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Draft Bibliometric Analysis for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Office of Research and Development’s Fellowship Program (Fellowships Awarded in 1995 and 1996 Only)

 

This is a bibliometric analysis of the papers authored by the 244 individuals who received a Science To Achieve Results (STAR) or Greater Research Opportunity (GRO) Fellowship in 1995 or 1996 from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).  For this analysis, 1,257 papers were reviewed, and they were published from 1996 to 2006. These publications were cited 16,280 times in the journals covered by Thomson’s Web of Science1 and Scopus2 .  Of these 1,257 publications, 1,019 (81.07%) have been cited at least once in a journal.

Searches of Thomson Scientific’s Web of Science and Scopus were conducted to obtain times cited data for the fellows’ journal publications.  The analysis was completed using Thomson’s Essential Science Indicators (ESI) and Journal Citation Reports (JCR) as benchmarks. ESI provides access to a unique and comprehensive compilation of essential science performance statistics and science trends data derived from Thomson’s databases. For this analysis, the ESI highly cited papers thresholds as well as the hot papers thresholds were used to assess the influence and impact of the fellows’ papers. JCR is a recognized authority for evaluating journals.  It presents quantifiable statistical data that provide a systematic, objective way to evaluate the world’s leading journals and their impact and influence in the global research community. The two key measures used in this analysis to assess the journals in which the EPA fellows’ papers are published are the Impact Factor and Immediacy Index. The Impact Factor is a measure of the frequency with which the “average article” in a journal has been cited in a particular year.  The Impact Factor helps evaluate a journal’s relative importance, especially when compared to other journals in the same field.  The Immediacy Index is a measure of how quickly the “average article” in a journal is cited.  This index indicates how often articles published in a journal are cited within the same year and it is useful in comparing how quickly journals are cited. 

The report includes a summary of the results of the analysis, an analysis of the 1,257 fellows’ papers analyzed by ESI field (e.g., chemistry, environment/ecology, engineering), an analysis of the journals in which the fellows’ papers were published, a table of the highly cited researchers who were in the fellowship program, and a list of the patents and patent applications for the former fellows.

SUMMARY OF RESULTS
  1. More than one-sixth of the fellows’ publications are highly cited papers. A review of the citations indicates that 217 (17.26%) of the fellows’ papers qualify as highly cited when using the ESI criteria for the top 10% of highly cited publications. This is 1.7 times the number expected. Thirty-one (2.47%) of the fellows’ papers qualify as highly cited when using the ESI criteria for the top 1%, which is 2.5 times the number expected. Seven (0.56%) of these papers qualify as very highly cited when using the criteria for the top 0.1%, which is 5.6 times the number anticipated. None of the papers actually meet the 0.01% threshold for the most highly cited papers, which is not surprising given that the expected number of papers that would meet this threshold for this analysis is 0.12.
  2. The fellows’ papers are more highly cited than the average paper. Using the ESI average citation rates for papers published by field as the benchmark, in 15 of the 22 fields in which the EPA fellows’ papers were published, the ratio of actual to expected cites is greater than 1, indicating that the fellows’ papers are more highly cited than the average papers in those fields. For all 22 fields combined, the ratio of total number of cites to the total number of expected cites (16,280 to 10,479.32) is 1.55, indicating that the fellows’ papers are more highly cited than the average paper.
  3. One-third of the fellows’ papers are published in high impact journals. Four hundred seventy-seven (477) of the 1,257 papers were published in the top 10% of journals ranked by JCR Impact Factor, representing 37.95% of EPA fellows’ papers. This number is 3.8 times higher than expected. Four hundred nineteen (419) of the 1,257 papers appear in the top 10% of journals ranked by JCR Immediacy Index, representing 33.33% of EPA fellows’ papers. This number is 3.3 times higher than expected.
  4. Twenty of the fellows’ papers qualify as hot papers. Using the hot paper thresholds established by ESI as a benchmark, 20 hot papers, representing 1.59% of the fellows’ papers, were identified in the analysis. Hot papers are papers that were highly cited shortly after they were published. The number of fellows’ hot papers is 16 times higher than the 1.26 hot papers expected.
  5. The authors of the fellows’ papers cite themselves much less than the average author. Eight hundred forty-four (844) of the 16,280 cites are author self-cites. This 5.18% author self-citation rate is well below the accepted range of 10-30% author self-citation rate.
  6. None of the fellows are included in ISIHighlyCited.com, which is a database of the world’s most influential researchers who have made key contributions to science and technology during the period from 1981 to 1999. This result is not surprising given that the 1995-1996 fellows probably began their careers in the late 1990s.
  7. There were 13 patents issued and 31 patent applications filed by 1995-1996 EPA fellows. Ten (76.90%) of the 13 patents have been referenced by 22 other patents.

Highly Cited Fellows’ Publications

All of the journals covered by ESI are assigned a field, and to compensate for varying citation rates across scientific fields, different thresholds are applied to each field.  Thresholds are set to select highly cited papers to be listed in ESI.  Different thresholds are set for both field and year of publication. Setting different thresholds for each year allows comparable representation for older and younger papers for each field.

The 1,257 fellows’ research papers reviewed for this analysis were published in journals that were assigned to 22 of the 22 ESI fields.  The distribution of the papers among these 22 fields and the number of citations by field are presented in Table 1.

Table 1.  Fellows’ Papers by ESI Fields

ESI Field No. of Citations No. of Fellows’ Papers Average Cites/Paper
Agricultural Sciences 288 28 10.28
Biology & Biochemistry 1,528 95 16.08
Chemistry 897 58 15.46
Clinical Medicine 849 44 19.29
Computer Science 12 3 4.00
Economics & Business 131 25 5.24
Engineering 323 60 5.38
Environment/Ecology 4,573 358 12.77
Geosciences 1,838 170 10.81
Immunology 151 14 10.78
Materials Science 4 1 4.00
Mathematics 10 1 10.00
Microbiology 864 57 15.16
Molecular Biology & Genetics 328 22 14.91
Multidisciplinary 1,415 29 48.79
Neuroscience & Behavior 25 3 8.33
Pharmacology & Toxicology 394 38 10.34
Physics 108 14 7.71
Plant & Animal Science 2,343 181 12.94
Psychiatry/Psychology 16 4 4.00
Social Sciences, General 182 51 3.57
Space Science 1 1 1.00
 
