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Survey and Monitoring Designs and Analyses

EMAP has written a number of scientific articles related to the use of probability-based survey designs in aquatic monitoring programs.  In addition, a number of books and scientific articles by others have been found to be useful to EMAP researchers and other organizations.  The following bibliography includes both of these.  In some cases, only a reference is provided.  For others, a viewable abstract or occasionally an entire article is available on-line.  Reprints of most articles are available by contacting Monitoring Design & Analysis Team.   Abstracts and documents available in pdf format, (Acrobat Reader required).

General Survey Sampling Books

Cochran, W.G. (1987) Sampling Techniques. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Gilbert, R.0. (1987) Statistical Methods for Environmental Monitoring. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.

Jessen, R.J. (1978) Statistical Survey Techniques. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Lohr, S.L. (1999) Sampling: Design and Analysis. Duxbury Press, Pacific Grove, CA.

Sarndal, C.E., Swensson, B. and Wretman, J. (1992) Model Assisted Survey Sampling. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Stuart, A. (1994) The Ideas of Sampling. MacMillan Publishing Company, New York.

Thompson, S. (1992) Sampling. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

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Advanced Survey Sampling Theory

Sarndal, C.E., Swensson, B. and Wretman, J. (1992) Model Assisted Survey Sampling. Springer-Verlag, New York.

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EMAP Survey Design: Statistical Focus

Diaz-Ramos, S., Stevens, D.L., Jr and Olsen, A.R. (1996) EMAP Statistical Methods Manual. Rep. EPA/620/R-96/002, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, NHEERL-WED, Corvallis, Oregon. Abstract  (html 12KB) Document (pdf 219KB)

Olsen, A.R., Stevens, D.L., Jr. and White, D. (1998) Application of global grids in environmental sampling. Computing Science and Statistics, 30, 279-84. Abstract (html 14KB)

Stevens, D.L., Jr. (1997) Variable density grid-based sampling designs for continuous spatial populations. Environmetrics, 8, 167-95. Abstract (html 13KB)

Stevens, D.L., Jr. and Olsen, A.R. (1999) Spatially restricted surveys over time for aquatic resources. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, 4, 415-28. Abstract(html 14KB)

Stevens, D.L., Jr. and Urquhart, N.S. (1999) Response designs and support regions in sampling continuous domains. Environmetrics, 11, 13-41. Abstract (html 14KB)

Stevens, D. L., Jr. and Olsen, A. R. Variance Estimation for Spatially Balanced Samples of Environmental Resources. Environmetrics 14:593-610. Abstract  (html 14KB)Document (pdf 387KB)

Stevens, D. L., Jr. and A. R. Olsen (2004). "Spatially-balanced sampling of natural resources." Journal of American Statistical Association 99(465): 262-278. Abstract (pdf 9KB) Document (pdf 1.4MB)

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EMAP Survey Design: Monitoring Focus

Herlihy, A.T., D.P. Larsen, S.G. Paulsen, N.S. Urquhart, and B.J. Rosenbaum. (2000)  Designing a spatially balanced, randomized site selection process for regional stream surveys: the EMAP mid-Atlantic pilot study.  Environ. Monit. Assess. 63:95-113

Landers, D.H., Hughes, R.M., Paulsen, S.G., Larsen, D.P. and Omernik, J.M. (1998) How can regionalization and survey sampling make limnological research more relevant? Verh. Internal. Verein. Limnol., 26, 2428-36.

Larsen, D.P. (1994) The role of ecological sample surveys in the implementation of biocriteria. In Biological Assessment and Criteria: Tools for Water Resource Planning and Decision Making. W.S. Davis and T.P. Simon (eds). Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida. pp. 287-300.

Larsen, D.P. (1997) Sample survey design issues for bioassessment of inland aquatic ecosystems. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 3, 979-91.

Larsen, D.P., Thornton, K.W., Urquhart, N.S. and Paulsen, S.G. (1994) The role of sample surveys for monitoring the condition of the Nation's lakes. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 32, 101-34. Abstract (html 13KB)

Larsen, D.P., Urquhart, N.S. and Kugler, D.L. (1995) Regional scale trend monitoring of indicators of trophic condition of lakes. Water Resources Bulletin, 31, 117-40. Abstract (html 14KB)

Larsen, D.P., T.M. Kincaid, S.E. Jacobs, and N.S. Urquhart. (2001) Designs for evaluating local and regional scale trends.  BioScience 51:1069-1078.

