12.55

Neuroscience & Behavior

12

7.82

1.53

Pharmacology & Toxicology

778

197.31

3.94

Physics

35

61.09

0.57

Plant & Animal Science

4,597

2,244.50

2.05

Social Sciences, general

212

116.66

1.82

TOTAL

25,677

14,822.74

1.73

JCR Benchmarks

Impact Factor. The JCR Impact Factor is a well known metric in citation analysis. It is a measure of the frequency with which the “average article” in a journal has been cited in a particular year. The Impact Factor helps evaluate a journal’s relative importance, especially when compared to others in the same field. The Impact Factor is calculated by dividing the number of citations in the current year to articles published in the 2 previous years by the total number of articles published in the 2 previous years.

Table 18 indicates the number of ecological papers published in the top 10% of journals, based on the JCR Impact Factor. Four hundred forty-seven (447) of 2,152 papers were published in the top 10% of journals, representing 20.77% of EPA’s ecological papers. This indicates that more than one-fifth of the ecological papers are published in the highest quality journals as determined by the JCR Impact Factor, which is 2.1 times higher than the expected percentage.

Table 18. Ecological Papers in Top 10% of Journals by JCR Impact Factor

EPA Ecological Papers in that Journal

Journal

Impact Factor
(IF)

JCR IF Rank

12

Science

30.927

6

8

Nature

29.273

11

1

Lancet

23.407

17

1

JAMA—Journal of the American Medical Association

23.332

19

1

Trends in Ecology & Evolution

14.864

46

2

PLoS Biology

14.672

47

1

Gastroenterology

12.386

65

2

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

10.231

88

4

Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics

10.104

92

1

Pharmacology & Therapeutics

8.357

135

1

Reviews of Geophysics

7.742

152

1

Nucleic Acids Research

7.552

162

1

Molecular Biology of the Cell

6.520

198

1

Molecular Biology and Evolution

6.233

211

1

Plant Physiology

6.114

219

9

Analytical Chemistry

5.635

242

1

Human Reproduction Update

5.449

247

14

Environmental Health Perspectives

5.342

257

1

Mutation Research—Reviews in Mutation Research

5.333

259

1

Emerging Infectious Diseases

5.308

264

10

Ecology Letters

5.151

282

1

Critical Reviews in Toxicology

5.000

297

5

Ecological Monographs

4.855

320

3

Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment

4.745

334

21

Bioscience

4.708

336

1

Journal of Neurochemistry

4.604

350

2

Journal of Applied Ecology

4.594

351

3

Environmental Microbiology

4.559

355

21

Ecology

4.506

366

1

American Naturalist

4.464

376

4

Molecular Ecology

4.301

414

7

New Phytologist

4.285

417

2

Evolution

4.155

444

12

Conservation Biology

4.110

455

8

Global Change Biology

4.075

464

58

Environmental Science & Technology

4.054

467

1

International Journal of Epidemiology

4.045

470

1

Epidemiology

4.043

471

1

Journal of Physical Chemistry B

4.033

474

1

Drug Metabolism and Disposition

4.015

481

2

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta

3.897

521

3

Electrophoresis

3.850

536

1

Biochemistry

3.848

538

29

Applied and Environmental Microbiology

3.818

544

54

Ecological Applications

3.804

548

1

Langmuir

3.705

569

4

Plant Cell and Environment

3.601

606

1

American Journal of Public Health

3.566

619

4

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences

3.510

636

1

Climate Dynamics

3.468

655

1

Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences

3.467

656

1

Biosensors & Bioelectronics

3.463

658

15

Ecosystems

3.455

661

1

Carbon

3.419

672

6

Journal of Climate

3.402

681

3

Journal of Animal Ecology

3.399

682

8

Global Biogeochemical Cycles

3.373

687

2

Diversity and Distributions

3.345

696

1

Journal of Experimental Botany

3.336

701

8

Oikos

3.309

711

25

Limnology and Oceanography

3.249

725

1

Journal of Economic Geography

3.222

733

2

Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology

3.148

765

1

Reproduction

3.136

768

8

Journal of Chromatography A

3.096

779

4

Toxicological Sciences

3.088

781

1

Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology

3.080

786

2

Reviews in Fisheries Science

3.062

793

2

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

3.055

797

16

Oecologia

3.032

805

9

Water Research

3.019

810

1

Geology

2.982

833

1

Chemical Geology

2.940

851

1

Environment International

2.856

879

Total = 447

     

Immediacy Index. The JCR Immediacy Index is a measure of how quickly the average article in a journal is cited. It indicates how often articles published in a journal are cited within the year they are published. The Immediacy Index is calculated by dividing the number of citations to articles published in a given year by the number of articles published in that year.