Total = 16,280
Total = 1,257
12.95

There are 217 (17.26% of the papers analyzed) highly cited EPA fellows’ papers in 15 of the 22 fields—Agricultural Sciences, Biology & Biochemistry, Chemistry, Clinical Medicine, Computer Science, Economics & Business, Engineering, Environment/Ecology, Geosciences, Microbiology, Multidisciplinary, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Physics, Plant & Animal Science, and Social Sciences—when using the ESI criteria for the top 10% of papers.  Table 2 shows the number of fellows’ papers in those 15 fields that meet the top 10% threshold in ESI

Table 2.  Number of Highly Cited Fellows’ Papers by Field (top 10%)

ESI Field
Citations
No. of Papers
Average Cites/Paper
% of Fellows’ Papers in Field
Agricultural Sciences 77 2 38.50 7.14%
Biology & Biochemistry 815 12 67.92 12.63%
Chemistry 478 7 68.28 12.07%
Clinical Medicine 645 10 64.50 22.73%
Computer Science 12 2 6.00 66.67%
Economics & Business 82 3 27.33 12.00%
Engineering 191 12 15.92 20.00%
Environment/Ecology 2,531 54 46.87 15.08%
Geosciences 1,035 30 34.50 17.65%
Microbiology 241 7 34.43 12.28%
Multidisciplinary 1,390 21 66.19 72.41%
Pharmacology & Toxicology 28 1 28.00 2.63%
Physics 59 1 59.00 7.14%
Plant & Animal Science 1,640 49 33.47 27.07%
Social Sciences, general 57 6 9.50 11.76%
 
Total =  9,281
Total = 217   
42.77 17.26%

Thirty-one (2.47%) of the papers analyzed qualify as highly cited when using the ESI criteria for the top 1% of papers.  These papers cover nine fields—Agricultural Sciences, Biology & Biochemistry, Chemistry, Clinical Medicine, Engineering, Environment/Ecology, Geosciences, Multidisciplinary, and Plant & Animal Science.  Table 3 shows the 31 papers by field that meet the top 1% threshold in ESI.  The citations for these 31 papers are provided in Tables 4 through 12.  There were 7 (0.56%) very highly cited fellows’ papers in the fields of Environment/Ecology, Multidisciplinary, and Plant & Animal Science. These papers, which meet the top 0.1% threshold in ESI, are listed in Table 13.  None of the fellows’ papers actually meets the top 0.01% threshold in ESI, which is not surprising given that the expected number of papers to meet this threshold for this analysis is 0.12.

Table 3.  Number of Highly Cited Fellows’ Papers by Field (top 1%)

ESI Field
Citations
No. of Papers
Average Cites/Paper
% of Fellows’ Papers in Field
Agricultural Sciences 55
1
55.00 3.57%
Biology & Biochemistry 208
1
208.00 1.05%
Chemistry 311
2
155.50 3.45%
Clinical Medicine 265
1
265.00 2.27%
Engineering 55
1
55.00 1.67%
Environment/Ecology 994
8
124.25 2.23%
Geosciences 116
2
58.00 1.18%
Multidisciplinary 882
6
147.00 20.69%
Plant & Animal Science 685
9
76.11 4.97%

 

Total = 3,571
Total = 31 
115.19 2.47%

Table 4.  Highly Cited Fellows’ Paper in the Field of Agricultural Sciences (top 1%)

No. of Cites
First Author
Paper
55
Call DR Detecting and genotyping Escherichia coli O157 : H7 using multiplexed PCR and nucleic acid microarrays.  International Journal of Food Microbiology 2001;67(1-2):71-80.

Table 5.  Highly Cited Fellows’ Paper in the Field of Biology & Biochemistry (top 1%)

No. of Cites
First Author
Paper
208
Hanson PJ Separating root and soil microbial contributions to soil respiration: a review of methods and observations.  Biogeochemistry 2000;48(1):115-146.

Table 6.  Highly Cited Fellows’ Papers in the Field of Chemistry (top 1%)

No. of Cites
First Author
Paper
117
Zhou YF Preparation of hyperbranched polymer films grafted on self-assembled monolayers.  Journal of the American Chemical Society 1996;118(15):3773-3774.
194
Wells M Interactions between organized, surface-confined monolayers and vapor-phase probe molecules .10. Preparation and properties of chemically sensitive dendrimer surfaces.  Journal of the American Chemical Society 1996;118(16):3988-3989.

Table 7.  Highly Cited Fellows’ Paper in the Field of Clinical Medicine (top 1%)

No. of Cites
First Author
Paper
265
vom Saal FS A physiologically based approach to the study of bisphenol A and other estrogenic chemicals on the size of reproductive organs, daily sperm production, and behavior.  Toxicology and Industrial Health 1998;14(1-2):239-260.

Table 8.  Highly Cited Fellows’ Paper in the Field of Engineering (top 1%)

No. of Cites
First Author
Paper
55
Wiedensohlet A Intercomparison study of the size-dependent counting efficiency of 26 condensation particle counters. Aerosol Science and Technology 1997;27(2):224-242.

Table 9.  Highly Cited Fellows’ Papers in the Field of Environment/Ecology (top 1%)

No. of Cites
First Author
Paper
253
Follmar LC Vitellogenin induction and reduced serum testosterone concentrations in feral male carp (Cyprinus carpio) captured near a major metropolitan sewage treatment plant.  Environmental Health Perspectives 1996;104(10):1096-1101.
384
Nagel SC Relative binding affinity serum modified access (RBA-SMA) assay predicts the relative in vivo bioactivity of the xenoestrogens bisphenol A and octylphenol.  Environmental Health Perspectives 1997;105(1):70-76.
76
Bowling DR C-13 content of ecosystem respiration is linked to precipitation and vapor pressure deficit.  Oecologia 2002;131(1):113-124.
85
Dunne JA Network structure and biodiversity loss in food webs: robustness increases with connectance. Ecology Letters 2002;5(4):558-567.
48
Nathan R Methods for estimating long-distance dispersal. Oikos 2003;103(2):261-273.
51
Welshons WV Large effects from small exposures. I. Mechanisms for endocrine-disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(8):994-1006.
92
Leibold MA The metacommunity concept: a framework for multi-scale community ecology. Ecology Letters 2004;7(7):601-613.
5
Sidle RC Erosion processes in steep terrain - Truths, myths, and uncertainties related to forest management in Southeast Asia.  Forest Ecology and Management 2006;224(1-2):199-225.

