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2005 Bibliometric Analysis (Revised) for Papers on Topics Related to Land/Remediation Research
November 2005 Report (RevisedJune 2007)

This is a revised bibliometric analysis of the papers prepared by intramural and extramural researchers of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on topics related to land/remediation. This analysis was revised in June 2007 because the journals were initially categorized into the fields used by Thomson Scientifics Essential Science Indicators (ESI) using information provided in Thomsons Journal Citation Reports (JCR); for this revised analysis, the journals were categorized into ESI fields using the journal category list by ESI that is available on the Internet athttp://in-cites.com/journal-list/index.html. The Journal List for ESI was made available in 2006 and the current list contains all of the 12,734 journals covered for ESI up to December 31, 2006. This list is updated bimonthly by Thomson. This revised bibliometric analysis will allow comparison of the results of this 2005 analysis to those of the analysis performed in 2007.

This is a bibliometric analysis of the papers prepared by intramural and extramural researchers on topics related to land/remediation research. For this analysis, 1,141 papers were reviewed. These 1,141 papers, published from 1995 to 2005, were cited 14,477 times in the journals covered by Thomsons Web of Science.1 Of these 1,141 papers, 1,030 (90.3%) have been cited at least once in a journal.

The analysis was completed using Thomson=s ESI and JCR as benchmarks. ESI provides access to a unique and comprehensive compilation of essential science performance statistics and science trends data derived from Thomsons databases. The chief indicators of output, or productivity, are journal article publication counts. For influence and impact measures, ESI employs both total citation counts and cites per paper scores. The former reveals gross influence while the latter shows weighted influence, also called impact. JCR presents quantifiable statistical data that provide a systematic, objective way to evaluate the worlds leading journals and their impact and influence in the global research community.

Summary of Analysis

Nearly one-fifth of the land/remediation publications are highly cited papers. A review of the citations indicates that 227 (19.9%) of the land/remediation papers qualify as highly cited when using the ESI criteria for the top 10% of highly cited publications. Fifteen (1.3%) of the land/remediation papers qualify as highly cited when using the criteria for the top 1%. One (0.1%) of these papers qualify as very highly cited (in the top 0.1%). None of the papers meet the highest threshold (the top 0.01%) for highly cited papers.

The land/remediation papers are more highly cited than the average paper. Using the ESI average citation rates for papers published by field as the benchmark, in 9 of the 16 fields in which the EPA land/remediation papers were published, the ratio of actual to expected cites is greater than 1, indicating that the land/remediation papers are more highly cited than the average papers in those fields.

Nearly one-quarter of the land/remediation papers are published in very high impact journals. Two hundred seventy-six (276) of 1,141 papers were published in the top 10% of journals ranked by JCR Impact Factor, representing 24.2% of EPAs land/remediation papers. Two-hundred forty-three (243) of the 1,141 papers appear in the top 10% of journals ranked by JCR Immediacy Index, representing 21.3% of EPA=s land/remediation papers.

Eleven of the land/remediation publications qualified as hot papers. ESI establishes citation thresholds for hot papers, which are selected from the highly cited papers in different fields, but the time frame for citing and cited papers is much shorterpapers must be cited within 2 years of publication and the citations must occur in a 2-month time period. Using the current hot paper thresholds established by ESI as a benchmark, 11 of the land/remediation papers, representing 1.0% of the land/remediation publications, were identified as hot papers in the analysis.

The authors of the land/remediation papers cite themselves less than the average self-citation rate. Seven hundred sixty-seven (767) of the 14,477 cites are author self-cites. This 5.3% author self-citation rate is well below the accepted range of 10-30% author self-citation rate.

