William C. Brumley, Ph.D.
Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Sciences, NERL/ORD
Ph.D. 1975, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale: Inorganic Chemistry
Thesis: "Structure Studies of the Organic Esters of Osmium (VI) Using Lanthanide Shift Reagents." Advisor: Professor C. C. Hinckley.
Career begun in 1976 as a Postdoctoral research assistant to Dr. D. F. Hunt, University of Virginia, in chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Followed by 11 years of mass spectrometry research and sample service at the Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, under Dr. J. A. Sphon. Moved to U.S. EPA in 1988 to the present position.
Research using mass spectrometry (high resolution, NCI/CI, MS/MS)
Sample preparation/cleanup (SFE, ASE, multidimensional separations) CE/LIF; MEKC; HPLC; TLC; GC; capillary LC; HPGPC; SPE
Impact of research
Reduce sample analysis time and cost; improve reliability of methods
Reduce laboratory-generated pollution; advance MS/MS and HRMS techniques
Pioneer environmental applications of CE/LIF
83 peer-reviewed journal publications
Method development and research focused on separations, sample handling, mass spectrometry, and laser-induced fluorescence detection. Expert in capillary electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, solid-phase extraction, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, gas chromatography, high-temperature gas chromatography, solid-phase microextraction, multidimensional separations, mass spectrometry (high resolution, low resolution, chemical ionization, fast-atom bombardment, electrospray, tandem mass spectrometry), analytical applications of lasers, computer-based data systems, and electronic repair.
Individual Research Mission
1. Improvements and extensions of methods for semivolatiles. Analytes include PCBs, PCTs, PNAs, benzidines, phenols, anilines, herbicides, and new analytes. These efforts impact multiple programs including EDCs, contaminated sediment initiative, dietary study, Superfund program, human exposure studies, and near site and other ecological assessment. The goals of this research are to improve the reliability of measurements, add analytes that have been excluded because of poor methodology, reduce solvent usage, improve sample throughput, reduce costs of analysis, develop field screening techniques, and lower detection limits.
2. Development and application of new technology for semivolatiles and nonvolatiles. The focus of this work has been to develop and apply new tools for environmental analytical chemistry. The tools have generally fallen into three broad classes: separations, laser-induced fluorescence, and mass spectrometry. These tools have included high performance gel permeation chromatography, accelerated solvent techniques, supercritical fluid extraction, solid-phase microextraction, capillary electrophoresis, laser-induced fluorescence, high resolution mass spectrometry (mass-peak profiling using selected ion recording data), LC/MS (electrospray and APCI), CE/MS, HPLC, AMD-TLC, fluorimetry, high temperature capillary GC, capillary LC, capillary electrochromatography, CE/immunoassay, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, multidimensional separations, capillary arrays, and hybrid mass spectrometry (sector/ion trap MS).
3. New applications for selected tools under development. These efforts will focus on three broad areas. The first area is assessing human exposure through blood protein adducts, urinary metabolites, and hair analysis. A second area is to extend analyses to food as well as the usual matrices of soil, sediment, air and water. The third area is the discovery of nonvolatiles in various matrices that are "invisible" to present methods. This involves development of approaches to analysis that will uncover unexpected substances. Within this quest falls the effort to identify PPCPs in waste streams as an emerging area of concern.
Significant/Relevance of Research in Risk Research in Risk Assessment Paradigm
Analytical chemistry plays a central, critical, and crosscutting role not just in hazardous waste management, environmental monitoring, site characterization, and risk assessment, but also in numerous engineering processes required for manufacturing, waste treatment, and site remediation. Development of methods for environmental chemical analysis must necessarily be a continual process because these methods serve as the foundation for all data collected under regulatory programs and also serve as key elements in assessing risk to human and ecological health. Research development efforts for methods in support of RCRA are also directly applicable and essential to other regulatory programs such as CERCLA/SARA, TSCA, CWA, SDWA, FIFRA, and the new CCA. These methods improve our abilities to measure target analytes in complex matrices and offer new technologies to reduce cost, time, and waste associated with the measurement. The activities supported by these methods include environmental monitoring and ecological surveys (e.g., early warning of health/ecological effects such as those sought by EMAP); human/health surveys (e.g., The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey, NHEXAS); waste characterization; site characterization; monitoring of engineered site containment integrity; and risk and human-exposure assessment (e.g., biomarkers). Recently, within the risk paradigm, assessment of human-exposure completes the picture that includes potential exposure from contaminated air, particulates, food, soil, and water.