Table 19 indicates the number of ecological papers published in the top 10% of journals, based on the JCR Immediacy Index. Four hundred ninety-three (493) of the 2,152 papers appear in the top 10% of journals, representing 22.91% of the ecological papers. This indicates that more than one-fifth of the ecological papers are published in the highest quality journals as determined by the JCR Immediacy Index, which is 2.3 times higher than the expected percentage.

Table 19. Ecological Papers in Top 10% of Journals by JCR Immediacy Index

EPA Ecological Papers in that Journal

Journal

Immediacy Index
(II)

JCR II Rank

1

Lancet

7.347

5

12

Science

6.398

7

8

Nature

5.825

11

1

JAMA-Journal of the American Medical Association

5.082

17

2

PLoS Biology

3.734

34

1

Gastroenterology

2.226

75

1

Trends in Ecology & Evolution

2.031

87

1

Molecular Biology and Evolution

1.832

109

1

International Journal of Epidemiology

1.791

111

2

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

1.746

121

1

Molecular Biology of the Cell

1.556

143

5

Ecological Monographs

1.448

158

1

Nucleic Acids Research

1.391

173

1

International Journal of Toxicology

1.309

193

1

Epidemiology

1.298

198

2

Journal of Aquatic Animal Health

1.267

206

1

Small

1.255

211

1

Global and Planetary Change

1.253

213

2

Ecology and Society

1.232

218

1

Mutation Research-Reviews in Mutation Research

1.143

251

3

Ambio

1.140

253

7

New Phytologist

1.125

257

1

Ocean Modelling

1.019

305

1

Plant Physiology

1.014

307

1

Pharmacology & Therapeutics

1.000

311

14

Environmental Health Perspectives

0.955

346

10

Ecology Letters

0.950

350

2

Fisheries

0.941

357

6

Journal of Paleolimnology

0.938

359

1

International Journal of Mass Spectrometry

0.898

386

4

Plant Cell and Environment

0.891

397

1

Human Ecology

0.879

410

10

Ecotoxicology

0.846

434

1

Emerging Infectious Diseases

0.840

440

8

Global Biogeochemical Cycles

0.838

443

1

Heredity

0.817

462

2

Diversity and Distributions

0.814

466

1

Journal of Sea Research

0.809

470

1

American Journal of Public Health

0.805

475

24

Journal of the North American Benthological Society

0.797

479

1

Biochemistry

0.777

494

1

Human Reproduction Update

0.767

497

1

Journal of Hydrometeorology

0.757

505

1

Drug Metabolism and Disposition

0.733

534

21

Bioscience

0.731

538

8

Science of the Total Environment

0.731

538

2

Journal of Applied Ecology

0.726

551

9

Analytical Chemistry

0.713

569

1

Journal of Physical Chemistry B

0.705

578

22

Freshwater Biology

0.699

582

2

Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems

0.696

585

1

Journal of Experimental Biology

0.684

601

1

Journal of Neurochemistry

0.682

604

1

American Naturalist

0.679

610

1

Chemical Geology

0.678

612

6

Ecological Engineering

0.663

640

1

Carbon

0.649

660

1

Biotropica

0.636

682

1

Climate Dynamics

0.630

695

1

Journal of Experimental Botany

0.630

695

14

Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres

0.630

695

9

Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans

0.630

695

29

Human and Ecological Risk Assessment

0.628

698

2

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta

0.622

707

21

Ecology

0.621

709

3

Environmental Microbiology

0.620

713

4

Toxicological Sciences

0.617

715

1

International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology

0.615

716

1

Langmuir

0.610

723

11

Climatic Change

0.610

723

1

Basic and Applied Ecology

0.604

729

4

Molecular Ecology

0.598

741

2

Evolution

0.597

745

1

Biosensors & Bioelectronics

0.597

745

5

Biological Conservation

0.589

761

1

Marine Geology

0.585

767

3

Journal of Animal Ecology

0.579

784

25

Limnology and Oceanography

0.566

814

4

Environmental Research

0.551

847

54

Ecological Applications

0.543

869

10

Journal of Soil and Water Conservation

0.543

869

2

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

0.542

871

58

Environmental Science & Technology

0.541

874

Total = 493

     