Table 10.  Highly Cited Fellows’ Papers in the Field of Geosciences (top 1%)

No. of Cites
First Author
Paper
66
Andrews JA Soil CO2 dynamics, acidification, and chemical weathering in a temperate forest with experimental CO2 enrichment.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles 2001;15(1):149-162.
50
Pataki DE The application and interpretation of Keeling plots in terrestrial carbon cycle research.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles 2003;17(1):Art. No. 1022.

Table 11.  Highly Cited Fellows’ Papers in the Field of Multidisciplinary (top 1%)

No. of Cites
First Author
Paper
271
vom Saal FS Prostate enlargement in mice due to fetal exposure to low doses of estradiol or diethylstilbestrol and opposite effects at high doses.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997;94(5):2056-2061.
94
Murphy DM Influence of sea-salt on aerosol radiative properties in the Southern Ocean marine boundary layer.  Nature 1998;392(6671):62-65.
193
DeLucia EH Net primary production of a forest ecosystem with experimental CO2 enrichment. Science 1999;284(5417):1177-1179.
212
Howdeshell KA Environmental toxins - Exposure to bisphenol A advances puberty.  Nature 1999;401(6755):763-764.
83
Dunne JA Food-web structure and network theory: the role of connectance and size.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99(20):12917-12922.
29
Pounds JA Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming.  Nature 2006;439(7073):161-167.

Table 12.  Highly Cited Fellows’ Papers in the Field of Plant & Animal Science (top 1%)

No. of Cites
First Author
Paper
163
DemmigAdams B Using chlorophyll fluorescence to assess the fraction of absorbed light allocated to thermal dissipation of excess excitation.  Physiologia Plantarum 1996;98(2):253-264.
95
Clark JS Interpreting recruitment limitation in forests.  American Journal of Botany 1999;86(1):1-16.
116
Rate DN The gain-of-function Arabidopsis acd6 mutant reveals novel regulation and function of the salicylic acid signaling pathway in controlling cell death, defenses, and cell growth.  Plant Cell 1999;11(9):1695-1708.
183
Cain ML Long-distance seed dispersal in plant populations.  American Journal of Botany 2000;87(9):1217-1227.
93
Weller DM Microbial populations responsible for specific soil suppressiveness to plant pathogens.  Annual Review of Phytopathology 2002;40:309.
6
Savoye N Th-234 sorption and export models in the water column: a review.  Marine Chemistry 2006;100(3-4):234-249.
6
Santschi PH Thorium speciation in seawater.  Marine Chemistry 2006;100(3-4):250-268.
9
Van der Loeff MR A review of present techniques and methodological advances in analyzing Th-234 in aquatic systems.  Marine Chemistry 2006;100(3-4):190-212.
14
Buesseler KO An assessment of particulate organic carbon to thorium-234 ratios in the ocean and their impact on the application of Th-234 as a POC flux proxy.  Marine Chemistry 2006;100(3-4):213-233.

Table 13.  Very Highly Cited Fellows’ Papers (top 0.1%)

ESI Field
No. of Cites
First Author
Paper
Environment/ Ecology
384
Nagel SC Relative binding affinity serum modified access (RBA-SMA) assay predicts the relative in vivo bioactivity of the xenoestrogens bisphenol A and octylphenol.  Environmental Health Perspectives 1997;105(1):70-76.
 
92
Leibold MA The metacommunity concept: a framework for multi-scale community ecology. Ecology Letters 2004;7(7):601-613.
Multidisciplinary
271
vom Saal FS Prostate enlargement in mice due to fetal exposure to low doses of estradiol or diethylstilbestrol and opposite effects at high doses.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997;94(5):2056-2061.
 
29
Pounds JA Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming.  Nature 2006;439(7073):161-167.
Plant & Animal Science
18
Cain ML Long-distance seed dispersal in plant populations.  American Journal of Botany 2000;87(9):1217-1227.
 
9
Van der Loeff MR A review of present techniques and methodological advances in analyzing Th-234 in aquatic systems.  Marine Chemistry 2006;100(3-4):190-212.
 
14
Buesseler KO An assessment of particulate organic carbon to thorium-234 ratios in the ocean and their impact on the application of Th-234 as a POC flux proxy.  Marine Chemistry 2006;100(3-4):213-233.

Ratio of Actual Cites to Expected Citation Rates

The expected citation rate is the average number of cites that a paper published in the same journal in the same year and of the same document type (article, review, editorial, etc.) has received from the year of publication to the present.  Using the ESI average citation rates for papers published by field as the benchmark, in 15 of the 22 fields in which the EPA fellows’ papers were published, the ratio of actual to expected cites is greater than 1, indicating that the fellows’ papers are more highly cited than the average papers in those fields (see Table 14).  For all 22 fields combined, the ratio of total number of cites to the total number of expected cites (16,280 to 10,479.32) is 1.55, indicating that the fellows’ papers are more highly cited than the average paper.

Table 14.  Ratio of Actual Cites to Expected Cites for Fellows’ Papers by Field

ESI Field
Total Cites
Expected Cite Rate
Ratio
Agricultural Sciences 288 135.71 2.12
Biology & Biochemistry 1,528 1,380.47 1.11
Chemistry 897 610.08 1.47
Clinical Medicine 849 474.51 1.79
Computer Science 12 6.88 1.74
Economics & Business 131 112.65 1.16
Engineering 323 199.94 1.62
Environment/Ecology 4,573 3,022.58 1.51
Geosciences 1,838 1,104.98 1.66
Immunology 151 257.55 0.59
Materials Science 4 2.68 1.49
Mathematics 10 5.54 1.80
Microbiology 864 608.03 1.42
Molecular Biology & Genetics 328 459.47 0.71
Multidisciplinary 1,415 116.60 12.14
Neuroscience & Behavior 25 67.82 0.37
Pharmacology & Toxicology 394 414.40 0.95
Physics 108 121.94 0.88
Plant & Animal Science 2,343 1,142.08 2.05
Psychiatry/Psychology 16 50.96 0.31
Social Sciences, General 182 174.05 1.04
Space Science 1 10.40 0.10
TOTAL
16,280
10,479.32
1.55

JCR Benchmarks

Impact Factor. The JCR Impact Factor is a well known metric in citation analysis.  It is a measure of the frequency with which the “average article” in a journal has been cited in a particular year.  The Impact Factor helps evaluate a journal’s relative importance, especially when compared to others in the same field.  The Impact Factor is calculated by dividing the number of citations in the current year to articles published in the 2 previous years by the total number of articles published in the 2 previous years. 