Significant Pioneering Contributions
First application of high temperature gas chromatography to environmental analysis including high-molecular weight PNAs, surfactants (precursors to EDCs), and polychlorinated terphenyls; first application of capillary electrophoresis to environmental analysis including herbicides, dyes, phenols, and anilines; first application of laser-induced fluorescence detection to ground water migration studies, first application of mass peak profiling using selected ion recording data with high resolution mass spectrometry in environmental analysis, first application of capillary liquid chromatography to environmental analysis, application of molecular micelles to environmental analysis, first application of MEKC to dye analysis, first application of MEKC to herbicide analysis, first application of MEKC to benzidine analysis, first applications within EPA of molecular micelles.
Impact of Contributions on Scientific/Regulated
Our applications of CE in general have been stimulating to the analytical community in the areas of improved separations. Industry has welcomed these efforts as they would like to be able to offer methods based on these new separations techniques.
Dr. Jeanette Van Emon
Dr. John Farley, UNLV Physics Department, laser optics and applications.
Education: Ph.D., 1975, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL. Major: inorganic chemistry. Minor: physical chemistry. Dissertation title: "Structure Studies of the Organic Esters of Osmium (VI) Using Lanthanide Shift Reagents." B.S. 1969, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL. Major: chemistry education. Hold teaching certificate 6-12 grades.
Experience 1988-Present--Research chemist for U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Characterization Research Division, Las Vegas, NV: Research and applications of MS and chromatography in trace organic analysis of environmentally related samples. This work includes most forms of MS and various chromatographies for both semivolatile and nonvolatile analytes, sample handling, and capillary electrophoresis with optical detection. Experience 1977-1988--Research chemist for U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Washington, D.C.: Research and applications of trace organic analysis using MS to foods, cosmetics, and animal drugs. Regulatory MS, methods review, and methods trials. Experience 1976-1977--Posdoctoral research associate for University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA: Research of MS in selective analysis of various organic compounds using chemical ionization mass spectrometry.
EPA Scientific Achievement Award in Chemistry (1994). "Capillary Electrophoresis." OMMSQ Innovative Research Award Competition (1994). "Capillary Electrophoresis." EPA Scientific Achievement Award in Chemistry (1998). "High Resolution Mass Spectrometry."
Three CRD Innovative Research Awards.
NERL Internal Grants Research Award (1996). "Rapid Analysis using Multidimensional Chromatography and Electrophoresis."
Numerous special achievement and superior service awards.
Southern Nevada Federal Executive Association's Outstanding Scientific and Technical Award under the State's Distinguished Public Service Awards Program (1995).
U.S. EPA Scientific and Technological Achievement Awards (STAA) for 1992. "Identification of Nitrogen-containing Aromatic Compounds in Soil and Sediment."
U.S. EPA Scientific and Technological Achievement Awards (STAA) for 1998. "Applications of High Resolution Mass Spectrometery."
EMSL-Las Vegas Innovative Research Awards (2 awards). "Nanoscale separation technology."
84 publications in over a dozen different peer-reviewed journals (including Analytical Chemistry, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Journal of the American Society of Mass Spectrometry, Journal of Chromatography, Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Techniques, Journal of Capillary Electrophoresis, Electrophoresis, Journal of Chromatographic Science, International Journal of Association of Official Analytical Chemists, LC-GC, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, and Journal of Mass Spectrometry); 3 invited book chapters; 77 presentations, and numerous invited papers and presentations.
Note: Click this link to view full abstracts or full text of submitted papers for a selection of the publications listed here.
1. C. C. Hinckley and W. C. Brumley, "Effects of Random Coordinate Error in Analyses of Lanthanide-Induced Pseudocontact Shifts. Axially Symmetric Case," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 98, 1331-1336 (1976).
2. C. C. Hinckley and W. C. Brumley, "Errors in Analyses of Lanthanide-Induced Shifts. cis- and trans-Pinocarveol, " J. Magn. Resonance, 24, 239-250 (1976).
3. T. McNeal, W. C. Brumley, C. Breder, and J. A. Sphon, "Gas-Solid Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric Confirmation of Low Levels of Acrylonitrile After Distillation from Food-Simulating Solvents," J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 62, 41-46 (1979).