Highly Cited Land/Remediation Publications

The 1,141 land/remediation papers reviewed for this analysis covered 16 of the 22 ESI fields of research. The distribution of the papers among these 16 fields and the number of citations by field are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Land/Remediation Papers by ESI Fields

ESI Field

 

No. of Citations

No. of EPA Land/ Remediation Papers

Average Cites/Paper

Environment/Ecology

 

8,928

659

13.55

Chemistry

1,447

112

12.92

Microbiology

1,168

41

28.49

Engineering

1,098

159

6.91

Biology & Biochemistry

533

41

13.00

Plant & Animal Science

412

44

9.36

Pharmacology & Toxicology

356

23

15.48

Geosciences

259

34

7.62

Physics

138

7

19.71

Materials Science

47

1

47.00

Agricultural Sciences

43

8

5.38

Clinical Medicine

30

5

6.00

Computer Science

6

4

1.50

Multidisciplinary

6

1

6.00

Molecular Biology & Genetics

5

5

1.00

Mathematics

1

1

1.00

 

Total =
14,477

Total =
1,141

12.69

There were 227 (19.89% of the papers analyzed) highly cited EPA land/remediation papers in 12 of the 16 fieldsEnvironment/Ecology, Engineering, Chemistry, Microbiology, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Plant & Animal Science, Physics, Biology & Biochemistry, Geosciences, Materials Science, Agricultural Sciences, and Multidisciplinarywhen using the ESI criteria for the top 10% of papers. Table 2 shows the number of EPA papers in those 12 fields that met the top 10% threshold in ESI.

Fifteen (1.31%) of the papers analyzed qualified as highly cited when using the ESI criteria for the top 1% of papers. These papers were categorized in six fieldsEnvironment/Ecology, Chemistry, Microbiology, Engineering, Pharmacology & Toxicology, and Materials Science. Table 3 shows the 15 papers by field that met the top 1% threshold in ESI. There was one (0.09% of the papers analyzed) very highly cited EPA land/remediation papers in one field Pharmacology & Toxicology. This one paper met the top 0.1% threshold in ESI. None of the land/remediation papers met the highest threshold for highly cited papers (i.e., the top 0.01% threshold) in ESI., which is not surprising given that the expected number of papers that would meet this threshold is 0.11.

Table 2. Number of Highly Cited Land/Remediation Papers by Field (top 10%)


ESI Field

No. of Citations

No. of Papers

Average Cites/Paper

% of EPA Papers in Field

Environment/Ecology

4,804

134

35.85

20.33%

Engineering

665

40

16.62

25.16%

Chemistry

664

15

44.27

13.39%

Microbiology

554

8

69.25

19.51%

Pharmacology & Toxicology

205

6

34.17

26.09%

Plant & Animal Science

187

9

20.78

20.45%

Physics

158

5

31.60

71.43%

Biology & Biochemistry

116

2

58.00

4.88%

Geosciences

100

5

20.00

14.71%

Materials Science

47

1

47.00

100.00%

Agricultural Sciences

13

1

13.00

12.50%

Multidisciplinary

6

1

6.00

100.00%

 

Total =
7,519

Total =
227

33.12

19.89%

Table 3. Number of Highly Cited Land/Remediation Papers by Field (top 1%)


ESI Field

No. of Citations

No. of Papers

Average Cites/Paper

% of EPA Papers in Field

Environment/Ecology

430

8

53.75

1.21%

Chemistry

202

2

101.00

1.79%

Microbiology

119

1

119.00

2.44%

Engineering

104

2

52.00

1.26%

Pharmacology & Toxicology

83

1

83.00

100.00%

Materials Science

47

1

47.00

100.00%

 

Total =
985

Total =
15

 

65.67

 

1.31%

The citations for the highly cited papers in the top 1% are presented in Tables 4 through 9. The citations for the very highly cited papers are listed in Table 10.

Table 4. Highly Cited Land/Remediation Papers in the Field of Environment/Ecology (top 1%)


No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

125

Ankley GT

Technical basis and proposal for deriving sediment quality criteria for metals. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 1995;15(12):2056-2066.

109

Haggerty R

Multiple-rate mass-transfer for modeling diffusion and surface-reactions in media with pore-scale heterogeneity. Water Resources Research 1995;31(10):2383-2400.

88

Xia GS

Adsorption-partitioning uptake of nine low-polarity organic chemicals on a natural sorbent. Environmental Science & Technology 1999;33(2):262-269.