Table 15 indicates the number of fellows’ papers published in the top 10% of journals, based on the JCR Impact Factor.  Four hundred seventy-seven (477) of 1,257 papers were published in the top 10% of journals, representing 37.95% of the fellows’ papers. This indicates that more than one-third of the fellows’ papers are published in the highest quality journals as determined by the JCR Impact Factor, which is 3.8 times higher than the expected percentage.

Table 15.  Fellows’ Papers in Top 10% of Journals by JCR Impact Factor

Fellows’ Papers in that Journal
Journal
Impact Factor(IF)
JCR IF Rank
7
Science
30.927
6
9
Nature
29.273
11
1
JAMA-Journal of the American Medical Association
23.494
19
2
Trends in Ecology & Evolution
14.864
46
1
PLoS Biology
14.672
47
1
Trends in Genetics
12.047
68
2
Plant Cell
11.088
77
10
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
10.231
88
1
EMBO Journal
10.053
94
1
Hepatology
9.792
101
1
Circulation Research
9.408
112
1
Current Opinion in Microbiology
8.005
141
1
Cancer Research
7.616
157
1
Annual Review of Phytopathology
7.605
158
1
Nucleic Acids Research
7.552
162
1
Journal of Neuroscience
7.506
165
4
Journal of the American Chemical Society
7.419
170
2
Molecular and Cellular Biology
7.093
180
17
FASEB Journal
7.064
181
2
Plant Journal
6.969
183
1
Current Opinion in Biotechnology
6.898
186
1
Nature Methods
6.741
191
1
Clinical Infectious Diseases
6.510
199
2
Journal of Immunology
6.387
205
1
Molecular Microbiology
6.203
213
1
Thorax
6.150
216
1
Proteomics
6.088
221
1
Bioinformatics
6.019
224
1
Journal of Biological Chemistry
5.854
232
1
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
5.853
233
3
Analytical Chemistry
5.635
242
10
Environmental Health Perspectives
5.342
257
1
Endocrinology
5.313
261
1
Emerging Infectious Diseases
5.308
264
1
Developmental Biology
5.234
274
2
Drug Metabolism Reviews
5.153
281
2
Ecology Letters
5.151
282
3
Carcinogenesis
5.108
288
1
American Journal of Epidemiology
5.068
290
1
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences
4.997
300
1
Free Radical Biology and Medicine
4.971
303
1
Journal of Infectious Diseases
4.953
307
3
Ecological Monographs
4.855
320
2
Cladistics-the International Journal of the Willi Hennig Society
4.783
331
1
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
4.745
334
1
Bioscience
4.708
336
7
Molecular Pharmacology
4.612
349
2
Journal of Applied Ecology
4.594
351
1
Earth-Science Reviews
4.581
353
1
Environmental Microbiology
4.559
355
9
Ecology
4.506
366
6
American Naturalist
4.464
376
3
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
4.379
395
7
Molecular Ecology
4.301
414
3
Genetics
4.289
415
2
New Phytologist
4.285
417
1
Journal of Ecology
4.277
418
1
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
4.198
437
3
Journal of Bacteriology
4.167
440
12
Evolution
4.155
444
3
Applied Physics Letters
4.127
450
12
Conservation Biology
4.110
455
10
Global Change Biology
4.075
464
52
Environmental Science & Technology
4.054
467
6
Epidemiology
4.043
471
1
Macromolecules
4.024
479
6
Drug Metabolism and Disposition
4.015
481
1
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
3.988
488
4
Infection and Immunity
3.933
506
12
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
3.897
521
1
JAIDS-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
3.871
529
1
Laboratory Investigation
3.859
532
1
Inorganic Chemistry
3.851
535
1
Electrophoresis
3.850
536
2
Biochemistry
3.848
538
36
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
3.818
544
7
Ecological Applications
3.804
548
1
Journal of Computational Chemistry
3.786
551
3
Langmuir
3.705
569
4
Journal of Controlled Release
3.696
571
2
Journal of Nutrition
3.689
574
1
Journal of Materials Chemistry
3.688
575
1
Human Reproduction
3.669
581
1
Faraday Discussions
3.652
584
1
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry
3.640
591
3
Plant Cell and Environment
3.601
606
3
Optics Letters
3.599
608
1
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
3.591
610
1
Biology of Reproduction
3.583
615
1
Global Ecology and Biogeography
3.576
617
2
Journal of Biomedical Optics
3.557
624
1
Clinical and Experimental Allergy
3.553
625
6
Journal of Clinical Microbiology
3.537
630
1
Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences
3.510
636
2
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
3.495
643
1
Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences
3.467
656
1
Biosensors & Bioelectronics
3.463
658
4
Ecosystems
3.455
661
2
Earth and Planetary Science Letters
3.434
666
3
Journal of Climate
3.402
681
19
Global Biogeochemical Cycles
3.373
687
2
Diversity and Distributions
3.345
696
1
Developmental Dynamics
3.333
702
3
Journal of Evolutionary Biology
3.332
704
3
Oikos
3.309
711
3
Developmental and Comparative Immunology
3.261
720
15
Limnology and Oceanography
3.249
725
2
Physical Review B
3.185
746
4
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
3.152
762
4
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
3.148
765
4
Journal of Chemical Physics
3.138
767
4
Journal of Chromatography A
3.096
779
7
Toxicological Sciences
3.088
781
1
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry
3.087
782
1
BMC Biotechnology
3.054
798
1
Cancer Letters
3.049
801
9
Oecologia
3.032
805
1
Journal of Polymer Science Part A-Polymer Chemistry
3.027
807
9
Water Research
3.019
810
1
Physical Review A
2.997
827
4
Geology
2.982
833
1
Quaternary Science Reviews
2.950
847
1
Behavioral Ecology
2.943
849
2
Chemical Geology
2.940
851
2
Journal of Physical Chemistry A
2.898
862
1
Tissue Engineering
2.887
864
1
Behavioural Brain Research
2.865
875
Total = 477
 
 

Immediacy Index.  The JCR Immediacy Index is a measure of how quickly the average article in a journal is cited.  It indicates how often articles published in a journal are cited within the year they are published.  The Immediacy Index is calculated by dividing the number of citations to articles published in a given year by the number of articles published in that year.