Hot Papers

ESI establishes citation thresholds for hot papers, which are selected from the highly cited papers in different fields, but the time frame for citing and cited papers is much shorter—papers must be cited within 2 years of publication and the citations must occur in a 2-month time period. Papers are assigned to 2-month periods and thresholds are set for each period and field to select 0.1% of papers. There were no hot papers identified for the current 2-month period (i.e., September-October 2006), but there were a number of hot papers identified from previous periods.

Using the hot paper thresholds established by ESI as a benchmark, 55 hot papers, representing 2.56% of the ecological papers, were identified in nine fields—Agricultural Sciences, Biology & Biochemistry, Economics & Business, Engineering, Environment/Ecology, Multidisciplinary, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Plant & Animal Science, and Social Sciences. The number of ecological hot papers is 26 times higher than expected. The hot papers are listed in Table 20.

Table 20. Hot Papers Identified Using ESI Thresholds

Field

ESI Hot Papers Threshold

No. of Cites in 2-Month Period

Paper

Agricultural Sciences

3

4 cites in February-March 2001

Goldstein, et al. Effects of climate variability on the carbon dioxide, water, and sensible heat fluxes above a ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada (CA). Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 2000;101(2-3):113-129.

4

4 cites in October-November 2002

Law BE, et al. Estimation of leaf area index in open-canopy ponderosa pine forests at different successional stages and management regimes in Oregon. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 2002;113(1-4):97-120.

5

6 cites in September-October 2004

Law BE, et al. Environmental controls over carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange of terrestrial vegetation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 2002;113(1-4):97-120.

Biology & Biochemistry

3

3 cites in August 2002

Poff, NL, Hart DD. How dams vary and why it matters for the emerging science of dam removal. Bioscience 2002;52(8):659-668.

Economics & Business

3

3 cites in November 2002

Irwin EG, Bockstael NE. The problem of identifying land use spillovers: measuring the effects of open space on residential property values. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 2001;83(3):698-704.

Engineering

2

3 cites in March 2002

Marcus WA. Mapping of stream microhabitats with high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery. Journal of Geographical Systems 2002;4(1):113-126.

2

2 cites in May-June 2002

Pang YB, et al. PM2.5 semivolatile organic material at Riverside, California: implications for the PM2.5 Federal Reference Method sampler. Aerosol Science and Technology 2002;36(3):277-288.

Environment/Ecology

3

3 cites in May 1998

Stoddard JL, et al. Can site-specific trends be extrapolated to a region? An acidification example for the northeast. Ecological Applications 1998;8(2):288-299.

3

3 cites in May 2000

Neff RR, et al. Impact of climate variation and change on Mid-Atlantic Region hydrology and water resources. Climate Research 2000;14(3):207-218.

Environment/Ecology

3

8 cites in May 2000

Polsky C, et al. The Mid-Atlantic Region and its climate: past, present, and future. Climate Research 2000;14(3):161-173.

7

8 cites in July-August 2000

Carpenter SR, et al. Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecological Applications 1998;8(3):559-568.

6

6 cites in September-October 2001

Glasgow HB, Burkholder JM. Water quality trends and management implications from a five-year study of a eutrophic estuary. Ecological Applications 2000;10(4):1024-1046.

3

3 cites in October 2001

Rublee PA, et al. Use of molecular probes to assess geographic distribution of Pfiesteria species. Environmental Health Perspectives 2001;109(Suppl 5):765-767.

3

3 cites in June 2002

Suter GW, et al. A methodology for inferring the causes of observed impairments in aquatic ecosystems. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2002;21(6):1101-1111.