4. P. A. Dreifuss, G. E. Wood, J. A. G. Roach, W. C. Brumley, D. A. Andrzejewski, and J. A. Sphon, "Field Desorption Mass Spectrometry of Cyanogenic Glycosides," Biomed. Mass Spectrom., 7, 201-204 (1980).
5. J. Sphon, D. Andrzejewski, W. Brumley, P. Dreifuss, and J. Roach, "The Application of Mass Spectrometry to the Analysis of Food Toxicants," in Advances in Mass Spectrometry, Vol 8B, A. Quayle, ed., Heyden, London, 1980, pp. 1490-1498.
6. W. C. Brumley and J. A. Sphon, "Regulatory Mass Spectrometry," Biomed. Mass Spectrom., 8, 390-396 (1981).
7. J. A. G. Roach, A. J. Malatesta, J. A. Sphon, W. C. Brumley, D. Andrzejewski, P. A. Dreifuss, "Construction of Desorption Chemical Ionization Probe for Activated Field Desorption Emitters," Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 39, 151-156 (1981).
8. W. C. Brumley, J. A. G. Roach, J. A. Sphon, P. A. Dreifuss, D. A. Andrzejewski, R. A. Niemann, and D. Firestone, "Low Resolution Multiple Ion Detection GC/MS Comparison of Extraction-Cleanup Methodology for Determination of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Fish," J. Agric. Food Chem., 29, 1040-1046 (1981).
9. W. C. Brumley, S. Nesheim, M. Trucksess, E. W. Trucksess, P. A. Driefuss, J. A. G. Roach, D. A. Andrzejewski, R. M. Eppley, A. E. Pohland, C. W. Thorpe, and J. A. Sphon, "Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Aflatoxins and Related Mycotoxins," Anal. Chem., 53, 2003-2006 (1981).
10. D. F. Hunt, T. M. Harvey, W. C. Brumley, F. F. Ryan, III, and J. W. Russell, "Nitric Oxide Chemical Ionization Mass Spectra of Alcohols," Anal. Chem., 54, 492-496 (1982).
11. W. C. Brumley and C. C. Hinckley, "Spectroscopic Properties of Os(VI) Monoesters Containing Heterocyclic Nitrogen Ligands," J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem., 42, 1277-1284 (1980).
12. W. C. Brumley, D. Andrzejewski, W. W. Trucksess, P. A. Dreifuss, J. A. G. Roach, R. M. Eppley, F. S. Thomas, C. W. Thorpe, and J. A. Sphon, "Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Trichothecenes; Novel Fragmentation under OH- Conditions," Biomed. Mass Spectrom., 9 451-458 (1982).
13. S. Nesheim and W. Brumley, "Confirmation of Identity of Aflatoxins," J. Am. Oil Chemists' Soc., 58, 945A-949A 1981).
14. M. W. Trucksess, L. Stoloff, W. C. Brumley, D. M. Wilson, O. M. Hale, L. T. Sangster, D. M. Miller, "Aflatoxicol and Aflatoxins B1 and M1 in the Tissues of Pigs Receiving Aflatoxin," J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 65, 884-887 (1983).
15. R. C. Snyder, W. C. Brumley, and C. V. Breder, "Confirmation of 2,4- and 2,6-Toluenediamine in Aqueous Extracts by LC/GC and LC/GC/MS," J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 65, 1388-1392 (1982).
16. K. D. White, A. Min, W. C. Brumley, R. Krause, and J. A. Sphon, "Comparison of GC/MS and LC/MS Methods for the Confirmation of Coumaphos and Its Oxygen Analog in Eggs and Milk," J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 66, 1358-1364 (1983).
17. W. C. Brumley, Z. Min, J. E. Matusik, C. J. Barnes, and J. A. Sphon, "Identification of Sulfonamide Drugs in Animal Tissues by Mass Analyzed Ion Kinetic Energy Spectroscopy," Anal. Chem., 55, 1405-1409 (1983).
18. R. A. Niemann, W. C. Brumley, D. Firestone, and J. A. Sphon, "Multidimensional High Resolution Chromatographic Analysis of Fish for 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin with Parts-per-Trillion Quantitation by Capillary Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detection," Anal. Chem., 55, 1497-1504 (1983).