Table 16 indicates the number of fellows’ papers published in the top 10% of journals, based on the JCR Immediacy Index.  Four hundred nineteen (419) of the 1,257 papers appear in the top 10% of journals, representing 33.33% of the fellows’ papers. This indicates that one-third of the fellows’ papers are published in the highest quality journals as determined by the JCR Immediacy Index, which is 3.3 times higher than the expected percentage.

Table 16.  Fellows’ Papers in Top 10% of Journals by JCR Immediacy Index

Fellows’ Papers in that Journal
Journal
Immediacy Index(II)
JCR II Rank
7
Science
6.398
6
9
Nature
5.825
11
1
JAMA-Journal of the American Medical Association
5.082
17
1
PLoS Biology
3.734
34
1
Nature Methods
3.305
41
1
EMBO Journal
2.198
78
2
Plant Cell
2.048
85
2
Trends in Ecology & Evolution
2.031
87
1
Fisheries Oceanography
1.980
94
1
Trends in Genetics
1.885
101
1
Faraday Discussions
1.786
112
1
Clinical Infectious Diseases
1.750
117
10
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
1.746
121
1
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences
1.742
122
1
Circulation Research
1.702
126
1
Journal of Infectious Diseases
1.547
145
1
Hepatology
1.496
151
5
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences
1.469
153
3
Ecological Monographs
1.448
158
4
Journal of the American Chemical Society
1.435
162
1
Molecular Microbiology
1.402
170
1
Nucleic Acids Research
1.391
173
2
Plant Journal
1.322
191
6
Epidemiology
1.298
198
1
Journal of Biological Chemistry
1.265
208
1
Endocrinology
1.260
210
1
Journal of Neuroscience
1.254
212
1
Global and Planetary Change
1.253
213
1
Ecology and Society
1.232
218
1
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
1.200
227
2
Molecular and Cellular Biology
1.181
238
17
FASEB Journal
1.181
238
1
AMBIO
1.140
253
2
New Phytologist
1.125
257
1
American Journal of Epidemiology
1.099
271
1
Thorax
1.097
272
2
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
1.025
298
1
Cancer Research
1.001
310
10
Environmental Health Perspectives
0.955
346
3
Journal of Evolutionary Biology
0.955
346
2
Ecology Letters
0.950
350
1
Bioinformatics
0.944
354
5
Fisheries
0.941
357
1
Current Opinion in Microbiology
0.939
358
1
Journal of Paleolimnology
0.938
359
3
Carcinogenesis
0.935
362
1
Developmental Biology
0.908
379
2
Journal of Immunology
0.906
381
1
Current Opinion in Biotechnology
0.902
382
1
International Journal of Mass Spectrometry
0.898
386
3
Plant Cell and Environment
0.891
397
3
Journal of Bacteriology
0.874
413
1
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
0.857
423
1
Proteomics
0.855
426
1
Ecotoxicology
0.846
434
1
Emerging Infectious Diseases
0.840
440
19
Global Biogeochemical Cycles
0.838
443
1
Earth-Science Reviews
0.836
445
1
Laboratory Investigation
0.828
452
3
Genetics
0.825
453
3
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
0.820
460
1
Heredity
0.817
462
2
Diversity and Distributions
0.814
466
1
Quaternary Science Reviews
0.806
474
2
Journal of the North American Benthological Society
0.797
479
1
Journal of Ecology
0.786
486
2
Biochemistry
0.777
494
4
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
0.774
495
1
Macromolecules
0.767
497
2
Cladistics-the International Journal of the Willi Hennig Society
0.765
499
1
Biology of Reproduction
0.755
507
1
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
0.745
517
1
Behavioral Ecology
0.741
521
6
Drug Metabolism and Disposition
0.733
534
1
Bioscience
0.731
538
1
Journal of Computational Chemistry
0.731
538
1
Science of the Total Environment
0.731
538
1
Journal of Materials Chemistry
0.728
545
2
Journal of Applied Ecology
0.726
551
2
International Journal of Wildland Fire
0.714
564
3
Analytical Chemistry
0.713
569
1
Inorganic Chemistry
0.713
569
4
Journal of Chemical Physics
0.710
572
2
Integrative and Comparative Biology
0.706
575
1
Free Radical Biology and Medicine
0.696
585
1
Physical Review A
0.696
585
1
Human Reproduction
0.693
596
6
American Naturalist
0.679
610
3
Chemical Geology
0.678
612
3
Developmental and Comparative Immunology
0.667
628
1
Ecological Engineering
0.663
640
1
Developmental Dynamics
0.651
658
4
Infection and Immunity
0.648
663
1
Biotropica
0.636
682
30
Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres
0.630
695
2
Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences
0.630
695
1
Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans
0.630
695
2
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment
0.628
698
12
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
0.622
707
9
Ecology
0.621
709
3
Optics Letters
0.621
709
1
Environmental Microbiology
0.620
713
7
Toxicological Sciences
0.617
715
3
Langmuir
0.610
723
2
Climatic Change
0.610
723
2
Physical Review B
0.609
725
1
JAIDS-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
0.602
734
1
Journal of the New York Entomological Society
0.600
735
7
Molecular Ecology
0.598
741
2
Journal of Nutrition
0.598
741
12
Evolution
0.597
745
1
Biosensors & Bioelectronics
0.597
745
2
Journal of Physical Chemistry A
0.595
749
1
Biological Conservation
0.589
761
1
Annual Review of Phytopathology
0.583
776
1
Plant Biology
0.568
810
15
Limnology and Oceanography
0.566
814
1
Journal of Polymer Science Part A-Polymer Chemistry
0.564
818
1
Behavioural Brain Research
0.564
818
3
Applied Physics Letters
0.551
847
2
Environmental Research
0.551
847
2
Drug Metabolism Reviews
0.550
852
1
Environment
0.550
852
7
Ecological Applications
0.543
869
2
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation
0.543
869
52
Environmental Science & Technology
0.541
874
Total = 419
 
 
 

Hot Papers

ESI establishes citation thresholds for hot papers, which are selected from the highly cited papers in different fields, but the time frame for citing and cited papers is much shorter—papers must be cited within 2 years of publication and the citations must occur in a 2-month time period.  Papers are assigned to 2-month periods and thresholds are set for each period and field to select 0.1% of papers.  There were no hot papers identified for the current 2-month period (i.e., March-April 2007), but there were a number of hot papers identified from previous periods.