56

Su CM

Arsenate and arsenite removal by zerovalent iron: kinetics, redox transformation, and implications for in situ groundwater remediation. Environmental Science & Technology 2001;35(7):1487-1492.

27

Braida WJ

Sorption hysteresis of benzene in charcoal particles. Environmental Science & Technology 2003;37(2):409-417.

10

Nguyen TH

Sorption nonlinearity for organic contaminants with diesel soot: method development and isotherm interpretation. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(3):3595-3603.

10

Williams AGB

Spectroscopic evidence for Fe(II)-Fe(III) electron transfer at the iron oxide-water interface. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(18):4782-4790.

5

Kuder T

Enrichment of stable carbon and hydrogen isotopes during anaerobic biodegradation of MTBE: microcosm and field evidence. Environmental Science & Technology 2005;39(1):213-220.

Table 5. Highly Cited Land/Remediation Papers in the Field of Chemistry (top 1%)


No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

113

Wang J

Sol-gel-derived thick-film amperometric immunosensors. Analytical Chemistry 1998;70(6):1171-1175.

89

Ravikovitch PI

Unified approach to pore size characterization of microporous carbonaceous materials from N-2, Ar, and CO2 adsorption isotherms. Langmuir 2000;16(5):2311-2320.

Table 6. Highly Cited Land/Remediation Papers in the Field of Microbiology (top 1%)


No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

119

Macnaughton SJ

Microbial population changes during bioremediation of an experimental oil spill. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1999;65(8):3566-3574.

Table 7. Highly Cited Land/Remediation Papers in the Field of Engineering (top 1%)


No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

53

Helland BR

Reductive dechlorination of carbon-tetrachloride with elemental iron. Journal of Hazardous Materials 1995;41(2-3):205-216.

51

Annable MD

Partitioning tracers for measuring residual NAPL: field-scale test results. Journal of Environmental Engineering-ASCE 1998;124(6):498-503.

Table 8. Highly Cited Land/Remediation Papers in the Field of Pharmacology & Toxicology (top 1%)


No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

83

Ding XX

Human extrahepatic cytochromes P450: function in xenobiotic metabolism and tissue-selective chemical toxicity in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2003;43:149-173.

Table 9. Highly Cited Land/Remediation Papers in the Field of Materials Science (top 1%)


No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

47

Neimark AV

Capillary condensation in MMS and pore structure characterization. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 2001;44:697-707.

Table 10. Very Highly Cited Land/Remediation Papers (Top 0.1%)


Field

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

Pharmacology & Toxicology

83

Ding XX

Human extrahepatic cytochromes P450: function in xenobiotic metabolism and tissue-selective chemical toxicity in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Annual Review of Pharmacology & Toxicology 2003;43:149-173.

Ratio of Actual Cites to Expected Citation Rates

The expected citation rate is the average number of cites that a paper published in the same journal in the same year and of the same document type (article, review, editorial, etc.) has received from the year of publication to the present. Using the ESI average citation rates for papers published by field as the benchmark, in 9 of the 16 fields in which the EPA land/remediation papers were published, the ratio of actual to expected cites is greater than 1, indicating that the EPA papers are more highly cited than the average papers in those fields (see Table 11).

Table 11. Ratio of Average Cites to Expected Cites for Land/Remediation Papers by Field


ESI Field

Total Cites

Expected Cite Rate

Ratio

Environment/Ecology

8,928

5,526.67

1.62

Chemistry

1,447

1,076.74

1.34

Microbiology

1,168

732.99

1.59

Engineering

1,098

594.27

1.85

Biology & Biochemistry

533

692.97

0.77

Plant & Animal Science

412

309.53

1.33

Pharmacology & Toxicology

356

253.41

1.40

Geosciences

259

265.29

0.98

Physics

138

46.99

2.94

Materials Science

47

4.31

10.90

Agricultural Sciences

43

59.95

0.72

Clinical Medicine

30

38.92

0.77

Computer Science

6

9.59

0.62

Multidisciplinary

6

2.28

2.63

Molecular Biology & Genetics

5

33.49

0.15

Mathematics

1

3.77

0.26

JCR Benchmarks

The Impact Factor is a well known metric in citation analysis. It is a measure of the frequency with which the average article in a journal has been cited in a particular year. The Impact Factor helps evaluate a journals relative importance, especially when compared to others in the same field. The Impact Factor is calculated by dividing the number of citations in the current year to articles published in the 2 previous years by the total number of articles published in the 2 previous years.