19. A. Joshi, Z. Min, W. C. Brumley, P. A. Dreifuss, G. C. Yang, and J. A. Sphon, "Mass Spectrometry of the Copper Salt of Tenuazonic Acid," Biomed. Mass Spectrom., 11, 101-105 (1984).
20. M. W. Trucksess, J. L. Richard, L. Stoloff, J. S. McDonald, and W. C. Brumley, "Absorption and Distribution Patterns of Aflatoxicol and Aflatoxins B1 and M1 in Blood and Milk of Cows Following Oral Administration of Aflatoxin B1," Am. J. of Veterinary Res., 44, 1753-1756 (1983).
21. P. A. Dreifuss, E. A. Caress, W. C. Brumley, and J. A. Sphon, "Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids," Anal. Chem., 55, 1036-1040 (1983).
22. A. M. Gardner, M. P. Yurawecz, W. C. Cunningham, G. W. Diachenko, E. P. Mazzola, and W. C. Brumley, "Isolation and Identification of C16 and C18 Fatty Acid Esters of Chloropropanediol in Adulterated Spanish Cooking Oils," Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 31, 625-630 (1983).
23. W. C. Brumley, C. Warner, D. Daniels, D. Andrzejewski, K. D. White, Z. Min, J. Y. T. Chem, and J. A. Sphon, "Characterization of Polysorbates by OH- Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry," J. Agric. Food Chem., 33, 368-372 (1985).
24. W. C. Brumley, M. W. Trucksess, S. H. Adler, C. Cohen, K. D. White, and J. A. Sphon, "Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Deoxynivalenol (DON): Application to Determination of DON in Grains and Snack foods," J. Agric. Food Chem., 33, 326-330 (1985).
25. M. W. Trucksess, W. C. Brumley, and S. Nesheim, "Rapid Quantitation and Confirmation of Aflatoxins in Corn and Peanut Butter Using a Disposable Silica Gel Column, Thin Layer Chromatography, and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry," J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 67, 973-975 (1984).
26. W. C. Brumley, A. J. Sheppard, T. S. Rudolf, C.-S. J. Shen, P. Yasaei, and J. A. Sphon, "The Mass Spectrometry and Identification of Sterols in Vegetable Oils As Butyryl Esters and Relative Quantitations by Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection," J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 68, 701-709 (1985).
27. D. F. Hunt, W. C. Brumley, G. C. Stafford, and F. K. Botz, "Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Pulsed Positive-Negative Ion CIMS with Oxygen as the Reagent Gas," Pract. Spectrosc., 3, 327-328 (1980).
28. D. L. Park, V. DiProssimo, E. Abdel-Malek, M. W. Trucksess, S. Nesheim, W. C. Brumley, J. A. Sphon, T. L. Barry, and G. Petzinger, "Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometric Confirmation Method for the Confirmation of Identity of Aflatoxin B1: Collaborative Study," J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 68, 636-640 (1985).
29. W. C. Brumley, D. Andrzejewski, and J. A. Sphon, "Collisionally Activated Mass Spectra of (M-H)- Ions of Polyhydroxy and Hydroxyether Compounds," Org. Mass Spectrom., 23, 204-212 (1988).
30. W. C. Brumley, B. J. Canas, G. A. Perfetti, M. Mossoba, J. A. Sphon, and P. E. Corneliussen, "Quantitation of Ethyl Carbamate in Whiskey, Sherry, Port, and Wine by GC/MS/MS Using a Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer," Anal. Chem., 60, 975-978 (1988).
31. W. C. Brumley, G. M. Brilis, R. J. Calvey, and J. A. Sphon, "Collisional Activation Mass Spectra of M-. Ions of Azo Dyes Containing 2-Naphthol," Biomed. Environ. Mass Spectrom., 18, 394-400 (1989).
32. W. C. Brumley, C. R. Warner, D. H. Daniels, S. Varner, and J. A. Sphon, "EI Mass Spectrometry of BHT and Its Alteration Products," Biomed. Mass Spectrom., 18, 207-217 (1989).
33. G. M. Brilis and W. C. Brumley, "Electron Capture Negative Ionization Calibrants for Magnetic Sector Mass Spectrometers," Anal. Chim. Acta., 229, 163-168 (1990).