5

14 cites in September 2002

Di Toro DM, et al. Biotic ligand model of the acute toxicity of metals. 1. Technical basis. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2001;20(10):2383-2396.

4

4 cites in September 2003

Leibowitz SG, Vining KC. Temporal connectivity in a prairie pothole complex. Wetlands 2003;23(1):13-25.

6

6 cites in September-October 2004

Law BE, et al. Changes in carbon storage and fluxes in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine. Global Change Biology 2003;9(4):510-524.

3

3 cites in June 2004

Bradley MP, Smith E. Using science to assess environmental vulnerabilities. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 2004;94(1-3):1-7.

3

3 cites in June 2004

Jackson, et al. A regional approach to projecting land-use change and resulting ecological vulnerability. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 2004;94(1-3):231-248.

3

4 cites in April 2004

Berger PA, Bolte JP. Evaluating the impact of policy options on agricultural landscapes: an alternative-futures approach. Ecological Applications 2004;14(2):342-354.

3

4 cites in April 2004

Dole D, Niemi E. Future water allocation and in-stream values in the Willamette River Basin: a basin-wide analysis. Ecological Applications 2004;14(2):355-367.

Environment/Ecology

3

9 cites in December 2004

Campbell DE. Evaluation and emergy analysis of the Cobscook Bay ecosystem. Northeastern Naturalist 2004;11:355-424.

3

3 cites in April 2004

Van Sickle J, et al. Projecting the biological condition of streams under alternative scenarios of human land use. Ecological Applications 2004;14(2):368-380.

3

5 cites in April 2004

Hulse DW, et al. Envisioning alternatives: using citizen guidance to map future land and water use. Ecological Applications 2004;14(2):325-341.

3

4 cites in April 2004

Baker JP, et al. Alternative futures for the Willamette River Basin, Oregon. Ecological Applications 2004;14(2):313-324.

3

4 cites in April 2004

Schumaker NH, et al. Projecting wildlife responses to alternative future landscapes in Oregon’s Willamette Basin. Ecological Applications 2004;14(2):381-400.

6

6 cites in March-April 2005

Cade BS, Noon BR. A gentle introduction to quantile regression for ecologists. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2003;1(8):412-420.

5

6 cites in August-September 2005

Gurevitch J, Padilla DK. Are invasive species a major cause of extinctions? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 2004;19(9):470-474.

7

13 cites in January-February 2006

Hites RA. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the environment and in people: a meta-analysis of concentrations. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(4):945-956.

3

3 cites in May-June 2006

Groffman P, et al. Ecological thresholds: the key to successful environmental management or an important concept with no practical application? Ecosystems 2006;9(1):1-13.

5

5 cites in July-August 2006

Hoh E, Hites RA. Brominated flame retardants in the atmosphere of the east-central United States. Environmental Science & Technology 2005;39(20):7794-7802.

6

8 cites in July-August 2006

Bossdorf O, et al. Phenotypic and genetic differentiation between native and introduced plant populations. Oecologia 2005;144(1):1-11.

3

3 cites in August 2006

Stoddard JL. Setting expectations for the ecological condition of streams: the concept of reference condition. Ecological Applications 2006;16(4):1267-1276.

Multidisciplinary

14

17 cites in August-September 2001

Stoddard JL, et al. Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe. Nature 1999;401(6753):575-578.

Pharmacology & Toxicology

7

9 cites in July-August 2006

Monteiro-Riviere NA, et al. Multi-walled carbon nanotube interactions with human epidermal keratinocytes. Toxicology Letters 2005;155(3):377-384.

Plant & Animal Science

3

3 cites in March 1999

Karr JR. Defining and measuring river health. Freshwater Biology 1999;41(2):221-234.

3

6 cites in September 2000

van Sickle J, Hughes RM. Classification strengths of ecoregions, catchments, and geographic clusters for aquatic vertebrates in Oregon. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 2000;19(3):370-384.

3

3 cites in September 2000

Pan YD, et al. Ecoregions and benthic diatom assemblages in Mid-Atlantic Highlands streams, USA. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 2000;19(3):518-540.

3

4 cites in July 2000

Zak DR, et al. Elevated atmospheric CO2, fine roots and the response of soil microorganisms: a review and hypothesis. New Phytologist 2000;127(1):201-222.