Table 12 indicates the number of land/remediation papers published in the top 10% of journals, based on the JCR Impact Factor. Two hundred seventy-six (276) of 1,141 papers were published in the top 10% of journals, representing 24.2% of EPAs land/remediation papers.

Table 12. Land/Remediation Papers in Top 10% of Journals by JCR Impact Factor


EPA Land/Remediation Papers in that Journal

Journal

Impact Factor (IF)

JCR IF Rank

180

Environmental Science & Technology

3.557

540

23

Applied and Environmental Microbiology

3.810

470

12

Environmental Health Perspectives

3.929

439

11

Analytical Chemistry

5.450

243

8

Journal of Bacteriology

4.146

385

6

Drug Metabolism and Disposition

3.836

461

5

Electrophoresis

3.743

482

4

Langmuir

3.295

622

3

Applied Catalysis B-Environmental

4.042

411

3

Toxicological Sciences

3.391

591

2

Journal of Chromatography A

3.359

602

2

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta

3.811

468

2

Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry

3.760

479

2

Biosensors & Bioelectronics

3.251

636

1

Current Opinion in Biotechnology

8.080

129

1

Siam Review

6.118

203

1

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

4.335

356

1

Ecology

4.104

394

1

Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry

3.926

440

1

Pediatrics

3.903

447

1

TRAC-Trends in Analytical Chemistry

3.888

452

1

Biochemical Pharmacology

3.436

581

1

Ecological Applications

3.287

623

1

Advances in Agronomy

3.212

652

1

Chemical Geology

3.174

670

1

Journal of Mass Spectrometry

3.056

722

1

Limnology and Oceanography

3.024

737

Total = 276

 

 

 

Immediacy Index

The journal Immediacy Index is a measure of how quickly the average article in a journal is cited. It indicates how often articles published in a journal are cited within the year they are published. The Immediacy Index is calculated by dividing the number of citations to articles published in a given year by the number of articles published in that year.

Table 13 indicates the number of EPA papers published in the top 10% of journals, based on the JCR Immediacy Index. Two hundred forty-three (243) of the 1,141 papers appear in the top 10% of journals, representing 21.3% of EPAs land/remediation papers.

Table 13. Land/Remediation Papers in Top 10% of Journals by JCR Immediacy Index


EPA Land/Remediation Papers in that Journal

Journal

Immediacy Index (II)

JCR II Rank

180

Environmental Science & Technology

0.623

617

12

Environmental Health Perspectives

1.202

202

11

Analytical Chemistry

0.885

346

8

Journal of Bacteriology

0.827

383

6

Drug Metabolism and Disposition

0.590

676

5

Electrophoresis

0.575

697

4

Langmuir

0.566

717

2

Tetrahedron Letters

0.583

681

2

Hydrobiologia

0.681

532

2

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta

0.680

535

2

Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry

0.575

697

1

Ecotoxicology

1.450

151

1

Pediatrics

0.935

311

1

TRAC-Trends in Analytical Chemistry

0.583

681

1

Ecology

0.590

676

1

Current Opinion in Biotechnology

0.919

322

1

Marine Geology

0.842

373

1

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

0.797

419

1

Ecological Applications

0.747

466

1

Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry

0.641

588

Total = 243

 

 

 

Hot Papers

ESI establishes citation thresholds for hot papers, which are selected from the highly cited papers in different fields, but the time frame for citing and cited papers is much shorterpapers must be cited within 2 years of publication and the citations must occur in a 2-month time period. Papers are assigned to 2-month periods and thresholds are set for each period and field to select 0.1% of papers. There were no hot papers identified for the current 2-month period (i.e., September-October 2005), but there was one hot paper identified from previous periods.