Using the hot paper thresholds established by ESI as a benchmark, 20 hot papers, representing 1.59% of the fellows’ papers, were identified in five fields—Agricultural Sciences, Engineering, Environment/Ecology, Geosciences, and Plant & Animal Science.  The number of fellows’ hot papers is 16 times higher than expected. The hot papers are listed in Table 17.

Table 17.  Hot Papers Identified Using ESI Thresholds

Field
ESI Hot Papers Threshold
No. of Cites in 2-Month Period
Paper
Agricultural Sciences
5
6 cites in May-June 2003
Call DR, et al.  Detecting and genotyping Escherichia coli O157 : H7 using multiplexed PCR and nucleic acid microarrays.  International Journal of Food Microbiology 2001;67(1-2):71-80.
 
2
2 cites in August-September 2005
Bowling DR, et al.  Critical evaluation of micrometeorological methods for measuring ecosystem-atmosphere isotopic exchange of CO2.  Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 2003;116(3-4):159-179.
 
5
5 cites in January-February  2005
Goldman R, Shields PG.  Food mutagens.  Journal of Nutrition 2003;133(3):965S-973S.
Engineering
5
8 cites in June-July 1998
Wiedensohlet A, et al.  Intercomparison study of the size-dependent counting efficiency of 26 condensation particle counters.  Aerosol Science and Technology 1997;27(2):224-242.
Engineering
5
6 cites in October-November 2006
Bendz D, et al.  Occurrence and fate of pharmaceutically active compounds in the environment, a case study: Hoje River in Sweden.  Journal of Hazardous Materials 2005;122(3):195-204.
 
2
2 cites in August 2006
Sorooshian A, et al.  Modeling and characterization of a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS).  Aerosol Science and Technology 2006;40(6):396-409.
Environment/ Ecology
6
6 cites in January-February 1998
Vonier PM, et al.  Interaction of environmental chemicals with the estrogen and progesterone receptors from the oviduct of the American alligator.  Environmental Health Perspectives 1996;104(12):1318-1322.
 
3
3 cites in December 2002-January 2003
Lobell DB, et al.  Satellite estimates of productivity and light use efficiency in United States agriculture, 1982-98. Global Change Biology 2002;8(8):722-735.
 
5
6 cites in October-November 2004
Nathan R, et al.  Methods for estimating long-distance dispersal.  Oikos 2003;103(2):261-273.
 
7
16 cites in May-June 2006
Leibold MA, et al.  The metacommunity concept: a framework for multi-scale community ecology.  Ecology Letters 2004;7(7):601-613.
 
3
3 cites in March 2006
Ziegler AD, et al.  Effective slope lengths for buffering hillslope surface runoff in fragmented landscapes in northern Vietnam.  Forest Ecology and Management 2006;224(1-2):104-118.
 
3
3 cites in March 2006
Sidle RC, et al.  Erosion processes in steep terrain - Truths, myths, and uncertainties related to forest management in Southeast Asia.  Forest Ecology and Management 2006;224(1-2):199-225.
Geosciences
4
4 cites in August-September 2003
Pataki DE, et al.  The application and interpretation of Keeling plots in terrestrial carbon cycle research.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles 2003;17(1):Art. No. 1022.
Plant & Animal Science
5
9 cites in September-October 2000
Rate DN, et al.  The gain-of-function Arabidopsis acd6 mutant reveals novel regulation and function of the salicylic acid signaling pathway in controlling cell death, defenses, and cell growth.  Plant Cell 1999;11(9):1695-1708.
 
6
8 cites in July-August 2002
Cain ML, et al.  Long-distance seed dispersal in plant populations.  American Journal of Botany 2000;87(9):1217-1227.
Plant & Animal Science
3
3 cites in November 2004
Balcom PH, et al.  Mercury sources and cycling in the Connecticut River and Long Island Sound.  Marine Chemistry 2004;90(1-4):53-74.
 
3
6 cites in August 2006
Savoye N, et al.  Th-234 sorption and export models in the water column: a review.  Marine Chemistry 2006;100(3-4):234-249.
 
3
6 cites in August 2006
Santschi PH, et al.  Thorium speciation in seawater.  Marine Chemistry 2006;100(3-4):250-268.
 
3
6 cites in August 2006
Van der Loeff, et al.  A review of present techniques and methodological advances in analyzing Th-234 in aquatic systems.  Marine Chemistry 2006;100(3-4):190-212.
 
3
8 cites in August 2006
Buesseler KO, et al.  An assessment of particulate organic carbon to thorium-234 ratios in the ocean and their impact on the application of Th-234 as a POC flux proxy.  Marine Chemistry 2006;100(3-4):213-233.

Author Self-Citation

Self-citations are journal article references to articles from that same author (i.e., the first author).  Because higher author self-citation rates can inflate the number of citations, the author self-citation rate was calculated for the fellows’ papers.  Of the 16,280 total cites, 844 are author self-cites—a 5.18% author self-citation rate.  Garfield and Sher3 found that authors working in research-based disciplines tend to cite themselves on the average of 20% of the time.  MacRoberts and MacRoberts4 claim that approximately 10% to 30% of all the citations listed fall into the category of author self-citation. Kovacic and Misak5 recently reported a 20% author self-citation rate for medical literature.  Therefore, the 5.18% self-cite rate for the fellows’ papers is well below the range for author self-citation.

Highly Cited Researchers

A search of Thomson’s ISIHighlyCited.com revealed that none of the former fellows are highly cited researchers, which is to be expected because most of these individuals began their careers in the late 1990s.  ISIHighlyCited.com is a database of the world’s most influential researchers who have made key contributions to science and technology during the period from 1981 to 1999.