3

3 cites in December 2001

Watts JW, et al. Thermal, mixing, and oxygen regimes of the Salton Sea, California, 1997-1999. Hydrobiologia 2001;466(1-3):159-176.

3

10 cites in October 2001

Glasgow HB, et al. A second species of ichthyotoxic Pfiesteria (Dinamoebales, Dinophyceae). Phycologia 2001;40(3):234-245.

3

3 cites in April 2002

Rogerson A, Hauer G. Naked amoebae (Protozoa) of the Salton Sea, California. Hydrobiologia 2002;473(1-3):161-177.

6

6 cites in August-September 2004

Brooks JR, et al. Hydraulic redistribution of soil water during summer drought in two contrasting Pacific Northwest coniferous forests. Tree Physiology 2002;22(15-16):1107-1117.

3

4 cites in April 2002

Wiens JA. Riverine landscapes: taking landscape ecology into the water. Freshwater Biology 2002;47(4):501-515.

3

4 cites in April 2003

Breitburg DL, et al. The pattern and influence of low dissolved oxygen in the Patuxent River, a seasonally hypoxic estuary. Estuaries 2003;26(2A):280-297.

3

4 cites in December 2003

Hubert TD. Environmental fate and effects of the lampricide TFM: a review. Journal of Great Lakes Research 2003;29(Suppl 1):456-474.

Plant & Animal Science

4

5 cites in August-September 2004

Trudell SA, et al. Nitrogen and carbon stable isotope abundances support the myco-heterotrophic nature and host-specificity of certain achlorophyllous plants. New Phytologist 2003;160(2):391-401.

3

5 cites in September 2005

Groffman PM, et al. N processing within geomorphic structures in urban streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 2005;24(3):613-625.

3

3 cites in December 2005

Rocke T, et al. The impact of disease in the American White Pelican in North America. Waterbirds 2005;28(Sp Iss 1):87-94.

3

4 cites in December 2006

Wang L, et al. Effects of levels of human disturbance on the influence of catchment, riparian, and reach-scale factors on fish assemblages. American Fisheries Society Symposium 2006;2006(48):199-219.

3

5 cites in December 2006

Herlihy AT, et al. Landscape clusters on fish assemblages in the conterminous USA and their relationship to existing landscape classifications. American Fisheries Society Symposium 2006;2006(48):87-112.

3

8 cites in December 2006

Kaufmann PR, Hughes RM. Geomorphic and anthropogenic influences on fish and amphibians in Pacific Northwest coastal streams. American Fisheries Society Symposium 2006;2006(48):429-455.

Social Sciences, general

4

4 cites in November 2002

Irwin EG, Bockstael NE. Interacting agents, spatial externalities and the evolution of residential land use patterns. Journal of Economic Geography 2002;2(1):31-54.

3

3 cites in August-September 2004

Drake JM. Allee effects and the risk of biological invasion. Risk Analysis 2004;24(4):795-802.

4

4 cites in December 2005

Neubert MG, Parker IM. Projecting rates of spread for invasive species. Risk Analysis 2004;24(4):817-831.

Author Self-Citation

Self-citations are journal article references to articles from that same author (i.e., the first author). Because higher author self-citation rates can inflate the number of citations, the author self-citation rate was calculated for the ecological papers. Of the 25,677 total cites, 1,237 are author self-cites—a 4.8% author self-citation rate. Garfield and Sher3 found that authors working in research-based disciplines tend to cite themselves on the average of 20% of the time. MacRoberts and MacRoberts4 claim that approximately 10% to 30% of all the citations listed fall into the category of author self-citation. Kovacic and Misak5 recently reported a 20% author self-citation rate for medical literature. Therefore, the 4.8% self-cite rate for the ecological papers is well below the range for author self-citation.

Highly Cited Researchers

A search of Thomson’s ISIHighlyCited.com revealed that 84 (1.84%) of the 4,572 authors of the ecological papers are highly cited researchers. ISIHighlyCited.com is a database of the world’s most influential researchers who have made key contributions to science and technology during the period from 1981 to 1999. The highly cited researchers identified during this analysis of the ecological publications are presented in Table 21.

