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Extramural Research

2008 Scientific and Technological Achievement Awards (STAA) Honorable Mentions

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Extramural Research Search

Honorable Mention - The Subcommittee has also added a fourth non-cash level award for research efforts which are noteworthy but which do not warrant a Level I, II or III award. Honorable Mention applies to research that: (1) may not quite reach the level described for a Level III award; (2) show a promising area of research that the Subcommittee wants to encourage; or (3) show an area of research that the Subcommittees feels is too preliminary to warrant an award recommendation (yet).

Environmental Sampling  Underwater research  Field sampling  Students participating in science open house

Nominations Recommended for Honorable Mention (No Cash Award) -- Total of Forty-Six
Nom. # Titles and Citations of Submitted Papers Eligible Authors* and Nominating Organizations Ineligible Authors and Organization Citation
S08CS0002 XAS and XPS Characterization of Mercury Binding on Brominated Activated Carbon
Environmental Science & Technology (ES&T), 41(5):1747-1752 (2007)
Nick Hutson
Kirk G. Scheckel

NRMRL, Research Triangle Park, NC
Brian C. Attwood Studies That Provide a Fundamental Understanding of the Binding of Mercury to Brominated Activated Carbon
S08CS0003 Iron Optimization for Fenton-Driven Oxidation of MTBE-Spent Granular Activated Carbon
Environmental Science and Technology, 41(11):4090-4096 (2007)
Scott G. Huling
P. Kyle Jones
Tony Lee

NRMRL, Ada, OK
Process Diagnostics and Treatment Optimization in Chemical Regeneration of Activated Carbon
S08CS0004 Optimizing Arsenic Removal During Iron Removal: Theoretical and Practical Considerations
Journal of Water Supply Research and Technology, 54(8):545-560 (2004)
Darren A. Lytle
Thomas Sorg

NRMRL, Cincinnati, OH
Vernon Snoeyink - University of Illinois The Optimization of Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water During Iron Removal
S08CS0006
Linked with S08EF0008, S08OR0084, and S08TF0127
(1) Revisiting Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions: Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Azides, Thiocyanates, and Sulfones in an Aqueous Medium
Journal of Organic Chemistry, 71:6697-6700 (2006)
(2) Aqueous N-Heterocyclization of Primary Amines and Hydrazines with Dihalides: Microwave-Assisted Syntheses of N-Azacycloalkanes, Isoindole, Pyrazole, Pyrazolidine, and Phthalazine Derivatives
Journal of Organic Chemistry, 71:135-141 (2006)
(3) Clean Chemical Synthesis in Water
Organic Chemistry Highlights-On line publisher, : (2007)
Rajender S. Varma

NRMRL, Cincinnati, OH
Yuhong Ju - Dow Chemical Investment (China) Co., Ltd
Dalip Kumar - Chemistry Group
Exceptional Technical Achievement in Developing a Microwave Technology for Greener Chemical Synthesis in Water
S08EF0008
Linked with S08CS0006, S08OR0084, and S08TF0127
(1) Solvent-free Facile Synthesis of Novel Alpha-Tosyloxy Beta-Keto Sulfones Using [Hydroxy(tosyloxy) iodo]benzene
Tetrahedron Letters, 47:8239-8241 (2006)
(2) Greener Organic Syntheses Under Non-Traditional Conditions
Indian Journal of Chemistry, 45B:2305-2312 (2006)
(3) 'Greener' Chemical Synthetic Processes Using Enzymatic, Mechanochemical Mixing or Microwave- and Ultrasound Irradiation
Touch Briefings, :1-4 (2006)
Rajender S. Varma

NRMRL, Cincinnati, OH
Dalip Kumar - Chemistry Group Exceptional Technical Achievement in Advancing Emerging Alternative Technologies for Greener Chemical Processing
S08ER0019 An Approach to Predict Risks to Wildlife Populations from Mercury and Other Stressors
Ecotoxicology, 14:283-293 (2005)
Diane Nacci
Marguerite Pelletier
Rick Bennett
Jason Grear
Anne Kuhn
Steven Walters - University of Washington
Jim Lake
John Nichols
Romona Haebler
Matthew Nicholson
Wayne R. Munns, Jr.

