Implementation of a national environmental monitoring program
Stevens, D.L., Jr. (1994)
Journal of Environmental Management, 42, 1-29.
Timely information on the condition of the environment is essential if complex
environmental issues are to be resolved. Currenly, much of the information we
have on large-scale environmental conditions is from unrelated local monitoring
effors that must be synthesized to address large-scale issues. The
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) was initiated by the
U.S. Environemental Protection Agency to address the need for coherent
ecological resource information on a regional and national scale. EMAP began
with a design concept or framework that had the goal of providing an integrated
family of monitoring designs that could be adapted to sampling any ecological
resource. Since EMAP's inception, the design concept has been applied to pilot
and demonstration monitoring programs for a variety of ecological resources.
This paper discusses some of the rationale behind the conceptual design,
describes some of the techniques for applying the general concept to a specific
resource, and gives specific applications for several demonstration studies.