Table 21. Highly Cited Researchers Authoring Ecological Publications

Highly Cited Researcher

Affiliation

ESI Field

Aber, John D.

University of New Hampshire

Environment/Ecology

Allen, Herbert E.

University of Delaware

Environment/Ecology

Anderson Donald M.

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Plant & Animal Science

Ankley, Gerald

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Environment/Ecology

Berk, Richard A.

University of California–Los Angeles

Social Sciences, general

Brown, Sandra

Winrock International

Environment/Ecology

Callaghan, Terry V.

University of Sheffield

Environment/Ecology

Campana, Steven E.

Bedford Institute of Oceanography

Plant & Animal Science

Canham, Charles D.

Institute of Ecosystem Studies

Environment/Ecology

Carpenter, Stephen R.

University of Wisconsin

Environment/Ecology

Christensen, Thomas H.

Technical University of Denmark

Environment/Ecology

Cole, Jonathan J.

Institute of Ecosystem Studies

Plant & Animal Science

Coleman, David C.

University of Georgia

Environment/Ecology

Colwell, Rita R.

Canon U.S. Life Sciences, Inc.

Microbiology

Cosby, Bernard Jackson

University of Virginia

Environment/Ecology

Costanza, Robert

Gund Institute for Ecological Economics

Environment/Ecology

Cressie, Noel

Ohio State University

Mathematics

David, Mark B.

University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

Environment/Ecology

DiToro, Dominic M.

University of Delaware

Environment/Ecology

Driscoll, Charles T.

Syracuse University

Environment/Ecology

Ellstrand, Norman C.

University of California–Riverside

Environment/Ecology

Estes, Mary Clarke Kolb

Baylor College of Medicine

Microbiology

Galloway, James Neville

University of Virginia

Environment/Ecology

Gaston, Kevin J.

University of Sheffield

Environment/Ecology

Gelfand, Alan E.

Duke University

Mathematics

Gray, Jr., Leon Earl

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Pharmacology

Groffman, Peter Mark

Institute of Ecosystem Studies

Environment/Ecology

Gschwend, Philip Michael

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Environment/Ecology
Engineering

Guillette, Louis J.

University of Florida

Environment/Ecology

Hites, Ronald Atlee

Indiana University School of Public and Environmental Affairs

Environment/Ecology

Hobbs, Richard J

Murdoch University

Environment/Ecology

Holt, Robert D.

University of Florida

Environment/Ecology

Hornberger, George M.

University of Virginia

Environment/Ecology

Howarth, Robert W.

Cornell University

Environment/Ecology

Huston, Michael A.

Texas State University

Environment/Ecology

Jacob, Daniel J.

Harvard University

Geosciences

Johnson, Dale W.

University of Nevada–Reno

Environment/Ecology

Koutrakis, Petros

Harvard School of Public Health

Environment/Ecology

Lauenroth, William K.

Colorado State University

Environment/Ecology

Likens, Gene E.

Institute of Ecosystem Studies

Environment/Ecology

Lippmann, Morton

Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine

Environment/Ecology

Luthy, Richard G.

Stanford University

Environment/Ecology

McLachlan, John A.

Tulane University

Environment/Ecology

McWilliams, James C.

University of California–Los Angeles

Geosciences

Morel, François

Princeton University

Environment/Ecology

Muir, Derek C.G.

Environment Canada

Environment/Ecology

Nadelhoffer, Knute J.

University of Michigan

Environment/Ecology

Naiman, Robert J.

University of Washington

Environment/Ecology

Noss, Reed Frederick

University of Central Florida

Environment/Ecology

O’Neill, Robert V.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Environment/Ecology

Oechel, Walter C.

San Diego State University

Environment/Ecology

Ojima, Dennis Shoji

Colorado State University

Environment/Ecology

Pace, Michael L.

Institute of Ecosystem Studies

Plant & Animal Science

Paerl, Hans E.

University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill Institute of Marine Sciences

Plant & Animal Science

Pankow, James F.

Oregon Health and Science University

Environment/Ecology

Parton, William J.

Colorado State University

Environment/Ecology

Peterson, Bruce J.