NHEERL, Narragansett, RI
Jane Copeland - CSC An Integrative, Transparent Process Developed to Address the Need to Assess Complex, Population-Level Eco Risks
S08HE0028 The cyanobacterial toxin, cylindrospermopsin, induces fetal toxicity in the mouse after exposure late in gestation
Toxicon, 49(6):855-864 (2007)
Neil Chernoff
Ellen H. Rogers

NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
R. Daniel Zehr - U.S. EPA - SEE Program
Michael l. Gage - U.S. EPA - SEE Program
Andrew R. Humpage - Australian Water Quality Centre
Ian R. Falconer - Cooperative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment
Melissa C. Marr - Research Triangle Institute
Research on the Unusual Developmental/Maternal Toxicity of a Hazardous, Environmentally Relevant Cyanobacterial Toxin
S08HE0036 The Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat: An Experimental Model of Sulfur Dioxide-Induced Airways Disease
Toxicological Sciences, 94(1):193-205 (2006)
Urmila P. Kodavanti
Mette C. Schladweiler
Allen D. Ledbetter
Judy Richards
Richard H. Jaskot
Edward Karoly
Daniel L. Costa
Paul Evansky

NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
Kent E. Pinkerton - University of California
Peter S. Gilmour -
Ronald Thomas
Yuh-Chin T. Huang
Roselia Villalobos Ortuno - University of California
Marie Suffia - University of California
Development of an Experimental Animal Model of Human Chronic Pulmonary Disease
S08HE0039 Using IFN-y as a Biomarker for Detecting Exposure to Viral Pathogens
Current Microbiology, 56(1):84-88 (2007)
Lu Li
Alfred P. Dufour

NERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
Using IFN-Gamma as a Biomarker to Detect Exposure to Viral Pathogens
S08HE0043 Improved Estimates on Cancer Site-Specific Risks for A-Bomb Survivors
Radiation Research, 169(1):87-98 (2008)
David J. Pawel

OAR, Washington, DC
Dale L. Preston - Hirosoft International
Don Pierce - Oregon Health Sciences University
John Cologne - Radiation Effects Research Foundation
An Outstanding Paper of Radiation Risk Estimates for Specific Types of Cancer
S08HE0044 Exposure reconstruction for reducing uncertainty in risk assessment: Example using MTBE biomarkers and a simple pharmacokinetic model
Biomarkers, 12(4):331-348 (2007)
Joachim D. Pleil
James D. Prah

NERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
David Kim - Syngenta
Stephen Rappaport - University of California, Berkeley
Innovative Use of Human Biomarker Measurements in Exposure Reconstruction with Classical Pharmacokinetic Modeling
S08HE0046 Estimating Risk from Ambient Concentrations of Acrolein across the United States
Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(3):410-415 (2007)
Tracey J. Woodruff
Ellen M. Wells
Elizabeth W. Holt
Daniel A. Axelrad
Deborah E. Burgin

OA, Washington, DC
Developing and Demonstrating Methods for Noncancer Risk Assessment of Acrolein
S08IR0047 (1) Incorporating results of avian toxicity tests into a model of annual reproductive success
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 3(4):498-507 (2007)
(2) Estimating pesticide effects on fecundity rates of wild birds using current laboratory reproduction tests
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 12(4):762-781 (2006)
(3) On the use of published demographic data for population-level risk assessment in birds
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 12(6):1074-1093 (2006)
Richard S. Bennett
Matthew A. Etterson