Patents

There were 13 patents issued to and 31 patent applications filed by EPA 1995-1996 fellows.  Ten (76.90%) of the 13 patents have been referenced by 22 other patents.  These patents and patent applications, along with the patents that reference them, are listed in Table 18.

Table 18.  Patents and Patent Applications from the 1995-1996 EPA Fellows

Patent No. or Application No.
Inventor(s)
Title
Issue Date or Applica-tion Date
No. of Patents that Referenced This Patent
6,951,598 Flugge, LA
Branham KD
Bunyard WC
Shannon TG
Hydrophobical-ly modified cationic acrylate copolymer/ polysiloxane blends and use in tissue 10/4/05 Referenced by 1 patent:
(1) 7,101,460 Soft paper product including beneficial agents
5,951,875 Kanel, JS
Guelcher SA
Adsorptive bubble separation methods and systems for dewatering suspensions of microalgae and extracting components therefrom 9/14/99 Referenced by 1 patent:
(1) 6,524,486 Microalgae separator apparatus and method
6,000,551 Kanel JS
Guelcher SA
Method for rupturing microalgae cells 12/14/99 Referenced by 3 patents:
(1) 7,081,567 Transgenic Dunaliella salina as a bioreactor
(2) 7,056,723 Method for the recovery and purification of poxviruses from infected cells
(3) 6,337,020 Method and device for purifying waste water comprising an additional sludge treatment by ozonation
5,910,254 Guelcher SA
Kanel JS
Method for dewatering microalgae with a bubble column 6/8/99 Referenced by 1 patent:
(1) 6,156,561 System and method for culturing algae
5,776,349 Guelcher SA
Kanel JS
Method for dewatering microalgae with a Jameson Cell 7/7/98 Referenced by 1 patent:
(1) 6,936,459 Medium for the production of betacarotene and other carotenoids from Dunaliella salina (ARL 5) and a strain of Dunaliella salina for production of carotenes using the novel media
7,179,882 Adkins RL
Guelcher SA
Charron JR
Hayes JE
Low viscosity polymer polyols 2/20/07 Referenced by no patents.
7,160,975 Adkins RL
Guelcher SA
Methacrylate stabilizers for polymer polyols 1/9/07 Referenced by no patents.
5,627,328 Sheridan DR
Morrison GC
Gas sampling system and method 5/6/97 Referenced by 5 patents:
(1) 7,055,364 Exhaust volume measurement device
(2) 7,000,449 Exhaust volume measurement device
(3) 6,973,818 Exhaust volume measurement device
(4) 6,711,470 Method, system and apparatus for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air
(5) 6,592,827 Sampling system for fluidized bed gas phase polymerization reaction systems
6,789,032 Barbour TN
Barnett TS
Grady MS
Purdy KG
Method of statistical binning for reliability selection 9/7/04 Referenced by 3 patents:
(1) 7,194,366 System and method for estimating reliability of components for testing and quality optimization
(2) 7,139,630 Allocating manufactured devices according to customer specifications
(3) 6,856,939 Fault assessment using fractional failure rates
6,723,499 Dodson HS
Marks JS
McQuade TJ
Santoro MF
Santoro N
Method for identifying inhibitors of dual substrate enzymes 12/19/02 Referenced by no patents.
6,264,841 Tudor HE Method for treating contaminated liquids 7/24/01 Referenced by 1 patent:
(1) 7,138,059 Environmental bioremediation using shell as an electron donor
6,312,809 Crooks RM
Ricco AJ
Wells M
Dendrimer monolayer films 11/6/01 Referenced by 5 patents:
(1) 7,195,835
Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells
(2) 6,977,122 Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells
(3) 6,878,446 Semiconductor nanoparticles coated with electroactive polymers
(4) 6,733,883 Fluorinated dendrons and self-organizing ultrahigh density nanocylinder compositions
(5) 6,617,040 Chemoselective dendrimeric compounds for use in chemical sensors
6,365,048 Masten SJ
Yavich AA
Method for treatment of organic matter contaminated drinking water 4/2/02 Referenced by 1 patent:
(1) 6,893,559 System and method for removing organic compounds from waste water by oxidation
Application No. 2004/0084162 Shannon TG
Branham KD
Bunyard WC
Low slough tissue products and method for making same 5/6/04  
Application No. 2006/0003649 Runge RM
Tanzer RW
Branham KD
Koenig DW
Kroll LM
Mitchell J
Lostocco MR
Lehman MR
Bunyard WC
Dispersible alcohol cleaning wipes via topical or wet-end application of acrylamide or vinylamide/ amine polymers 1/5/06  
Application No. 2004/0086727 Flugge LA
Branham KD
Bunyard WC Shannon TG
Hydrophobically modified cationic acrylate copolymer/ polysiloxane blends and use in tissue 5/6/04  
Application No. 2007/0092921 Pellegrini FL
Carter SD
Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to equine albumin and hemoglobin and apparatus and methods using the antibodies in the identification and localization of ulcers and other digestive tract bleeding in equines 4/26/07  
Application No. 2002/0199156 Chess KL
Heath DJ
Michels WF
Hardware-adaptable data visualization tools for use in complex data analysis and engineering design 12/26/02  
Application No. 2007/0082387 Felder MS
Felder J
Diz HR
Method of hydrogen production combining a bioreactor with a nuclear reactor and associated apparatus 4/12/07  
Application No. 2007/0048851 Diz HR
Felder MS
Felder J
Method for sustained microbial production of hydrogen gas in a bioreactor using Klebsiella oxytoca 3/1/07  
Application No. 2007/0048850 Diz HR
Felder MS
Felder J
System for sustained microbial production of hydrogen gas in a bioreactor using Klebsiella oxytoca 3/1/07  
Application No. 2007/0037268 Felder MS
Diz HR
Felder J
Hydrogen producing bioreactor with sand for the maintenance of a high biomass bacteria 2/15/07  
Application No. 2007/0036712 Felder MS
Diz HR
Felder J
Method of hydrogen production utilizing sand for the maintenance of a high biomass bacteria in a hydrogen bioreactor 2/15/07  
Application No. 2006/0292685 Diz HR
Felder MS
Felder J
Method of sustained microbial production of hydrogen gas in a bioreactor utilizing an equalization tank 12/28/06  
Application No. 2006/0286665 Diz HR
Felder MS
Felder J
System for sustained microbial production of hydrogen gas in a bioreactor utilizing an equalization tank 12/21/06  
Application No. 2006/0281164 Diz HR
Felder MS
Felder J
System for sustained microbial production of hydrogen gas in a bioreactor utilizing a circulation system 12/14/06  
Application No. 2006/0281163 Diz HR
Felder MS
Felder J
Method of producing hydrogen gas in a bioreactor with substrates and associated apparatus 12/14/06  
Application No. 2006/0281162 Diz HR
Felder MS
Felder J
System for sustained microbial production of hydrogen gas in a bioreactor 12/14/06  
Application No. 2006/0281161 Felder MS
Diz HR
Felder J
Production of hydrogen gas in a bioreactor with a coated substrate 12/14/06  
Application No. 2006/0281160 Diz HR
Felder MS
Felder J
Method of hydrogen production in a bioreactor having a circulation system 12/14/06  
Application No. 2006/0281159 Diz HR
Felder MS
Felder J
Method for sustained microbial production of hydrogen gas in a bioreactor 12/14/06  
Application No. 2006/0281158 Felder J
Felder MS
Diz HR
Production of hydrogen gas and isolation of hydrogen producing microorganisms using replenishing coated substrates 12/14/06  
Application No. 2006/0281144 Felder MS
Diz HR
Felder J
Method for utilizing nonparaffin-ophilic microorganisms for producing specific waste degradation 12/14/06  
Application No. 2006/0281141 Felder MS
Diz HR
Felder J
Method for isolating potential antibiotic microorganisms 12/14/06  
Application No. 2006/0275894 Felder MS
Felder J
Diz HR
Hydrogen producing apparatus utilizing excess heat from an industrial facility 12/7/06  
Application No. 2006/0275206 Felder MS
Felder J
Diz HR
Method of hydrogen production utilizing excess heat from an industrial facility 12/7/06  
Application No. 2006/0272956 Felder MS
Felder J
Diz HR
Dual hydrogen production apparatus 12/7/06  
Application No. 2006/0272955 Felder MS
Felder J
Diz HR
Dual method of hydrogen production 12/7/06  
Application No. 2005/0085613 Adkins RL
Guelcher S
Novel unsaturated macromers for preformed stabilizers and polymer polyols 4/21/05  
Application No. 2005/0013793 Beckman EJ
Hollinger JO
Doll BA
Guelcher SA
Zhang J
Biodegradable polyurethanes and use thereof 1/20/05  
Application No. 2006/0057027 Hudak AT
Tierney DM
Wang DD
Grenz RL
Rohrdanz RR
Alejandro KC
Galloway RK
Fluid collection and testing device 3/16/06  
Application No. 2003/0151422 Barnett TS
Grady MS
Purdy KG
Method for burn-in testing 8/14/03  
Application No. 2004/0076663 Boskey AL
Tudor H
Complexed-acidic-phospholipid-collagen composites for bone induction 4/22/04  
Application No. 2002/0159980 Block DE
Vandergheynst
Benomyl tolerant fusarium lateritium and uses thereof 10/31/02  