Marine Biological Laboratory–Woods Hole

Environment/Ecology

Peterson, Richard E.

University of Wisconsin–Madison

Pharmacology

Pielke, Sr., Roger A.

University of Colorado

Geosciences

Pressey, Robert L.

Department of Environment and Conservation, Australia

Environment/Ecology

Prospero, Joseph M.

University of Miami

Geosciences

Reddy, K. Ramesh

University of Florida

Environment/Ecology

Running, Steven W.

University of Montana

Environment/Ecology

Sala, Osvaldo E.

Brown University

Environment/Ecology

Schimel, David S.

National Center for Atmospheric Research

Environment/Ecology

Schlesinger, William H.

Duke University

Environment/Ecology

Schwarzenbach, René P.

Vorsteher Institut für Gewässerschutz und Wassertechnologie

Environment/Ecology

Sharpley Andrew N.

USDA Agricultural Research Service

Environment/Ecology

Shaver, Gaius R.

Marine Biological Laboratory

Environment/Ecology

Sih, Andrew

University of California–Davis

Environment/Ecology

Smol, John P.

Queen’s University

Plant & Animal Science

Stahl, David Allan

University of Washington

Microbiology

Stoecker, Diane K.

University of Maryland Center for Environmental Studies

Plant & Animal Science

Thompson, John N.

University of Califorinia–Santa Cruz

Environment/Ecology

Tiedje, James M.

Michigan State University

Environment/Ecology

Traina, Samuel Justin

University of California–Merced

Environment/Ecology

Turco, Richard P.

University of California–Los Angeles

Geosciences

Turner, Monica G.

University of Wisconsin–Madison

Environment/Ecology

Walker, Lawrence R.

University of Nevada–Las Vegas

Environment/Ecology

Warwick, Richard M.

Plymouth Marine Laboratory

Plant & Animal Science

Whitford, Walter G.

U.S. Department of Agriculture–Las Cruces, NM

Environment/Ecology

Wiens, John A.

Nature Conservancy

Environment/Ecology

Wofsy, Steven C.

Harvard University

Geosciences

Zepp, Richard G.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Environment/Ecology

Total = 84

   

Patents

There was 1 patent issued and 1 patent application filed by investigators from 1996 to 2006 for research that was conducted under EPA’s ecological research program. The patent and patent application are listed in Table 22.

Table 22. Patent and Patent Application from the Ecological Research Program (1996-2006)

Patent or Patent Application No.

Inventor(s)

Title

Patent/Patent Application Date

Patents that Referenced This Patent

U.S. Patent Application No. 20020182739

Sadik O, Breimer M, Masila M

Rapid detection of aromas using integrated gas chromatography with multiarray sensors

December 5, 2002

None

World Patent No. 2006037226

Cohen N Nadeau JL

Use of quantum dots for biological labels and sensors

April 13, 2006

None

Books, Book Chapters, and Reports

Fifteen books, 74 book chapters, and 3 reports produced by the program from 1996 to 2006 were included in the analysis. Of these publications, the books were cited 1,082 times with 12 (1.11%) self-cites, the book chapters were cited 582 times with 29 (4.74%) self-cites, and the reports were cited 166 times with 0 (0%) self-cites. There is no ESI benchmark against which to measure these data.

1 Thomson Scientific’s Web of Science provides access to current and retrospective multidisciplinary information from approximately 8,830 of the most prestigious, high impact research journals in the world. Web of Science also provides cited reference searching.

2 Scopus is a large abstract and citation database of research literature and quality Web sources designed to support the literature research process. Scopus offers access to 15,000 titles from 4,000 different publishers, more than 12,850 academic journals (including coverage of 535 Open Access journals, 750 conference proceedings, and 600 trade publications), 27 million abstracts, 245 million references, 200 million scientific Web pages, and 13 million patent records.

3 Garfield E, Sher IH. New factors in the evaluation of scientific literature through citation indexing. American Documentation 1963;18(July):195-210.

4 MacRoberts MH, MacRoberts BR. Problems of citation analysis: a critical review. Journal of the American Society of Information Science 1989;40(5):342-349.

5 Kavaci N, Misak A. Author self-citation in medical literature. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2004;170(13):1929-1930.

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