NHEERL, Duluth, MN
Developing a Modeling Approach for Improving Estimates of Contaminant Effects on Avian Reproductive Success
S08IR0048 (1) Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: Applications to Watershed Management. Chapter 1. Introduction
Book: Bruins, RJF and MT Heberling (eds). Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: Applications to Watershed Management, : (2005)
(2) Chapter 9. Conceptual Approach for Integrated Watershed Management
Book: Bruins, RJF and MT Heberling (eds). Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: Applications to Watershed Management, : (2005)
(3) Chapter 16. Conclusions
Book: Bruins, RJF and MT Heberling (eds). Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: Applications to Watershed Management, : (2005)
Randall J. F. Bruins
Matthew T. Heberling
Tara A. Maddock - (currently Mill Creek Watershed Council of Communities)

NERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
Research That Demonstrates How Ecology and Economics Can Be Integrated to Improve the Management of Watersheds
S08IR0050 (1) Quantification of fluorotelomer-based chemicals in mammalian matrices by monitoring perfluoroalkyl chain fragments with GC/MS
Journal of Chromatography B, 846(1-2):155-161 (06/07)
(2) Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorononanoic acid in fetal and neonatal mice following in utero exposure to 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol
Toxicological Sciences, 95(2):452-461 (2006)
W. Matthew Henderson
Eric J. Weber
Stephen E. Duirk
John W. Washington

NERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
Mary Alice Smith - University of Georgia
Developing Methods to Enhance the Analysis of Perfluorinated Chemicals in Mammalian Systems
S08IR0051 Towards quantitative uncertainty assessment for cancer risks: central estimates and probability distributions of risk in dose-response modeling
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 49(3):203-207 (2007)
Leonid Kopylev
Chao Chen
Paul White

NCEA, Washington, DC
Developing a Statistical Methodology That Provides Probability Distributions and Stable Central Estimates of Risk
S08IR0052 In Vitro Metabolism of the Fungicide and Environmental Contaminant trans-bromuconazole and Implications for Risk Assessment
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 70(14):1241-1250 (2007)
Christopher S. Mazur
John F. Kenneke
Caroline Tebes-Stevens
John C. Lipscomb
Miles Okino

NERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
Providing Critical Metabolism Data Needed for Risk Assessment of Conazole Compounds
S08MM0058 (1) Quantification and Associated Variability of Induced Vitellogenin Gene Transcripts in Fathead Minnow ("Pimephales promelas") by Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 26(2):287-296 (2007)
(2) A Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for the Analysis of Vitellogenin Transcripts in Model and Nonmodel Fish Species
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 26(12):2679-2686 (2007)
Adam Biales
David C. Bencic
David L. Lattier
Robert W. Flick
Jim L. Lazorchak

NERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
Work Which Aided States and US EPA Regional Laboratories in Estrogenic Exposure Assessments of Aquatic Ecosystems
S08MM0063 Chemical markers of human waste contamination: Analysis of urobilin and pharmaceuticals in source waters
Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 8(4):472-478 (2006)
Tammy L. Jones-Lepp

NERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
Providing Public Authorities Analytical Tools to Accurately Measure Markers of Human Sewage in the Nation's Waters
S08MM0064 Characterization of Fine Particle and Gaseous Emissions during School Bus Idling
Environmental Science and Technology, 41(14):4972-4979 (2007)
John S. Kinsey

NRMRL, Research Triangle Park, NC
Yuanji Dong - ARCADIS-U.S., Inc.
David C. Williams - ARCADIS-U.S., Inc.
Russell Logan - ARCADIS-U.S., Inc.
The First Study to Quantify the Benefits of Diesel School Bus Anti-Idling
S08MM0069 A Diurnal Reflectance Model Using Grass: Surface-Subsurface Interaction and Inversion
Agronomy Journal, 99:1278-1287 (2007)
Mostafa A. Shirazi

NHEERL, Corvallis, OR
Minocher Reporter - Oregon State University Developing a New Method of Remote Sensing Applicable to Integrated Agronomy, Soil, and Landscape Research
S08OR0076 Reference Values for Exposure to PAH Contaminants: Comparison of Fish from Ohio and Mid-Atlantic Streams
Ecotoxicology, 15:111-120 (2006)
Susan M. Cormier
Luan-Ho C. Lin