34. J. Yinon, W. C. Brumley, and G. M. Brilis, "Mass Spectral Fragmentation Pathways in Nitramines. A Collision-Induced Study," Org. Mass Spectrom., 25, 14-20 (1990).
35. J. R. Donnelly, A. H. Grange, N. J. Nunn, G. W. Sovocool, W. C. Brumley, and R. K. Mitchum, "Analysis of Thermoplastic Resins for Brominated Dibenzofurans," Biomed. Environ. Mass Spectrom., 18, 884-888 (1989).
36. P. Yasaei, A. J. Sheppard, W. C. Brumley, E. P. Mazzola, and M. H. Aldridge, "Structural Proof of Cholesterol Isolated from Plants. II. Identification and Verification by Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry," J. Micronutr. Anal., 5, 259-267 (1989).
37. W. C. Brumley, C. M. Brownrigg, and G. M. Brilis, "Characterization of Nitrogen-Containing Aromatic Compounds in Soil and Sediment by GC/MS After Fractionation," J. Chromatogr., 558, 223-233 (1991).
38. A. H. Grange and W. C. Brumley, "Plotting Ion Profiles from Selected-ion Recording Data," Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 6, 68-70 (1992).
39. W. C. Brumley, "Qualitative Analysis of Environmental Samples for Aromatic Sulfonic Acids by High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis," J. Chromatogr., 603, 267-272 (1992).
40. E. P. Mazzola, R. J. Calvey, W. C. Brumley, M. B. Meyers, S. J. Bell, S. E. Lenzenweger, and W. F. Reynolds, "Structural Determination of an FD&C Red No. 3 Contaminant," Dyes and Pigments, 18, 81-89 (1992).
41. W. C. Brumley, C. M. Brownrigg, and A. H. Grange, "Determination of Toxaphene in Soil by Electron Capture Negative Ion Mass Spectrometry After Fractionation by High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography," J. Chromatogr., 633, 177-183 (1993).
42. W. C. Brumley and C. M. Brownrigg, "Electrophoretic Behavior of Aromatic-Containing Organic Acids and the Determination of Selected Compounds in Water and Soil by Capillary Electrophoresis," J. Chromatogr., 646, 377-389 (1993).
43. W. C. Brumley and C. M. Brownrigg, "Applications of Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography in the Determination of Benzidines Following Extraction from Water, Soil, Sediment, and Chromatographic Adsorbents," J. Chromatogr. Sci., 32, 69-75 (1994).
44. W. C. Brumley, E. M. Shafter, and P. E. Tillander, "The Determination of Phthalates in Water and Soil by Tandem Mass Spectrometry Using Isobutane Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry," J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 77, 1-8 (1994).
45. W. C. Brumley, C. M. Brownrigg, and A. H. Grange, "Capillary Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography as Complementary Techniques in Environmental Analysis," J. Chromatogr., 680, 635-642 (1994).
46. W. C. Brumley and W. J. Jones, "Comparison of Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography with Capillary Gas Chromatography in the separation of phenols, anilines, and polynuclear aromatics: Potential Field-Screening Applications of MEKC," J. Chromatogr., 680, 163-173 (1994).
47. A. H. Grange, J. R. Donnelly, W. C. Brumley, S. A. Billets, and G. W. Sovocool, "Mass Measurements by an Accurate and Sensitive Selected-Ion-Recording Technique," Anal. Chem., 66,4416-4421 (1994).
48. W. C. Brumley, W. J. Jones, and A. H. Grange, "A Survey of PotentialApplicationsof High Temperature Capillary Gas Chromatography to Environmental Analysis", LCCGC, 13, 228-238 (1995).
49. M. Jung and W. C. Brumley, "Trace Analysis of Fluorescein-Derivatized Phenoxy Acid Herbicides by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography with Laser-induced Fluorescence Detection," J. Chromtagr. A, 717, 299-308 (1995).
50. W. H. Matchett and W. C. Brumley, "Preconcentration of Aliphatic Amines from Water Determined by Capillary Electrophoresis with Indirect UV Detection," J. Liq. Chromatogr., 20, 79-100 (1997).
51. W. Winnik, L. D. Betowski, and W. C. Brumley, "Negative Ion Mass Spectrometry of Sufonylurea Herbicides," J. Mass Spectrom., 30, 1574-1580 (1995).