Papers Not Verified

Seven papers cited in this analysis as either a highly cited paper or hot paper (see Tables 19 and 20) have not yet been verified as a publication of the EPA fellow (i.e., the fellow has not replied to the inquiry asking if the publication is correctly attributed to the former EPA fellow). 

Table 19.  Highly Cited Fellows’ Papers That Have Not Yet Been Verified

No. of Cites
First Author
Paper
117
Zhou YF Preparation of hyperbranched polymer films grafted on self-assembled monolayers.  Journal of the American Chemical Society 1996;118(15):3773-3774.
194
Wells M Interactions between organized, surface-confined monolayers and vapor-phase probe molecules .10. Preparation and properties of chemically sensitive dendrimer surfaces.  Journal of the American Chemical Society 1996;118(16):3988-3989.
253
Follmar LC Vitellogenin induction and reduced serum testosterone concentrations in feral male carp (Cyprinus carpio) captured near a major metropolitan sewage treatment plant.  Environmental Health Perspectives 1996;104(10):1096-1101.
95
Clark JS Interpreting recruitment limitation in forests.  American Journal of Botany 1999;86(1):1-16.
116
Rate DN The gain-of-function Arabidopsis acd6 mutant reveals novel regulation and function of the salicylic acid signaling pathway in controlling cell death, defenses, and cell growth.  Plant Cell 1999;11(9):1695-1708.
93
Weller DM Microbial populations responsible for specific soil suppressiveness to plant pathogens.  Annual Review of Phytopathology 2002;40:309.

Table 20.  Hot Papers That Have Not Been Verified

No. of Cites
First Author
Paper
111
Vonier PM Interaction of environmental chemicals with the estrogen and progesterone receptors from the oviduct of the American alligator.  Environmental Health Perspectives 1996;104(12):1318-1322.
*116
Rate DN The gain-of-function Arabidopsis acd6 mutant reveals novel regulation and function of the salicylic acid signaling pathway in controlling cell death, defenses, and cell growth.  Plant Cell 1999;11(9):1695-1708.
* This paper was both highly cited and hot.

1 Thomson Scientifics Web of Science provides access to current and retrospective multidisciplinary information from approximately 8,830 of the most prestigious, high impact research journals in the world. Web of Science also provides cited reference searching.

2 Scopus is a large abstract and citation database of research literature and quality Web sources designed to support the literature research process. Scopus offers access to 15,000 titles from 4,000 different publishers, more than 12,850 academic journals (including coverage of 535 Open Access journals, 750 conference proceedings, and 600 trade publications), 27 million abstracts, 245 million references, 200 million scientific Web pages, and 13 million patent records. 

3 Garfield E, Sher IH. New factors in the evaluation of scientific literature through citation indexing. American Documentation 1963;18(July):195-210.

4 MacRoberts MH, MacRoberts BR. Problems of citation analysis: a critical review. Journal of the American Society of Information Science 1989;40(5):342-349.

5 Kavaci N, Misak A. Author self-citation in medical literature. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2004;170(13):1929-1930.

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