NCEA, Cincinnati, OH
Advancing the Application of Environmental Epidemiological Approaches for Environmental Protection
S08OR0077 (1) The development of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry-based method for the protein fingerprinting and identification of "Aeromonas" species using whole cells
Journal of Microbiological Methods, 65(3):380-389 (2006)
(2) Differentiation of "Aeromonas" isolated from drinking water distribution systems using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry
Analytical Chemistry, 79(5):1939-1946 (2007)
Maura J. Donohue
Jody A. Shoemaker
Mark R. Rodgers
Stacy L. Pfaller
Jennifer A. Best - Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water
Mitchell S. Kostich

NERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
Anthony Wayne Smallwood Development and Application of a MALDI-MS Technique to Identify and Speciate "Aeromonas" Isolates in Drinking Water
S08OR0081 Emissions from Cooking Microwave Popcorn
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 47(8):701-709 (2007)
Jacky A. Rosati
Kenneth A. Krebs

NHSRC, Research Triangle Park, NC
Xiaoyu Liu Innovative Research into the Chemicals Emitted While Cooking Microwave Popcorn
S08OR0082 Comparison of (85)Kr and (3)H Apparent Ground-Water Ages for Source Water Vulnerability in the Collyer River Catchment, Maine
Journal of The American Water Resources Association, 43(6):1-13 (2007)
William C. Sidle

NRMRL, Cincinnati, OH
Field Development and Application of (85)Kr to Replace Tritium as a Practical Age-Dating Tool to Map Watersheds
S08OR0084
Linked with S08CS0006, S08EF0008, and S08TF00127
(1) Green Approach to Bulk and Template-free Synthesis of Thermally Stable Reduced Polyaniline Nanofibers for Capacitor Applications
Green Chemistry, 9:632-637 (2007)
(2) Nanosized Magnesium Oxide as Catalyst for the Rapid and Green Synthesis of Substituted 2-Amino-2-Chromenes
Tetrahedron, 63:3093-3097 (2007)
Rajender S. Varma

NRMRL, Cincinnati, OH
Dalip Kumar - Chemistry Group
Mallikarjuna N. Nadagouda
Exceptional Technical Achievement in Green Synthesis of Nanofibers for Capacitor Applications and Chemical Catalysis
S08OR0085 A graphical systems model to facilitate hypothesis-driven ecotoxicogenomics research on the teleost brain-pituitary-gonadal axis
Environmental Science and Technology, 41(1):321-330 (2007)
Daniel L. Villeneuve
Gerald T. Ankley
Iris Knoebl
Michael D. Kahl
Kathleen M. Jensen
Elizabeth A. Makynen
Elizabeth J. Durhan

NHEERL, Duluth, MN
Ann L. Miracle - Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Barbara J. Carter - Ecoarray Inc.
Nancy D. Denslow - University of Florida
Patrick Larkin - Santa Fe Community College
Development of a Graphical Framework for Understanding and Predicting Impacts of Stressors on Fish Reproduction
S08RA0089 Neurodegenerative Diseases: An Overview of Environmental Risk Factors
Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(9):1250-1256 (2005)
Rebecca C. Brown
Babasaheb R. Sonawane

NCEA, Washington, DC
Alan H. Lockwood - Jacobs Neurological Institute An Outstanding Review of Environmental Risk Factors for Neurodegenerative Diseases and Recognition of Research Needs
S08RA0094 Immunoassays and Other Bioanalytical Techniques: Chapter 1. Integrating Bioanalytical Capability in an Environmental Analytical Laboratory
CRC Press (Taylor and Francis Group), :43 (2007)
Jeanette M. Van Emon

NERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
Jane C. Chuang - Battelle
Raquel M. Trejo - Battelle
Joyce Durnford - Battelle
Development of a Reference Work on Environmental Immunochemical Techniques
S08RA0096 Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in biosolids/sewage sludge: the interface between analytical chemistry and regulation
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 387(4):1173-1183 (2007)
Tammy L. Jones-Lepp
Rick Stevens

NERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
Contributing to the Body of Knowledge Regarding Biosolids: Their Characterization and Regulatory Practices
S08RA0099 Receptor modeling of ambient particulate matter data using positive matrix factorization: Review of existing methods
Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 57(2):146-154 (2007)
Adam Reff
Shelly Eberly

NERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
Prakash Bhave Reviewing and Synthesizing Methods of Receptor Models Used in the Study of Air Pollution
S08RA0101 Water Analysis: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues
Analytical Chemistry, 79(12):4295-4324 (2007)
Susan D. Richardson

NERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
Providing a Critical Review on Analytical Methods and Measurements of Emerging Contaminants in Environmental Waters
S08RA0103 Removing Esoteric Contaminants from Drinking Waters: Impacts of Treatment Implementation
Journal of Environmental Engineering, 133(7):665-669 (2007)
Thomas F. Speth
Michael R. Schock

NRMRL, Cincinnati, OH
Exploring the Possible Unintended Consequences of Implementing Treatment Changes at a Drinking Water Utility
S08RA0105 Waterborne pathogens in urban watersheds
Journal of Water and Health, 5(1):149-162 (2007)
Russell D. Arnone
Joyce M. Walling

NRMRL, Edison, NJ
Their Contribution to the Study of Microbial Contaminants in Watersheds and the Field of Watershed Management
S08RA0135 (1) In vitro-in vivo extrapolation of quantitative hepatic biotransformation data for fish. I. A review of methods, and strategies for incorporating intrinsic clearance estimates into chemical kinetic models
Aquatic Toxicology, 78(1):74-90 (2006)
(2) A compilation of in vitro rate and affinity values for xenobiotic biotransformation in fish, measured under physiological conditions
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 145(C(4):485-506 (2007)
(3) In vitro-in vivo extrapolation of quantitative hepatic biotransformation data for fish. II. Modeled effects on chemical bioaccumulation
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 26(6):1304-1319 (2007)
John W. Nichols
Patrick N. Fitzsimmons
Lawrence P. Burkhard
Gregory J. Lien

NHEERL, Duluth, MN
Irvin R. Schultz - Batelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Improved Prediction of Metabolism Impacts on Chemical Bioaccumulation in Fish
S08RM0108 Partitioning, Desorption, and Dechlorination of a PCB Congener in Sediment Slurry Supernatants
Environmental Science & Technology, 41:6253-6258 (2007)
Souhail Al-Abed

NRMRL, Cincinnati, OH
Yuanxiang 'James' Fang Revealing Relationships between Its Partitioning, Desorption, and Dechlorination of PCBs in Contaminated Sediments
S08RM0112 Arsenic Release from Iron Rich Mineral Processing Waste: Influence of pH and Redox Potential
Chemosphere, 66(4):775-782 (2007)
Souhail Al-Abed
Derrick Allen

NRMRL, Cincinnati, OH
Gautham Jegadeesan - Pegasus Technical Services Inc.
Jaydeep Purandare - Englandgeosystem Inc.
Highlighting the Effects of Geochemical Variables on the Leaching of Metals in Landfills and Disposal Sites
S08RM0113 (1) Use of Granular Graphite for Electrolytic Dechlorination of Trichloroethylene
Environmental Engineering Science, 24(6):842-851 (2007)
(2) Modeling the Electrolytic Dechlorination of Trichloroethylene in a Granular Graphite-Packed Reactor
Environmental Engineering Science, 24(5):581-594 (2007)
Souhail Al-Abed