52. W. C. Brumley, "Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography: A New Tool for Field-Screening of Semivolatiles," Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Field Screening Methods for Hazardous Waste and Toxic Chemicals, February 22-24, 1995, Las Vegas, NV; (sponsored by Air & Waste Management Association).
53. W. C. Brumley, "Environmental Applications of Capillary Electrophoresis for Organic Pollutant Determination," LCCGC, 13, 556-568 (1995).
54. W. Winnik, W. C. Brumley , and L. D. Betowski, "Negative-Ion FAB Mass Spectrometry of Sufonylurea Herbicides," European Mass Spectrom., 2, 43-47 (1996).
55. W. C. Brumley, "Techniques for Handling Environmental Samples with Potential for Capillary Electrophoresis," J. Chromatogr. Sci., 33, 670-685 (1995).
56. A. H. Grange and W. C. Brumley, "Mass Peak Profiling from Selected Ion Recording Data Acquired at High Mass Resolution: An Important New Analytical Technique for Mass Spectral Determinations," Environ. Testing and Analysis, March/April, 22-26, 1996.
57. A. H. Grange, J. R. Donnelly, G. W. Sovocool, and W. C. Brumley, "Determination of Elemental Compositions from Mass Peak Profiles of the Molecular Ion (M) and the M+1 and M+2 Ions," Anal. Chem., 68, 553-560 (1996).
58. A. H. Grange and W. C. Brumley, "Determining Elemental Compositions from Exact Masses and Relative Abundances of Ions," Trends Anal. Chem., 15, 12-17 (1996).
59. C. M. Pace, J. R. Donnelly, J. L. Jeter, W. C. Brumley, and G. W. Sovocool, "Determination of Aromatic Amines in Soils," J. AOAC Internat., 79, 777-783 (1996).
60. J. R. Donnelly, A. H. Grange, N. R. Herron, G. R. Nickhol, J. L. Jeter, R. J. White, and W. C. Brumley, and J. Van Emon, "Modular Methodology for Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil as Aroclors and Individual Congeners," J. AOAC Internat., 79, 953-961(1996).
61. W. H. Matchett, W. Winnik, and W. C. Brumley, "Capillary Electrophoretic Behavior of Seven Sulfonylurea Herbicides," J. Cap. Electrophoresis, 3, 199-204 (1996).
62. W. H. Matchett, W. Winnik, and W. C. Brumley, "A Kinetic Study of the Methanolysis of the Sulfonylureas Bensulfuron and Sulfometuron Using Capillary Electrophoresis," Electrophoresis, 18, 205-213 (1997).
63. A. H. Grange and W. C. Brumley, "Identification of Components in a Complex Mixture by Determination of Exact Masses and Relative Abundances using Mass Peak Profiling," LC!GC, 14, 978-986 (1996).
64. A. H. Grange and W. C. Brumley, "A Mass Peak Profile Generation Model to Facilitate Determination of Elemental Compositions of Ions Based on Exact Masses and Isotopic Abundances," J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 8, 170-182 (1997).
65. W. C. Brumley and V. Kelliher, "Determination of Aliphatic Amines in Water Using Derivatization with Fluorescein Isothiocyanate and Capillary Electrophoresis/Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection," J. Liq. Chromatogr., 20, 2193-2205 (1997).
66. W. C. Brumley, P. L. Ferguson, A. H. Grange, J. L. Donnelly, and J. W. Farley, "Applications of Capillary Electrophoresis/ Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection to Groundwater Migration Studies," J. Cap. Electrophoresis, 3, 295-299 (1996).
67. W. C. Brumley, E. Latorre, V. Kelliher, A. Marcus, and D. Knowles, "Determination of Chlordane in Soil by LC/GC/ECD and GC/EC NIMS with Comparison of ASE, SFE, and Soxhlet Extraction," J. Liq. Chromatogr., 21, 1199-1216 (1998).
68. P. L. Ferguson, A. H. Grange, W. C. Brumley, J. L. Donnelly, and J. W. Farley, "Capillary Electrophoresis/Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection of Fluorescein as a Groundwater Migration Tracer," Electrophoresis, 19, 2252-2256 (1998).
69. T. W. Moy, P. L. Ferguson, A. H. Grange, W. H. Matchett, V. A. Kelliher, and W. C. Brumley, "Development of Separation Systems for Hydrophobic Environmental Contaminants Using Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography with Molecular Micelles," Electrophoresis, 19, 2090-2094 (1998).