Olsen, A.R., Sedransk, J., Edwards, D., Gotway, C.A., Liggett, W., et al (1999) Statistical issues for monitoring ecological and natural resources in the United States. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 54, 1-45. Abstract (html 14KB)

Paulsen, S.G., Hughes, R.M. and Larsen, D.P. (1998) Critical elements in describing and understanding our nation's aquatic resources. Journal of The American Water Resources Association, 34, 995-1005. Abstract (html 14KB)

Stevens, D.L., Jr. (1994) Implementation of a national environmental monitoring program. Journal of Environmental Management, 42, 1-29. Abstract ((html 14KB)

Summers, J.K., Paul, J.F. and Robertson, A. (1995) Monitoring the ecological condition of estuaries in the United States. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 49, 93-108. Abstract (html 15KB)

Urquhart, N.S., S.G. Paulsen, and D.P. Larsen (1998)  Monitoring for policy-relevant regional trends over time.  Ecological Applications 8:246-257

Urquhart, N.S. and T.M. Kincaid (1999) Designs for detecting trend from repeated surveys of ecological resources.  Journal of Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Statistics. 4:404-414

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Advanced Survey Analysis

Korn, E.L. and Graubard, B.I. (1999) Analysis of Health Surveys. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

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Spatial Grids

White, D. (2000) Global grids from recursive diamond subdivisions of the surface of an octahedron or icosahedron. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 64, 93-103.

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EMAP Publications and Documents

Numerous publications and results regarding EMAP can be found by access the following web site:

EMAP Bibliography Access

Whittier, T.R., A.T. Herlihy, and S.M. Peirson, 1995. Regional Susceptibility of Northeast Lakes to Zebra Mussel Invasion, USEPA National Health and Environmental Effects. Reprinted from Fisheries (1995) 20b: 20-27 Abstract (html 20KB)

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Related Publications and Documents

EPA Office of Water: 2002 Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment Report Guidance ((pdf 170KB))

U.S. EPA. 2000. Guidance for choosing a sampling design for environmental data collection (QA/G-5S). ((pdf 934KB)) Primarily developed for site specific sampling isses and programs.

Office of Water publication: USEPA. 2002. The Twenty Needs Report: How Research Can Improve the TMDL Program. EPA841-B-02-002, US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water, Washington DC (43 pp). (/a> (pdf 1.04MB) or web site (http://www.epa.gov/owow/tmdl/techsupp.html)

Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas (PDF)
A Framework for an Integrated and Comprehensive Monitoring Plan for the Estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico (pdf 219KB)

Integrated Water Resource Monitoring (pdf 732KB)

Status Monitoring Network Brochure - The STATUS brochure is an outreach document used extensively during each sampling cycle  whenever access to wells or streams requires landowner permission. (pdf 886KB)

Florida IMAP Annual Report - Year Two (pdf 1.05MB), 2001

Tampa Bay Environmental Monitoring Program (pdf 60KB)

Surface Water Monitoring Strategy - Draft (pdf 3.95MB)

Surface Water Quality Monitoring Strategy (pdf 14.01MB)
Indiana Water Quality Report 2000 (pdf 1.82MB)
2001 Indiana State of the Environment Report/Water Quality (pdf 348KB)

Maryland Water Monitoring Strategy (pdf 1.6MB)

Mid-Atlantic Region
Mid-Atlantic Highlands Action Program : Transforming the Legacy, Canaan Valley Institute, July 2002 (pdf 3.03MB)

South Carolina
State of South Carolina Monitoring Strategy (pdf 1.24MB)
The Condition of South Carolina's Estuarine and Coastal Habitats During 1999-2000
   Summary Report (pdf 510KB)
   Technical Report (pdf 1.46MB)

Washington State
Washington State Water Quality Assessment Year 2002 Section 305(b)Report (pdf 421KB)

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