NRMRL, Cincinnati, OH
Yuanxiang 'James' Fang First Use of Graphite Electrodes Successfully to Dechlorinate Toxic Chlorinated Solvents in Water and Soil
S08SS0115 Personal Values, Beliefs, and Ecological Risk Perception
Risk Analysis, 26(6):1689-1705 (2006)
Michael W. Slimak

NCEA, Washington, DC
Dietz Thomas - Michigan State University Advancing Our Understanding of How Our Own Personal Views and Beliefs Affect Our Perception of Ecological Risk
S08TF0117 Calculating Physical Properties of Organic Compounds for Environmental Modeling from Molecular Structure
Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design, 21:693-708 (2007)
Said Hilal

NERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
Tad S. Whiteside
A. N. Saravanaraj - University of Georgia
L. A. Carreira - Univeristy of Georgia
Predicting Environmental Fate of Organic Compounds Using SPARC Property Estimations
S08TF0122 Relative congener scaling of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans to estimate building fire contributions in air, surface wipes, and dust samples
Environmental Science and Technology, 41(21):7286-7293 (2007)
Joachim D. Pleil
Matthew N. Lorber

NERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
Novel Variable Clustering and Multivariate Regression Analysis of Complex Environmental Dioxin Data from WTC
S08TF0123 Modeling the effect of chlorine emissions on ozone levels over the eastern United States
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 46(7):1009-1019 (2007)
Golam Sarwar
Prakash Bhave

NERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
Evaluating the Effects of Chlorine Emissions and Chemistry on Ozone in the Lower Atmosphere
S08TF0125 Zero-Valent Iron Reactive Materials for Hazardous Waste and Inorganics Removal: Chapter 8. Utilization of Zero-valent Iron for Arsenic Removal from Groundwater and Wastewater
Zero-Valent Iron Reactive Materials for Hazardous Waste and Inorganics Removal, 8:111-150 (2007)
Chunming Su

NRMRL, Ada, OK
Invited Review of the State-of-the-Art of Groundwater and Wastewater Arsenic Remediation
S08TF0126 (1) Removal of added nitrate in cotton burr compost, mulch compost, and peal: Mechanisms and potential use for groundwater nitrate remediation
Chemosphere, 66(1):91-98 (2007)
(2) Removal of added nitrate in the single, binary, and ternary systems of cotton burr compost, zerovalent iron, and sediment: Implications for groundwater nitrate remediation using permeable reactive barriers
Chemosphere, 67(8):1653-1662 (2007)
Chunming Su
Robert W. Puls

NRMRL, Ada, OK
Systematic Research on Cost-Effectively and Efficiently Removing Groundwater Nitrate Using Agricultural By-Products
S08TF0127
Linked with S08CS0006, S08EF0008, and S08OR0084
(1) Preparation of Novel Metallic and Bimetallic Cross-Linked Poly (vinyl alcohol) Nanocomposites Under Microwave Irradiation
Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 28:465-472 (2007)
(2) Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Crosslinked Poly (vinyl alcohol) Nanocomposites Comprising Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes, Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes, and Buckminsterfullerene
Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 28:842-847 (2007)
Rajender S. Varma

NRMRL, Cincinnati, OH
Mallikarjuna N. Nadagouda Exceptional Technical Achievement in the Synthesis of Green Nanocomposites Comprising Nanometals and Carbon Nanotubes
S08TF0134 Formation of Pb(IV) Oxides in Chlorinated Water
Journal American Water Works Association, 97(11):102-114 (2005)
Darren A. Lytle
Michael R. Schock

NRMRL, Cincinnati, OH
The Impact of Water Chemistry on the Transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in Chlorinated Water
Key to Acronyms used in the above Table
OA Office of the Administrator
NERL National Exposure Research Laboratory
NHEERL National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory
NRMRL National Risk Management Research Laboratory
OAQPS Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
OPP Office of Pesticide Programs
ORIA Office of Radiation and Indoor Air
ORCR Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery
OSCP Office of Science Coordination and Policy
*Note: The percentages given after name represent the current percent of the total level of effort as documented in the EPA nomination.

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