70. W. C. Brumley, A. H. Grange, V. Kelliher, D. B. Patterson, A. Montcalm, J. Glassman, and J. Farley, "Environmental Screening of Acidic Compounds Based on CZE/LIF Detection with GC/MS and GC/HRMS Identifications," JAOAC International, accepted, 2/00.
71. K. R. Rogers, A. B. Apostol, and W. C. Brumley, "Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) Immunoassay Format for Phenoxyacid Herbicides," Anal. Lett., 33, 443-453 (2000).
72. G. Wayne Sovocool, W. C. Brumley, J. R. Donnelly, "Capillary Electrophoresis and Capillary Electrochromatography of Organic Pollutants," Electrophoresis, 20, 3297-3310 (1999).
73. W. C. Brumley and C. Gerlach, " Capillary Electrophoresis/Laser-induced Fluorescence in Groundwater Migration Determination," Am. Lab., 31, 45-49 (1999) .
74. N.R. Herron, J. R. Donnelly, G. R. Nichol, and W. C. Brumley, "Microwave Heating to Facilitate Supercritical Fluid Extractions," Amer. Environ. Lab., 10, pp. 1, 5 (1998).
75. W. C. Brumley, A. H. Grange, V. Kelliher, D. B. Patterson, A. Montcalm, J. Glassman, and J. W. Farley, "Environmental Screening of Acidic Compounds Based on CZE/LIF Detection with GC/MS and GC/HRMS Identifications," JAOAC International, 83, 1059-1067 (2000).
76. D. B. Patterson, W. C. Brumley, V. Kelliher, and P. L. Ferguson, "Determination of Clofibric Acid in Sewage Effluent by GC/MS: Conversion to the Methyl Ester with Trimethylsilyldiazomethane," Amer. Lab. 34, 20-28 (2002).
77. S. Flaherty, S. Wark, G. Street, J.W. Farley, and W. C. Brumley, "Investigation of CE/LIF as a Tool in the Characterization of Sewage Effluent for Fluorescent Acidics: Determination of Salicylic Acid", Electrophoresis 23, 2327-2332 (2002).
78. T. A. Moy and W. C. Brumley, "MultiResidue Determination of Acidic Pesticides in Water by HPLC/DAD with Confirmation by GC/MS Using Conversion to the Methyl Ester with Trimethylsilyldiazomethane," J. Chromatogr.Sci. 47, 343-349 (2003).
79. W. C. Brumley and J. W. Farley, "Application of a multiwavelength laser to the capillary electrophoresis/laser-induced fluorescence determination of eosin as a groundwater migration tracer," Electrophoresis, 24, 2335-2339 (2003).
80. M. A. Mottaleb, W. C. Brumley, S. M. Pyle and G. W. Sovocool, “Determination of a Bound Musk Xylene Metabolite in Carp Hemoglobin as a Biomarker of Exposure by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Using Selected Ion Monitoring,” J. Anal. Toxicol., 28 (6), 581-586 (2004).
81. M A. Mottaleb, W. C. Brumley, and G. Wayne Sovocool, “Comparison of Determining Bound Musk Metabolites in Carp Hemoglobin Using EIMS and Electron Capture Negative Ion MS,” Intern. J. Environ. Anal. Chem., 84 (14-15), 1069-1078 (2004).
82. L. Riddick, E.L. Gentry, M. McDaniel, and W. C. Brumley, “Comparison of N-Methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide with trimethylsilyl reagents for environmental analysis under both EIMS and electron capture NICIMS conditions " Internat. J.of Environ. Anal . Chem., 86, 299-312 (2006).
83. M. A. Mottaleb, W. C. Brumley, L. R. Curtis, G.W. Sovocool, “Nitro Musk Adducts of Trout Hemoglobin: Dose-response and Toxicokinetics Determination by GC-NICI-MS for a Sentinel Species,” Am. Biotechnol. Lab. 23(7), 24, 26-29 (2005).
84. Brumley, W. C. Analytical Protocol (GC/NIMS) For Oswre's Response To OIG Report (2005-P-00022) On Toxaphene Analysis. EPA/600/R-08/048. (TIP # 08-069, Published Report) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 2008. Published 5/19/2008.