Using the current hot paper thresholds established by ESI as a benchmark, 11 hot papers, representing 1.0 % of the land/remediation papers, were identified in the fields of Environment/Ecology, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Engineering, and Biology & Biochemistry. The hot papers are listed in Table 14.

Table 14. Hot Papers Identified Using Current ESI Thresholds

 

Field

ESI Hot Papers Threshold

No. of Cites in 2-Month Period

Paper

Environment/Ecology

8

13 cites in November-December 1996

Berry WJ, et al. Predicting the toxicity of metal-spiked laboratory sediments using acid-volatile sulfide and interstitial water normalizations. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 1996;15(12):2067-2079.

8

11 cites in December 1996

Hansen DJ, et al. Chronic effect of cadmium in sediments on colonization by benthic marine organisms: an evaluation of the role of interstitial cadmium and acid-volatile sulfide in biological availability. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 1996;15(12):2126-2137.

8

10 cites in December 1996

Hansen DJ, et al. Predicting the toxicity of metal-contaminated field sediments using interstitial concentration of metals and acid-volatile sulfide. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 1996;15(12):2080-2094.

8

9 cites in December 1996

Liber K, et al. Effects of acid-volatile sulfide on zinc bioavailability and toxicity to benthic macroinvertebrates: a spiked-sediment field experiment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 1996;15(12):2113-2125.

6

6 cites in February-March 2003

Williams AGB, Scherer MM. Kinetics of Cr(VI) reduction by carbonate green rust. Environmental Science & Technology 2001;35(17):3488-3494.

5

5 cites in January-February 2005

Ryan JA, et al. Reducing childrens risk from lead in soil. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(1):18A-24A.

5

5 cites in August-September 2005

Williams AGB, Scherer MM. Spectroscopic evidence for Fe(II)-Fe(III) electron transfer at the iron oxide-water interface. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(18):4782-4790.

5

5 cites in August-September 2002

Pruden A, et al. Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether under various substrate conditions. Environmental Science & Technology 2001;35(21):4235-4241.

Pharmacology & Toxicology

5

9 cites in September-October 2004

Ding XX, Kaminsky LS. Human extrahepatic cytochromes P450: function in xenobiotic metabolism and tissue-selective chemical toxicity in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2003;43:149-173.

 

Engineering

4

4 cites in June-July 1998

Hurst CJ, et al. Soil gas oxygen tension and pentachlorophenol biodegradation. Journal of Environmental Engineering-ASCE 1997;123(4):364-370.

Biology & Biochemistry

3

3 cites in May-June 1995

Ely RL, et al. A cometabolic kinetics model incorporating enzyme-inhibition, inactivation, and recovery. 2. Trichloroethylene degradation experiments. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 1995;46(3):232-245.

Author Self-Citation

Self-citations are journal article references to articles from that same author (i.e., the first author). Because higher author self-citation rates can inflate the number of citations, the author self-citation rate was calculated for the land/remediation papers. Of the 14,477 total cites, 767 are author self-citesa 5.3% author self-citation rate. Garfield and Sher2 found that authors working in research-based disciplines tend to cite themselves on the average of 20% of the time. MacRoberts and MacRoberts3 claim that approximately 10% to 30% of all the citations listed fall into the category of author self-citation. Therefore, the 5.3% self-cite rate for the land/remediation papers is well below the range for author self-citation.

1 Thomson's Web of Science provides access to current and retrospective multidisciplinary information from approximately 8,500 of the most prestigious, high impact research journals in the world. Web of Science also provides cited reference searching.

2 Garfield E, Sher IH. New factors in the evaluation of scientific literature through citation indexing. American Documentation 1963;18(July):195-201.

3 MacRoberts MH, MacRoberts BR. Problems of citation analysis: a critical review. Journal of the American Society of Information Science 1989;40(5):342-349.

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